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1.
Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am ; 35(2): 319-338, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38514221

RESUMO

Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) is a therapeutic strategy to protect a vital organ like the brain from ischemic injury through brief and repeat cycles of ischemia and reperfusion in remote body parts such as arm or leg. RIC has been applied in different aspects of the stroke field and has shown promise. This narrative review will provide an overview of how to implement RIC in stroke patients, summarize the clinical evidence of RIC on stroke recovery, and discuss unresolved questions and future study directions.


Assuntos
Isquemia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Humanos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Encéfalo
2.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 2024 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38438298

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Carotid artery web (CaW) is a rare focal fibromuscular dysplasia that can lead to embolic strokes with large vessel occlusion. This condition can be effectively treated with endovascular thrombectomy (EVT). Our study aims to assess the prevalence of CaW among patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) who underwent EVT and to compare the clinical characteristics of CaW with other carotid artery pathologies. METHODS: We enrolled consecutive patients with AIS who underwent EVT at a single medical center and two regional teaching hospitals in Taiwan from September 2014 to December 2021. We compared CaW with carotid dissection (CaD) and carotid large artery atherosclerosis (CaLAA) in terms of patient demographics and thrombus histological findings. RESULTS: Of the 576 AIS patients who underwent EVT, four (mean age: 50 years) were diagnosed with CaW, resulting in a prevalence of 0.69%. Among these four patients, three experienced successful reperfusion after EVT and achieved functional independence (defined as a modified Rankin Scale score ≤2) three months post-stroke. Importantly, none of the CaW patients suffered a recurrent stroke within one year. Patients with CaW were younger than those with CaD or CaLAA, and exhibited fewer vascular risk factors. Additionally, CaW was associated with distal occlusion sites. The thrombus composition in CaW patients was similar to that in CaD patients. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, CaW is a rare finding among Asian patients with carotid artery disease who undergo for AIS. It is more prevalent in younger patients with a limited number of vascular risk factors.

3.
Stroke ; 55(3): 532-540, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38314590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Timely intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular thrombectomy are the standard reperfusion treatments for large vessel occlusion stroke. Currently, it is unknown whether a low-dose thrombolytic agent (0.6 mg/kg alteplase) can offer similar efficacy to the standard dose (0.9 mg/kg alteplase). METHODS: We enrolled consecutive patients in the multicenter Taiwan Registry of Endovascular Thrombectomy for Acute Ischemic Stroke who had received combined thrombolysis (within 4.5 hours of onset) and thrombectomy treatment from January 2019 to April 2023. The choice of low- or standard-dose alteplase was based on the physician's discretion. The outcomes included successful reperfusion (modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction score, 2b-3), symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage, 90-day modified Rankin Scale score, and 90-day mortality. The outcomes between the 2 groups were compared using multivariable logistic regression and inverse probability of treatment weighting-adjusted analysis. RESULTS: Among the 2242 patients in the Taiwan Registry of Endovascular Thrombectomy for Acute Ischemic Stroke, 734 (33%) received intravenous alteplase. Patients in the low-dose group (n=360) were older, had more women, more atrial fibrillation, and longer onset-to-needle time compared with the standard-dose group (n=374). In comparison to low-dose alteplase, standard-dose alteplase was associated with a lower rate of successful reperfusion (81% versus 87%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.63 [95% CI, 0.40-0.98]), a numerically higher incidence of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (6.7% versus 3.9%; adjusted odds ratio, 1.81 [95% CI, 0.88-3.69]), but better 90-day modified Rankin Scale score (functional independence [modified Rankin Scale score, 0-2], 47% versus 31%; adjusted odds ratio, 1.91 [95% CI, 1.28-2.86]), and a numerically lower mortality rate (9% versus 15%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.43-1.25]) after adjusting for covariates. Similar results were observed in the inverse probability of treatment weighting-adjusted models. The results were consistent across predefined subgroups and age strata. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the lower rate of successful reperfusion and higher risk of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage with standard-dose alteplase, standard-dose alteplase was associated with a better functional outcome in patients receiving combined thrombolysis and thrombectomy.


Assuntos
AVC Isquêmico , Trombectomia , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual , Feminino , Humanos , Hemorragia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , AVC Isquêmico/tratamento farmacológico , AVC Isquêmico/cirurgia , Sistema de Registros , Trombectomia/métodos , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/administração & dosagem , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 12(3)2024 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338290

RESUMO

The provision of efficient healthcare services is essential, driven by the increasing demand for healthcare resources and the need to optimize hospital operations. In this context, the motivation to innovate and improve services while addressing urgent concerns is critical. Hospitals face challenges in managing internal dispatch services efficiently. Outsourcing such services can alleviate the burden on hospital staff, reduce costs, and introduce professional expertise. However, the pressing motivation lies in enhancing service quality, minimizing costs, and exploring innovative approaches. With the rising demand for healthcare services, there is an immediate need to streamline hospital operations. Delays in internal transportation services can have far-reaching implications for patient care, necessitating a prompt and effective solution. Drawing upon dispatch data from a healthcare center in Taiwan, this study constructed a decision-making model to optimize the allocation of hospital service resources. Employing simulation techniques, we closely examine how hospital services are currently organized and how they work. In our research, we utilized dispatch data gathered from a healthcare center in Taichung, Taiwan, spanning from January 2020 to December 2020. Our findings underscore the potential of an intelligent dispatch strategy combined with deployment restricted to the nearest available workers. Our study demonstrates that for cases requiring urgent attention, delay rates that previously ranged from 5% to 34% can be notably reduced to a much-improved 3% to 18%. However, it is important to recognize that the realm of worker dispatch remains subject to a multifaceted array of influencing factors. It becomes evident that a comprehensive dispatching mechanism must be established as part of a broader drive to enhance the efficiency of hospital service operations.

5.
Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open ; 12(2): e5587, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38328268

RESUMO

Lipomas are the most prevalent type of benign soft tissue tumors, primarily composed of adipocytes, and typically remain asymptomatic unless they reach a significant size. Although giant lipomas are infrequent, their occurrence on the chest wall, particularly in the interpectoral region, is exceedingly rare. We present a unique case of a 48-year-old man with a massive interpectoral lipoma measuring 19.4 × 12.9 × 9.4 cm, which resulted in venous thoracic outlet syndrome by compressing the subclavian vein. This case highlights the clinical challenges in diagnosing deep-seated chest wall lipomas and underscores the necessity of considering thoracic outlet syndrome as a potential complication, even in the absence of direct neural or arterial compression. The presentation of thoracic outlet syndrome can vary, and a comprehensive evaluation is imperative for accurate diagnosis and management.

6.
Ann Plast Surg ; 92(1S Suppl 1): S21-S26, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38285991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, facial feminization surgery (FFS) has gained increasing popularity because of increases in transgender individuals and the acceptance of diversity in gender identity. However, there is still a scarcity of anthropometric research to guide evidence-based practices for FFS in Taiwan. AIM AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to provide a reference for surgeons to achieve optimal outcomes for patients undergoing FFS. The anthropometric analysis could help surgeons meet patients' specific requirements and improve patients' alignment with their gender identity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study group consisted of 100 patients (50 males and 50 females) who had undergone cranial computed tomography at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in Taiwan because of the indication of blunt injuries to the head and face with suspected skull and facial fractures. The computed tomography images were imported into the OsiriX image software to conduct an anthropometric evaluation. The parameters used in the measurements included 2 aspects: bone and soft tissue anthropometric analysis. RESULTS: Anthropometric data were obtained from 50 males (age 32.6 ± 11.4 years) and 50 females (age 33.7 ± 10.3 years). The results for bone measurements showed that both the forehead bossing length and nasal bone width in the male group were significantly greater. The frontal angle in both bone and soft tissue in the male group was significantly smaller. The chin height and bigonial width in both bone and soft tissue in the male group were significantly greater. Although the average gonial angle was greater in the female group, the difference was not significant. For the measurements of lip projection, the results showed that there was no significant difference. Although this group of Asian males had more acute nasolabial angles, the difference was not statistically significant. However, the average nasofrontal angle among females was significantly more obtuse than among males. CONCLUSION: The results revealed that Asian males tend to have more prominent superior orbital rims, wider nasal bones, and wider and taller mandibles compared with Asian females. Despite showing some trends, the gonial angle and lip projections did not reveal any significant differences, which is likely because of a large amount of variation.


Assuntos
Identidade de Gênero , Nariz , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Ossos Faciais/diagnóstico por imagem , Ossos Faciais/cirurgia , Crânio , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
7.
Stroke ; 55(2): 392-402, 2024 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38174569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exploratory analysis of the phase 2 PACIFIC-Stroke (Program of Anticoagulation via Inhibition of FXIa by the Oral Compound BAY 2433334-Non-Cardioembolic Stroke) randomized trial suggested that asundexian, an oral factor XIa inhibitor, prevents recurrent stroke and transient ischemic attacks in patients with atherosclerotic stroke. In this post hoc exploratory analysis, we hypothesized that asundexian would be more effective in patients enrolled with large, multiple, or cortical acute infarcts on magnetic resonance imaging than in patients enrolled with a single small subcortical acute infarct, and asundexian would prevent incident cortical covert infarcts. METHODS: In this placebo-controlled double-blinded randomized controlled trial, patients with mild-to-moderate noncardioembolic ischemic stroke were assigned to asundexian (10, 20, or 50 mg once daily) or placebo, in addition to antiplatelet therapy. Brain magnetic resonance imagings were required within 72 hours of randomization and repeated at 26 weeks or at discontinuation of the study drug. RESULTS: Of 1808 randomized patients, 1780 (98.5%) had interpretable baseline magnetic resonance imagings, of which 1628 (91.5%) had ≥1 diffusion-weighted imaging positive acute infarcts. Magnetic resonance imaging follow-up was obtained in 1439 patients, of whom 1358 had no symptomatic stroke during the trial period. Compared with placebo, asundexian 50 mg daily conferred a trend toward reduced risk of recurrent ischemic stroke or incident covert infarcts (hazard ratio, 0.71 [95% CI, 0.45-1.11]) and recurrent ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (secondary outcome; hazard ratio, 0.59 [95% CI, 0.33-1.06]) that was not evident in patients with single small subcortical infarcts (hazard ratios, 1.14 [95% CI, 0.62-2.10] and 0.93 [95% CI, 0.28-3.06]). Incident cortical covert infarcts were reduced in patients taking asundexian 50 mg, but the difference was not statistically significant (crude incidence ratio, 0.56 [95% CI, 0.28-1.12]). CONCLUSIONS: These exploratory, unconfirmed results suggest that asundexian may prevent new embolic infarcts but not small artery occlusion. The hypothesis that subtypes of covert brain infarcts respond differently to anticoagulant prevention should be tested in future trials. REGISTRATION: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT04304508.


Assuntos
Ataque Isquêmico Transitório , AVC Isquêmico , Humanos , Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Infarto Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Fator XIa , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/tratamento farmacológico , AVC Isquêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
9.
Int J Stroke ; 19(1): 105-113, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37485895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Previous studies have suggested cardiovascular risk factors increase the risk of not only common sporadic stroke but also of stroke in patients with monogenic stroke disorders including CADASIL. We investigated the effects of the NOTCH3 Arg544Cys (R544C) variant and associated vascular risk factors on stroke in the Taiwanese population. METHODS: This study was conducted using data from the Taiwan Biobank, consisting of at least 130,000 Han Chinese participants. The genotype was derived from customized genome-wide arrays for 650,000 to 750,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Individuals with NOTCH3 R544C were subsequently matched with noncarriers based on the propensity score at a 1:10 ratio by demographic and cardiovascular risk factors. The odds ratio (OR) for stroke or other phenotypes in NOTCH3 R544C carriers and matched noncarriers was then calculated. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed on cardiovascular risk factors in NOTCH3 R544C carriers with and without stroke. The polygenic risk score (PRS) model, adopted from the UK Biobank, was then applied to evaluate the role of NOTCH3 R544C in stroke. RESULTS: From the 114,282 participants with both genotype and questionnaire results, 1080 (0.95%) harbored the pathogenic NOTCH3 R544C variant. When compared to the matched controls (n = 10,800), the carriers presented with a history of stroke (OR: 2.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.45, 4.37)), dementia (OR: 30.1, 95% CI (3.13, 289.43)), and sibling history of stroke (OR: 2.48, 95% CI (1.85, 3.34)) phenotypes. The risk of stroke increased with every 10-year increase in age (p = 0.006, Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test). Among NOTCH3 R544C carriers, 16 (1.3%) of the 1080 carriers with a stroke history were older, male, and more likely to have hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and a family history of stroke. In the stepwise multivariate analysis, hypertension (OR: 11.28, 95% CI (3.54, 43.3)) and diabetes mellitus (OR: 4.10, 95% CI (1.31, 12.4)) were independently associated with stroke. Harboring the NOTCH3 R544C variant in the Taiwan Biobank is comparable with a 6.74 standard deviations increase in individual's polygenic risk score for stroke. CONCLUSION: While the NOTCH3 R544C variant alone increased the risk of stroke, modifiable vascular risk factors also played a role in the occurrence of stroke in Taiwanese community-dwelling individuals carrying the NOTCH3 variant.


Assuntos
CADASIL , Hipertensão , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Humanos , Masculino , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Receptores Notch/genética , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Mutação , Fatores de Risco , Hipertensão/complicações , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Receptor Notch3/genética
10.
Eur Stroke J ; 9(1): 209-218, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37803968

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC)-associated intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a catastrophic complication. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between computed tomography (CT)-based cerebrovascular small vessel disease (SVD) burden and DOAC-ICH as well as the DOAC concentration upon hospital admission and ICH outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included two cohorts: (1) DOAC-ICH: patients who suffered from DOAC-ICH and underwent drug level measurements upon admission; (2) DOAC-non-ICH: stable DOAC users who underwent head CT without ICH during treatment. We categorized the DOAC levels of the DOAC-ICH patients as low (<50 ng/mL), medium (50-300 ng/mL), and high (>300 ng/mL). The CT-based SVD burden (including white matter lesions [WML], lacunes, and cerebral atrophy) was evaluated, and SVD scores (range, 0-3) were used to evaluate SVD severity. RESULTS: A total of 43 DOAC-ICH patients and 177 DOAC-non-ICH patients were enrolled. DOAC-ICH patients were more likely to have WML, lacunes, or cerebral atrophy compared to DOAC-non-ICH patients. After adjustment, the SVD burden was associated with DOAC-ICH, with a higher risk of more severe SVD (SVD score of 2; odds ratio [OR], 10.3 [3.17, 33.3]; score of 3; OR, 16.8 [4.50, 62.6]). The proportions of patients with high, medium, and low drug levels in the DOAC-ICH group were 16.3%, 55.8%, and 27.9%, respectively. Additionally, the high-level group displayed a larger hematoma size and had worse functional outcomes at 3 months than the other two groups. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The severity of SVD burden was associated with DOAC-ICH. Furthermore, high DOAC levels in ICH were associated with unfavorable clinical outcomes. To address the potential selection bias from these two cohorts, a prospective study to investigate the co-contribution of drug levels and SVD to DOAC-ICH is essential.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Cerebral , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Hemorragia Cerebral/induzido quimicamente , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/diagnóstico por imagem , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Atrofia/complicações
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(24)2023 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38139240

RESUMO

Bone tissue engineering is a promising solution for advanced bone defect reconstruction after severe trauma. In bone tissue engineering, scaffolds in three-dimensional (3D) structures are crucial components for cell growth, migration, and infiltration. The three-dimensional printing technique is well suited to manufacturing scaffolds since it can fabricate scaffolds with highly complex designs under good internal structural control. In the current study, the 3D printing technique was utilized to produce polylactic acid (PLA) scaffolds. BMSCs were seeded onto selected scaffolds, either hydrogel-mixed or not, and cultivated in vitro to investigate the osteogenic potential in each group. After osteogenic incubation in vitro, BMSC-seeded scaffolds were implanted onto rat cranium defects, and bone regeneration was observed after 12 weeks. Our results demonstrated that BMSCs were able to seed onto 3D-printed PLA scaffolds under high-resolution observation. Real-time PCR analysis showed their osteogenic ability, which could be further improved after BMSCs were mixed with hydrogel. The in vivo study showed significantly increased bone regeneration when rats' cranium defects were implanted with a hydrogel-mixed BMSC-seeded scaffold compared to the control and those without cell or hydrogel groups. This study showed that 3D-printed PLA scaffolds are a feasible option for BMSC cultivation and osteogenic differentiation. After mixing with hydrogel, BMSC-seeded 3D-printed scaffolds can facilitate bone regeneration.


Assuntos
Osteogênese , Engenharia Tecidual , Ratos , Animais , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Tecidos Suporte/química , Poliésteres/química , Regeneração Óssea , Impressão Tridimensional , Hidrogéis
12.
J Am Heart Assoc ; : e032689, 2023 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37982214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is the most prevalent monogenic cerebral small-vessel disease. Phenotype variability in CADASIL suggests the possible role of genetic modifiers. We aimed to investigate the contributions of the APOE genotype and Neurogenic locus notch homolog protein 3 (NOTCH3) variant position to cognitive impairment associated with CADASIL. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with the cysteine-altering NOTCH3 variant were enrolled in a cross-sectional study, including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), brain magnetic resonance imaging, and APOE genotyping. Cognitive impairment was defined as an MMSE score <24. The associations between the MMSE score and genetic factors were assessed using linear regression models. Bayesian adjustment for confounding was used to identify clinical confounders. A total of 246 individuals were enrolled, among whom 210 (85%) harbored the p.R544C variant, 96 (39%) had cognitive impairment, and 150 (61%) had a history of stroke. The APOE ɛ2 allele was associated with a lower MMSE score (adjusted B, -4.090 [95% CI, -6.708 to -1.473]; P=0.023), whereas the NOTCH3 p.R544C variant was associated with a higher MMSE score (adjusted B, 2.854 [95% CI, 0.603-5.105]; P=0.0132) after adjustment for age, education, and history of ischemic stroke. Mediation analysis suggests that the associations between the APOE ɛ2 allele and MMSE score and between the NOTCH3 p.R544C variant and MMSE score are mediated by mesial temporal atrophy and white matter hyperintensity, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: APOE genotype may modify cognitive impairment in CADASIL, whereby individuals carrying the APOE ɛ2 allele may present a more severe cognitive impairment.

13.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 56(6): 1273-1283, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37926631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The FilmArray gastrointestinal panel (FAGIP) is widely used to detect infectious diarrhoea due to its outstanding sensitivity compared to conventional methods, but there is geographic variation, such as in the distribution of pathogens, among populations. METHODS: This was a retrospective study that analysed patients with acute diarrhoea who underwent FAGIP tests from all age groups during 2022. We compared positive rates of FAGIP between paediatric (n = 245) and adult patients (n = 242) of different origins. The targeted therapy rate and antimicrobial agent use rate were also analysed. RESULTS: Among the 487 stool samples evaluated, the overall, community-origin (CO), and nosocomial (NC) positivity rates of paediatric patients were significantly higher than those of adults (73.9 % vs. 43.0 %, p = 0.000; 76.2 % vs. 51.7 %, p = 0.000; 50.0 % vs. 19.7 %, p = 0.000). Salmonella was the most frequently detected pathogen (35.9 %) in children, while the predominant pathogen in adult patients was toxin A/B-genic Clostridioides difficile (13.2 %). There was a significantly lower antimicrobial agent use rate after FAGIP results were available (79.1 % vs. 64.5 %, p = 0.000) and a higher rate of targeted therapy towards C. difficile infection in adults than in children (84.4 % vs. 69.0 %, p = 0.011). CONCLUSION: Paediatric diarrhoea patients showed higher positivity rates than adult patients. Application of FAGIP for acute diarrhoea might lower unnecessary antimicrobial use.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Clostridioides difficile , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Bactérias/genética , Fezes , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico
14.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 16(9)2023 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37765101

RESUMO

In this study, we synthesize a hyaluronic acid-g-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (HPN) copolymer by grafting the amine-terminated poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM-NH2) to hyaluronic acid (HA). The 5% PNIPAM-NH2 and HPN polymer solution is responsive to temperature changes with sol-to-gel phase transition temperatures around 32 °C. Compared with the PNIPAM-NH2 hydrogel, the HPN hydrogel shows higher water content and mechanical strength, as well as lower volume contraction, making it a better choice as a scaffold for chondrocyte delivery. From an in vitro cell culture, we see that cells can proliferate in an HPN hydrogel with full retention of cell viability and show the phenotypic morphology of chondrocytes. In the HPN hydrogel, chondrocytes demonstrate a differentiated phenotype with the upregulated expression of cartilage-specific genes and the enhanced secretion of extracellular matrix components, when compared with the monolayer culture on tissue culture polystyrene. In vivo studies confirm the ectopic cartilage formation when HPN was used as a cell delivery vehicle after implanting chondrocyte/HPN in nude mice subcutaneously, which is shown from a histological and gene expression analysis. Taken together, the HPN thermosensitive hydrogel will be a promising injectable scaffold with which to deliver chondrocytes in cartilage-tissue-engineering applications.

15.
Neurology ; 101(17): e1665-e1677, 2023 10 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37652700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is the most frequent genetic cerebrovascular disease. The clinical aspects of the disease in relation to the various types of lesions on MRI vary widely not only within families but also between different cohorts reported worldwide. Many limitations prevent comparison of imaging data obtained with different scanners and sequences in different patient cohorts. We aimed to develop and validate a simple tool to inventory quickly the key MRI features in CADASIL to compare imaging data across different populations. METHODS: The Inventory Tool (CADA-MRIT) was designed by consensus after repeated expert meetings. It consists of 11 imaging items to assess periventricular, deep, and superficial white matter hyperintensity (WMH), lacunes, cerebral microbleeds (CMB), centrum semiovale and basal ganglia dilated perivascular spaces (dPVS), superficial and deep atrophy, large infarcts, and macrobleeds. The reliability, clinical relevance, and time-effectiveness of CADA-MRIT were assessed using data from 3 independent patient cohorts. RESULTS: Imaging data from 671 patients with CADASIL (440 from France, 119 from Germany, and 112 from Taiwan) were analyzed. Their mean age was 53.4 ± 12.2 years, 54.5% were women, 56.2% had stroke, and 31.1% had migraine with aura. Any lacune was present in at least 70% of individuals, whereas CMB occurred in 83% of patients from the Asian cohort and in only 35% of European patients. CADA-MRIT scores obtained for WMH, CMB, and dPVS were comparable regardless of the scanner or sequence used (weighted κ > 0.60). Intrarater and interrater agreements were from good to very good (weighted κ > 0.60). Global WMH and atrophy scores correlated strongly with accurate volumetric quantification of WMH or brain parenchymal fraction (Pearson r > 0.60). Different imaging scores were significantly associated with the main clinical manifestations of the disease. The time for evaluating 1 patient was approximately 2-3 minutes. DISCUSSION: The CADA-MRIT is an easy-to-use tool for analyzing and comparing the most frequent MRI lesions of CADASIL across different populations. This instrument is reliable. It can be used with different imaging sequences or scanners. It also provides clinically relevant scores in a very short time for completion.


Assuntos
CADASIL , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Masculino , CADASIL/complicações , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Atrofia/patologia
16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 253(Pt 1): 126528, 2023 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37633562

RESUMO

In this study, we fabricate squeezable cryogel microbeads as injectable scaffolds for minimum invasive delivery of chondrocytes for cartilage tissue engineering applications. The microbeads with different glucosamine concentrations were prepared by combining the water-in-oil emulsion and cryogelation through crosslinking of gelatin with glutaraldehyde in the presence of glucosamine. The physicochemical characterization results show the successful preparation of cryogel microbeads with uniform shape and size, high porosity, large pore size, high water uptake capacity, and good injectability. In vitro analysis indicates proliferation, migration, and differentiated phenotype of rabbit chondrocytes in the cryogel scaffolds. The seeded chondrocytes in the cryogel scaffold can be delivered by injecting through an 18G needle to fully retain the cell viability. Furthermore, the incorporation of glucosamine in the cryogel promoted the differentiated phenotype of chondrocytes in a dose-dependent manner, from cartilage-specific gene expression and protein production. The in vivo study by injecting the cryogel microbeads into the subcutaneous pockets of nude mice indicates good retention ability as well as good biocompatibility and suitable biodegradability of the cryogel scaffold. Furthermore, the injected chondrocyte/cryogel microbead constructs can form ectopic functional neocartilage tissues following subcutaneous implantation in 21 days, as evidenced by histological and immunohistochemical analysis.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular , Engenharia Tecidual , Animais , Camundongos , Coelhos , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Criogéis/química , Tecidos Suporte/química , Microesferas , Gelatina/química , Glucosamina/metabolismo , Camundongos Nus , Água/metabolismo
17.
Front Plant Sci ; 14: 1018984, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37434600

RESUMO

Nutrient starvation-induced autophagy is a conserved process in eukaryotes. Plants defective in autophagy show hypersensitivity to carbon and nitrogen limitation. However, the role of autophagy in plant phosphate (Pi) starvation response is relatively less explored. Among the core autophagy-related (ATG) genes, ATG8 encodes a ubiquitin-like protein involved in autophagosome formation and selective cargo recruitment. The Arabidopsis thaliana ATG8 genes, AtATG8f and AtATG8h, are notably induced in roots under low Pi. In this study, we show that such upregulation correlates with their promoter activities and can be suppressed in the phosphate response 1 (phr1) mutant. Yeast one-hybrid analysis failed to attest the binding of the AtPHR1 transcription factor to the promoter regions of AtATG8f and AtATG8h. Dual luciferase reporter assays in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts also indicated that AtPHR1 could not transactivate the expression of both genes. Loss of AtATG8f and AtATG8h leads to decreased root microsomal-enriched ATG8 but increased ATG8 lipidation. Moreover, atg8f/atg8h mutants exhibit reduced autophagic flux estimated by the vacuolar degradation of ATG8 in the Pi-limited root but maintain normal cellular Pi homeostasis with reduced number of lateral roots. While the expression patterns of AtATG8f and AtATG8h overlap in the root stele, AtATG8f is more strongly expressed in the root apex and root hair and remarkably at sites where lateral root primordia develop. We hypothesize that Pi starvation-induction of AtATG8f and AtATG8h may not directly contribute to Pi recycling but rely on a second wave of transcriptional activation triggered by PHR1 that fine-tunes cell type-specific autophagic activity.

18.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 2023 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37494909

RESUMO

Introduction To investigate the impact of time interval between start of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) to start of endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) on stroke outcomes. Methods Data from the Quality Improvement and Clinical Research (QuICR) provincial stroke registry from Alberta, Canada was used to identify stroke patients who received IVT and EVT from January 2015 to December 2019. We assessed the impact of the time interval between IVT bolus to EVT puncture (needle-to-puncture times "NPT") on outcomes. Radiological outcomes included successful initial recanalization (revised arterial occlusive lesion 2b-3), successful initial and final reperfusion (modified thrombolysis in cerebral infarction 2b-3). Clinical outcomes were 90-day modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and mortality. Results Of the 680 patients, 233 patients (median age 73, 41% females) received IVT+EVT. Median NPT was 38 minutes (IQR, 24-60). Arrival during working hours was independently associated with shorter NPT (P < 0.001). Successful initial recanalization, initial and final reperfusion were observed in 12%, 10% and 83% of patients, respectively. NPT was not associated with initial successful recanalization (OR 0.97 for every 10-minute increase of NPT, 95% CI 0.91 - 1.04), initial successful reperfusion (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.96 - 1.07), or final successful reperfusion (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.97 - 1.08). Every 10-minute delay in NPT was associated with lower odds of functional independence at 90 days (mRS ≤ 2; OR 0.93; 95% CI, 0.88-0.97). Patients with shorter NPT (≤ 38 min) had lower 90-day mRS scores (median 1 vs 3; OR 0.54 [0.31-0.91]) and had lower mortality (6.1% vs 21.2%; OR, 0.23 [0.10-0.57]) than the longer NPT group. Conclusion Shorter NPT did not impact reperfusion outcomes, but was associated with better clinical outcome.

19.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 13(12)2023 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37368277

RESUMO

An effective therapeutic strategy to treat tendon or ligament injury continues to be a clinical challenge due to the limited natural healing capacity of these tissues. Furthermore, the repaired tendons or ligaments usually possess inferior mechanical properties and impaired functions. Tissue engineering can restore the physiological functions of tissues using biomaterials, cells, and suitable biochemical signals. It has produced encouraging clinical outcomes, forming tendon or ligament-like tissues with similar compositional, structural, and functional attributes to the native tissues. This paper starts by reviewing tendon/ligament structure and healing mechanisms, followed by describing the bioactive nanostructured scaffolds used in tendon and ligament tissue engineering, with emphasis on electrospun fibrous scaffolds. The natural and synthetic polymers for scaffold preparation, as well as the biological and physical cues offered by incorporating growth factors in the scaffolds or by dynamic cyclic stretching of the scaffolds, are also covered. It is expected to present a comprehensive clinical, biological, and biomaterial insight into advanced tissue engineering-based therapeutics for tendon and ligament repair.

20.
Mol Neurobiol ; 60(10): 5902-5914, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37357230

RESUMO

Ferroptosis, an iron-dependent form of cell death, is characterized by intracellular accumulation of iron and reactive oxygen species-induced lipid peroxidation. Animal experiments have shown the important roles of ferroptosis in ischemic stroke, but the evidence in human stroke is insufficient. This prospective study evaluated the associations between plasma ferroptosis biomarkers at hyperacute stage and long-term outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke undergoing endovascular thrombectomy (EVT). The plasma samples were collected immediately before and after EVT (T1 and T2) and at 24 h (T3) for the 126 stroke patients and once for the 50 stroke-free control subjects. Compared with controls, stroke patients had higher 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) levels at T1 and T2 while lower homocysteine and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) levels at T3. In stroke patients, higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores at admission were correlated with higher 4-HNE and lower sTfR levels. Lower Alberta Stroke Program Early CT (ASPECT) scores and larger infarct core volumes on CT perfusion before EVT were correlated with higher 4-HNE and homocysteine levels. After adjusting for significant parameters, homocysteine levels at T2 were significantly associated with poor functional outcome and mortality at 3 months. In the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) models, adding homocysteine levels at T2 and hemoglobin levels to the reference model for predicting poor functional outcome significantly increased the area under the ROC curve. In summary, this study provides evidence that ferroptosis is associated with stroke severity and outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke undergoing EVT.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Ferroptose , AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Humanos , AVC Isquêmico/cirurgia , AVC Isquêmico/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Isquemia Encefálica/cirurgia , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/cirurgia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Trombectomia/efeitos adversos , Trombectomia/métodos
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