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1.
J Virol ; : JVI0149221, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668773

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2, has resulted in more than 235 million cases worldwide and 4.8 million deaths (October 2021), with varying incidences and mortalities among regions/ethnicities. The coronaviruses SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-NL63 utilize the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as the receptor to enter cells. We hypothesized that the genetic variability in ACE2 may contribute to the variable clinical outcomes of COVID-19. To test this hypothesis, we first conducted an in silico investigation of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding region of ACE2. We then applied an integrated approach of genetics, biochemistry and virology to explore the capacity of select ACE2 variants to bind coronavirus spike proteins and mediate viral entry. We identified the ACE2 D355N variant that restricts the spike protein-ACE2 interaction and consequently limits infection both in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, ACE2 polymorphisms could modulate susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2, which may lead to variable disease severity. IMPORTANCE There is considerable variation in disease severity among patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Human genetic variation can affect disease outcome, and the coronaviruses SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-NL63 utilize human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as the receptor to enter cells. We found that several missense ACE2 SNVs that showed significantly altered binding with the spike proteins of SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 and NL63-HCoV. We identified an ACE2 SNP D355N that restricts the spike protein-ACE2 interaction and consequently have the potential to protect individuals against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our study highlights ACE2 polymorphisms could impact human susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2, which may contribute to ethnic and geographical differences in SARS-CoV-2 spread and pathogenicity.

2.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 66: 102877, 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638091

RESUMO

Tardive Dyskinesia (TD) is a serious, nonrhythmic and iatrogenic movement disorder, and is a common comorbidity in patients with schizophrenia (SZ). The main goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence, clinical correlates, and risk factors of TD in Chinese patients with chronic SZ, which has not been fully studied. This study adopted a cross-sectional design. A total of 901 Chinese inpatients with SZ were recruited between 2008 and 2011. We used the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) to measure the severity of TD, and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was used to measure the psychopathological symptoms of SZ. Blood samples were also collected for routine blood tests, including the levels of triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (CHO), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-CHO), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-CHO), Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), and Apolipoprotein B (ApoB). Overall, 36% of patients with SZ had TD. Compared with the non-TD patients, the TD patients were more likely to be men, had older age, lower education level, higher smoking rate, higher hospitalization frequency, and longer duration of illness (DOI). Further, compared with the non-TD patients, the TD patients had higher PANSS total, PANSS negative subscale, and cognitive subscale scores, but had lower depressive subscale scores and lower mean levels of metabolic biomarkers, including TG, CHO, HDL-CHO, LDL-CHO, ApoA1 and ApoB. Moreover, binary regression analysis showed that antipsychotic type, BMI, gender, age, HDL-CHO, and ApoB were associated with TD. Our findings indicate that TD is a common movement disorder in patients with chronic SZ, with certain demographic and clinical variables being risk factors for the development of TD.

3.
Nat Metab ; 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663975

RESUMO

5-diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (5-IP7) is a signalling metabolite linked to various cellular processes. How extracellular stimuli elicit 5-IP7 signalling remains unclear. Here we show that 5-IP7 in ß cells mediates parasympathetic stimulation of synaptotagmin-7 (Syt7)-dependent insulin release. Mechanistically, vagal stimulation and activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors triggers Gαq-PLC-PKC-PKD-dependent signalling and activates IP6K1, the 5-IP7 synthase. Whereas both 5-IP7 and its precursor IP6 compete with PIP2 for binding to Syt7, Ca2+ selectively binds 5-IP7 with high affinity, freeing Syt7 to enable fusion of insulin-containing vesicles with the cell membrane. ß-cell-specific IP6K1 deletion diminishes insulin secretion and glucose clearance elicited by muscarinic stimulation, whereas mice carrying a phosphorylation-mimicking, hyperactive IP6K1 mutant display augmented insulin release, congenital hyperinsulinaemia and obesity. These phenotypes are absent in mice lacking Syt7. Our study proposes a new conceptual framework for inositol pyrophosphate physiology in which 5-IP7 acts as a GPCR second messenger at the interface between peripheral nervous system and metabolic organs, transmitting Gq-coupled GPCR stimulation to unclamp Syt7-dependent, and perhaps other, exocytotic events.

4.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipid metabolism plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes. There is little evidence regarding the prospective association of the maternal lipidome with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), especially in Chinese populations. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify novel lipid species associated with GDM risk in Chinese women, and assess the incremental predictive capacity of the lipids for GDM. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study using the Tongji-Shuangliu Birth Cohort with 336 GDM cases and 672 controls, 1:2 matched on age and week of gestation. Maternal blood samples were collected at 6-15 wk, and lipidomes were profiled by targeted ultra-HPLC-tandem MS. GDM was diagnosed by oral-glucose-tolerance test at 24-28 wk. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator is a regression analysis method that was used to select novel biomarkers. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the associations. RESULTS: Of 366 detected lipids, 10 were selected and found to be significantly associated with GDM independently of confounders: there were positive associations with phosphatidylinositol 40:6, alkylphosphatidylcholine 36:1, phosphatidylethanolamine plasmalogen 38:6, diacylglyceride 18:0/18:1, and alkylphosphatidylethanolamine 40:5 (adjusted ORs per 1 log-SD increment range: 1.34-2.86), whereas there were inverse associations with sphingomyelin 34:1, dihexosyl ceramide 24:0, mono hexosyl ceramide 18:0, dihexosyl ceramide 24:1, and phosphatidylcholine 40:7 (adjusted ORs range: 0.48-0.68). Addition of these novel lipids to the classical GDM prediction model resulted in a significant improvement in the C-statistic (discriminatory power of the model) to 0.801 (95% CI: 0.772, 0.829). For every 1-point increase in the lipid risk score of the 10 lipids, the OR of GDM was 1.66 (95% CI: 1.50, 1.85). Mediation analysis suggested the associations between specific lipid species and GDM were partially explained by glycemic and insulin-related indicators. CONCLUSIONS: Specific plasma lipid biomarkers in early pregnancy were associated with GDM in Chinese women, and significantly improved the prediction for GDM.

5.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559474

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Few studies have explored the clinical features in children infected with SARS-CoV-2 and other common respiratory viruses, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza virus (IV), and adenovirus (ADV). Herein, we reported the clinical characteristics and cytokine profiling in children with COVID-19 or other acute respiratory tract infections (ARTI). METHODS: We enrolled 20 hospitalized children confirmed as COVID-19 positive, 58 patients with ARTI, and 20 age and sex-matched healthy children. The clinical information and blood test results were collected. A total of 27 cytokines and chemokines were measured and analyzed. RESULTS: The median age in the COVID-19 positive group was 14.5 years, which was higher than that of the ARTI groups. Around one-third of patients in the COVID-19 group experienced moderate fever, with a peak temperature of 38.27 ℃. None of the patients displayed wheezing or dyspnea. In addition, patients in the COVID-19 group had lower white blood cells, platelet counts as well as a neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio. Lower serum concentrations of 14 out of 27 cytokines were observed in the COVID-19 group than in healthy individuals. Seven cytokines (IL-1Ra, IL-1ß, IL-9, IL-10, TNF-α, MIP-1α, and VEGF) changed serum concentration in COVID-19 compared with other ARTI groups. CONCLUSION: Patients with COVID-19 were older and showed milder symptoms and a favorable prognosis than ARTI caused by RSV, IV, and ADV. There was a low grade or constrained innate immune reaction in children with mild COVID-19. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

6.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256802, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506519

RESUMO

Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (G. jasminoides) fruits are used as a resource for obtaining natural colorants and in traditional Chinese herbal medicine. However, G. jasminoides presents a relatively long flowering period and different ripening periods, so there are significant differences in the accumulation of metabolites in fruits of different colors. In addition, the complete metabolic pathways of iridoidsand crocins, which are used as medicinal composition of G. jasminoides, are poorly understood at present. In this research, we comprehensively compared the transcriptome and metabolites profiles of the developmental stages and locations of iridoid and crocin biosynthesis. A large number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs) were detected in four groups of samples, and clear variation in the pattern of metabolite abundance and gene expression were observed among different fruit colors and parts. Geniposide and gardenoside mainly accumulated in the sarcocarp of green fruit (GFS) and the sarcocarp of red fruit (FS), respectively. Crocin mainly accumulated in the peel and sarcocarp of red fruits. In the iridoid pathway, we hypothesized that there was a transport mechanism from the sarcocarp to the peel of G. jasminoides because of the inconsistent expression of G8O, 10-HGO and IS associated with differences in fruit ripening. UGTs play an important role in the biosynthesis of the active components of G. jasminoides. Combined transcriptome and metabonomics analysis showed a negative correlation between the biosynthesis of geniposide and crocin. The redirection of the metabolic flux and the regulation of key enzymes may be the main reasons for the changes in the biosynthesis of iridoid and crocin in G. jasminoides fruit. Our study expended valuable information for functional genomic library and provided new insights for metabolic engineering of secondary metabolite in G. Jasminoides.

7.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; PP2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546936

RESUMO

Abstract-domain adaptation action recognition is a hot research topic in machine learning and some effective approaches have been proposed. However, samples in the target domain with label information are often required by these approaches. Moreover, domain-invariant discriminative feature learning, feature fusion, and classifier module learning have not been explored in an end-to-end framework. Thus, in this study, we propose a novel end-to-end multiple-view adversarial learning network (MAN) for unsupervised domain adaptation action recognition in which the fusion of RGB and optical-flow features, domain-invariant discrimination feature learning, and action recognition is conducted in a unified framework. Specifically, a robust spatiotemporal feature extraction network, including a spatial transform network and an adaptive intrachannel weight network, is proposed to improve the scale invariance and robustness of the method. Then, a self-attention mechanism fusion module is designed to adaptively fuse the RGB and optical-flow features. Moreover, a multiview adversarial learning loss is developed to obtain domain-invariant discriminative features. In addition, three benchmark datasets are constructed for unsupervised domain adaptation action recognition, for which all actions and samples are carefully collected from public action datasets, and their action categories are hierarchically augmented, which can guide how to extend existing action datasets. We conduct extensive experiments on four benchmark datasets, and the experimental results demonstrate that our proposed MAN can outperform several state-of-the-art unsupervised domain adaptation action recognition approaches. When the SDAI Action II-6 and SDAI Action II-11 datasets are used, MAN can achieve 3.7% (H→ U) and 6.1% (H→ U) improvements over the temporal attentive adversarial adaptation network (published in ICCV 2019) module, respectively. As an added contribution, the SDAI Action II-6, SDAI Action II-11, and SDAI Action II-16 datasets will be released to facilitate future research on domain adaptation action recognition.

8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(35): e27121, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This meta-analysis was performed to compare efficacy and tolerability between antiprogrammed cell death (PD-1)/programmed cell death-ligand-1 (PD-L1) + anticytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein-4 (CTLA-4) treatment and chemotherapy in advanced lung cancer. METHODS: Cochrane Library, Embase, and PubMed databases were searched for potential articles. The fixed-effect model or random-effect model was adopted for pooled analysis based on the I2 and P-value. RESULTS: Six articles with 1338 patients were identified and subjected to meta-analysis. Compared with chemotherapy, anti-PD-1/PD-L1 + anti-CTLA-4 treatment could significantly improve the overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.78, 95%confidence interval [CI]: 0.71-0.84, P = .21) and progression-free survival (HR = 0.77, 95%CI: 0.71-0.83, P = .30) of advanced lung cancer patients. Moreover, there was no obvious difference in the incidence of 3 to 4 adverse events (AEs) serious adverse reactions (HR = 1.35, 95%CI: 0.66-2.74, P < .00001) between the 2 treatment groups, but the incidence rates of AEs leading to discontinuation (HR = 2.56, 95%CI: 1.53-4.30, P < .00001) and AEs leading to death (HR = 2.10, 95%CI: 1.21-3.63, P = .20) were higher. Furthermore, no remarkable differences in objective response rate (HR = 1.31, 95%CI: 0.97-1.77, P = .02) were observed between the 2 groups. CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis revealed that PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors plus CTLA-4 inhibitor could markedly improve the endpoint outcomes of patients compared with chemotherapy alone, and did not significantly increase the serious adverse reactions. Thus, it can serve as a new treatment strategy for advanced lung cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade
9.
Environ Pollut ; 291: 118153, 2021 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534828

RESUMO

Environmental quality data sets are typically imbalanced, because environmental pollution events are rarely observed in daily life. Prediction of imbalanced data sets is a major challenge in machine learning. Our recent work has shown deep cascade forest (DCF), as a base learning model, is promising to be recommended for environmental quality prediction. Although some traditional models were improved by introducing the cost matrix, little is known about whether cost matrix could enhance the prediction performance of DCF. Additionally, feature extraction is also an important way to potentially improve the model's ability to predict the imbalanced data. Here, we developed two novelty learning models based on DCF: cost-sensitive DCF (CS-DCF) and DCF that combines unsupervised learning models and greedy methods (USM-DCF-G). Subsequently, CS-DCF and USM-DCF-G were successfully verified by an imbalanced drinking water quality data set. Our data presented both CS-DCF and USM-DCF-G show better prediction performance than that of DCF alone did. In particular, USM-DCF-G shows the best performance with the highest F1-score (95.12 ± 2.56%), after feature extraction and selection by using unsupervised learning models and greedy methods. Thus, the two learning models, especially USM-DCF-G, were promising learning models to address environmental imbalanced issues and accurately predict environmental quality.

10.
Environ Int ; 157: 106848, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467876

RESUMO

Indoor dust has been used as a proxy for estimating human indoor pollutant exposure risks, yet source identification remains challenging. This study tentatively investigated whether quantitative fatty acid signature analysis (QFASA) of dust, could be applied to indicate sources and their respective contributions for a major class of indoor organic pollutants organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs). We observed significant correlations between OPFR concentrations and lipid content (p < 0.05) in house dusts. Using 15 signature fatty acids (FAs) in various indoor sources and the QFASA model, we found that clothing (39.1% in Australia and 36.5% in China) was the predominant contributing vector of dust OPFR followed by cooking oil and pet hair. Among these sources, clothing materials were proposed to be important vectors introducing organic pollutants to the indoor environment. Our QFASA contribution estimation analyses allowed for accurate prediction of most OPFR concentrations in clothing, validating our findings that clothing materials may serve as important carrier for OPFRs in indoor migration. This is the first study attempting to identify sources of organic pollutants using QFASA in an indoor setting and will provide important insight into the transfer of organic pollutants in indoor environment.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluentes Ambientais , Retardadores de Chama , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Poeira/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ácidos Graxos , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Humanos , Organofosfatos/análise
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453541

RESUMO

CONTEXT: While the associations between thyroid markers and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have been extensively studied, the results are inconclusive and the mechanisms remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the prospective associations of thyroid markers in early gestation with GDM risk, and examine the mediating effects through lipid species. METHODS: This study included 6068 pregnant women from the Tongji-Shuangliu Birth Cohort. Maternal serum thyroid markers (free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroid peroxidase antibody, and thyroglobulin antibody) were measured before 15 weeks. Deiodinase activity was assessed by fT3/fT4 ratio. Plasma lipidome were quantified in a subset of 883 participants. RESULTS: Mean age of the participants was 26.6 ± 3.7 years, and mean gestational age was 10.3 ± 2.0 weeks. Higher levels of fT4 were associated with a decreased risk of GDM (OR=0.73 comparing the extreme quartiles; 95% CI 0.54, 0.98, Ptrend =0.043), while higher fT3/fT4 ratio was associated with an increased risk of GDM (OR=1.43 comparing the extreme quartiles; 95% CI 1.06, 1.93, Ptrend =0.010) after adjusting for potential confounders. Multiple linear regression suggested that fT3/fT4 ratio was positively associated with alkylphosphatidylcholine 36:1, phosphatidylethanolamine plasmalogen 38:6, diacylglyceride 18:0/18:1, sphingomyelin 34:1, and phosphatidylcholine 40:7 (false discovery rate adjusted P<0.05). Mediation analysis indicated 67.9% of the association between fT3/fT4 ratio and GDM might be mediated through the composite effect of these lipids. CONCLUSIONS: Lower concentration of serum fT4 or higher fT3/fT4 ratio in early pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of GDM. The association of fT3/fT4 ratio with GDM was largely mediated by specific lipid species.

12.
Soft Robot ; 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407382

RESUMO

Soft and stretchable sensors are essential to the development of electronic skin, especially their potential applications in health care and intelligent robots, which have increasingly attracted attentions. Herein, inspired by the epidermal tissue hierarchy, we propose a high-sensitivity fully soft capacitive pressure sensor with bionic spine-pillar microstructure. Benefiting from the combination of the random microscale spines and the millimeter-sized pillar array prepared based on polydimethylsiloxane, the proposed sensor exhibits a well deformability, a high sensitivity up to 2.87 k/Pa at low-pressure range, and a broad linear pressure dynamic range from 5 Pa to 100 kPa. A simple equivalent circuit model was established to demonstrate the sensing mechanism and geometric effect. For practical application demonstrations, the sensor was utilized to monitor local subtle and large movements of the skin, such as finger bending, wrist bending, swallowing, and facial muscle movements. The sensor shows a conformality with human skin to follow the skin extension closely. Furthermore, the proposed sensing strategy can provide a distinguishable tactile feedback for controlling robot arm and soft claw in various tasks, illustrating its potential applications in robotics.

13.
Entropy (Basel) ; 23(7)2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356404

RESUMO

Polar code has been adopted as the control channel coding scheme for the fifth generation (5G), and the performance of short polar codes is receiving intensive attention. The successive cancellation flipping (SC flipping) algorithm suffers a significant performance loss in short block lengths. To address this issue, we propose a double long short-term memory (DLSTM) neural network to locate the first error bit. To enhance the prediction accuracy of the DLSTM network, all frozen bits are clipped in the output layer. Then, Gaussian approximation is applied to measure the channel reliability and rank the flipping set to choose the least reliable position for multi-bit flipping. To be robust under different codewords, padding and masking strategies aid the network architecture to be compatible with multiple block lengths. Numerical results indicate that the error-correction performance of the proposed algorithm is competitive with that of the CA-SCL algorithm. It has better performance than the machine learning-based multi-bit flipping SC (ML-MSCF) decoder and the dynamic SC flipping (DSCF) decoder for short polar codes.

14.
Environ Res ; 202: 111775, 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333008

RESUMO

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are anthropogenic compounds that are widely accumulated in human tissues, and the liver is considered a primary target organ for PFASs exposure. The occurrence and distribution of 21 PFASs in liver tissues with tumors (n = 55) and without tumors (n = 55) are investigated in this study. Eleven perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and five perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs) were detected at high frequencies (45.5%-100 %), while the detection frequencies of five perfluoroalkyl phosphate (PFPAs) were relatively lower (≤29.1 %). PFSAs and PFCAs accounted for up to 82.5%-92.7 % of the total PFASs. Although it was not found to be statistically significant, the concentrations of the total PFASs were slightly higher in the tumor liver samples (mean 64.3, range 5.70-303 ng/g) than those in the non-tumor liver samples (mean 62.7, range 4.08-240 ng/g).The perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA), and perfluorobutanesulphonate (PFBS) showed significant differences (p < 0.05) between the tumor and non-tumor liver samples, and the different distribution levels of these three PFASs may have been a consequence of oxidative stress. The total concentrations of PFASs in the three age groups were in the decreasing order of middle-aged people (45-60) > old people (>60) > young people (<45). The PFASs in females were generally lower than in males, which may have been related to women's special excretion methods (such as childbirth and breastfeeding). The results should be valuable for further mechanistic studies regarding the toxic effects of PFASs in human livers.

15.
J Chromatogr A ; 1654: 462465, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416446

RESUMO

A novel magnetic metal-organic frameworks (Fe3O4@UiO-66-SH) was successfully prepared by coating Fe3O4 nanospheres with sulfur-functionalized UiO-66. The Fe3O4@UiO-66-SH possesses both the magnetic properties of Fe3O4 and the diverse properties of metal-organic framework (MOF) in one material, which has the superiority of high surface area, easy-operation and strong adsorb ability with mercury, is used for the magnetic solid-phase extraction of methylmercury (MeHg+) and inorganic mercury (Hg2+) in water and fish samples. The analyzes were conducted by high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). The different pretreatment conditions influencing the extraction recoveries of Hg2+ and MeHg+, including adsorbent amount, pH, extraction time, elution solvent, elution volume, desorption time, co-existing ions and dissolved organic materials were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) of Hg2+ and MeHg+ for water samples were 1.4 and 2.6 ng L-1, and the limits of quantification (LOQs) of Hg2+ and MeHg+ for water samples were 4.7 and 8.7 ng L-1. The enrichment factors (EFs) were 45.7 and 47.6 fold for Hg2+ and MeHg+, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed method was demonstrated by analyzing the certified reference material of fish tissue (GBW10029) and by determining the analyte content in spiked water and fish samples. The determined values were in good agreement with the certified values and the recoveries for the spiked samples were in the range of 84.5-96.8%.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Peixes , Mercúrio , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Compostos de Metilmercúrio , Extração em Fase Sólida , Água , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Mercúrio/análise , Mercúrio/isolamento & purificação , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/isolamento & purificação , Enxofre/química , Água/química
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 795: 148468, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252761

RESUMO

Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a family of chemicals widely distributed in daily use consumer products. Most of these products become municipal solid wastes (MSWs) after they have been used. In the present study, we examined different types of PFASs in leachate, fly ash and bottom ash produced from three MSW incineration plants in southern China. High PFAS levels were found in leachate (mean concentration 215 ng/mL, range 21.4-682 ng/mL) from the incineration plants, which indicated large amounts of PFASs in the wastes leached out. The average quantities of PFASs annually discharged from the leachates of the three plants were estimated to be approximately 384 kg (Plant A), 47.3 kg (Plant B), and 2.82 kg (Plant C). Relatively lower levels of PFASs in fly ash (mean 16.4 ng/g, range 1.46-87.6 ng/g) and bottom ash (mean 14.6 ng/g, range 3.11-77.4 ng/g) indicated that high-temperature incineration destroyed most of the PFASs. The wide array of PFASs concentrations in all three matrices illustrated that some PFASs-containing industrial wastes were still entered into local MSW. In general, short chain PFASs, including perfluorobutyric acid (PFBA) and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), were the primary PFASs in leachate samples. In addition, PFOS was the predominant PFASs in fly ash samples. The results showed that leachate, fly ash, and bottom ash from MSW incineration plants are important vectors of PFASs.


Assuntos
Cinza de Carvão , Fluorcarbonetos , Materiais de Construção , Incineração , Resíduos Sólidos/análise
17.
Cancer Med ; 10(17): 6010-6021, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34268882

RESUMO

Invasion and metastasis are the main causes of colorectal cancer (CRC)-related death. Accumulating evidence suggested that sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) promoted the metastasis of CRC and autophagy played an important role in SphK1 promoting the metastasis of malignancy. However, the mechanism by which SphK1-driven autophagy promotes invasion and metastasis in CRC remains to be clarified. In the present study, immunohistochemical detection showed the expression of SphK1 and paxillin was higher in human CRC tissues than those of normal colorectal mucosal tissues, they were both associated with TNM staging, lymphatic, and distance metastasis. In addition, study of in situ tumor transplantation model in nude mice showed that the suppression of SphK1 inhibited the growth of colonic orthotopic implantation tumors and the expression of paxillin, p-paxillin, LC3 in the tumor. So, SphK1 may promote CRC metastasis via inducing the expression of paxillin expression and its phosphorylation, in vivo. Furthermore, results of CCK8 assay, transwell and wound healing assays showed that SphK1 promoted the viability, invasion, and metastasis of CRC cells. Transmission electron microscopy detection showed that SphK1 is the key factor in autophagy induction in CRC cells. Moreover, western blot examination indicated that the expression of LC3Ⅱ/Ⅰ, paxillin, p-paxillin, MMP-2, and vimentin was enhanced in SphK1-overexpressed CRC cells and suppressed in SphK1 knockdown CRC cells, meanwhile, the expression of E-cadherin was suppressed in SphK1-overexpressed CRC cells and enhanced in SphK1 knockdown CRC cells. Suppression of autophagy by 3MA reversed the expression of paxillin and its phosphorylation in SphK1-overexpressed CRC cells, indicated that SphK1-driven autophagy induced the expression of paxillin and its phosphorylation in CRC cells. Together, these findings reveal that SphK1-driven autophagy may promote the invasion and metastasis of CRC via promoting the expression of focal adhesion paxillin and its phosphorylation.

18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(11): 2798-2805, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296578

RESUMO

In order to study the regulation mechanism of secondary metabolites biosynthesis in Lonicera macranthoides, the key genes involved in the regulation of biosynthesis and the mechanism of differential metabolites were explored. In this study, high-throughput sequencing technology was used for transcriptome sequencing of L. macranthoides at different development stages. By using Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(LC-MS/MS) technology, the laws of qualitative, quantitative and synthetic accumulation of its metabolites were studied, and the key enzyme genes for the biosynthesis of phenolic acid and flavonoids were screened out according to the differentially expressed genes. A total of 111 differentially accumulate metabolites(DAM) and 6 653 differentially expressed genes(DGE) were obtained by metabonomics and transcriptomics analysis. The metabolites and key enzyme genes in the Erqing(KE) were significantly different from those in the Dabai(KD) and Yinhua(KY) stages. In the phenylalanine biosynthesis pathway, the ion abundance of chlorogenic acid, naringin, quercetin, rutin, coniferol and other metabolites decreased with the development of flowers, while the ion abundance of ferulic acid, coumarin and syringoside increased with the development of flowers. Key enzyme genes such as CHS, HCT, CCR, FLS and COMT positively regulate the downstream metabolites, while PAL, C4H and 4CL negatively regulate the downstream metabolites. This study provides candidate genes and theoretical basis for the further exploration of key enzymes in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and for the regulation of the accumulation of secondary metabolites in L. macranthoides by molecular biological methods.


Assuntos
Lonicera , Cromatografia Líquida , Flores/genética , Lonicera/genética , Metabolômica , Proteômica , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
19.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(8): 3676-3681, 2021 Aug 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34309254

RESUMO

Although non-phthalate plasticizers are widely used in various consumer products as substitutes for phthalates, currently little is known about their environmental occurrence and the risks of human exposure. To characterize the pollution and human exposure risk in indoor environments, house dust samples collected from 83 households in Guangzhou were analyzed for twelve typical non-phthalate plasticizers. Results showed that dioctyl terephthalate (DEHT), trioctyl trimellitate (TOTM), acetyl lemon tributyl ester (ATBC), heptylnonyl adipate, di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate, and trioctyl trimellitate were detected in all samples. The total concentrations of non-phthalate plasticizers ranged from 22.4 to 615 µg ·g-1 with a median of 101 µg ·g-1. DEHT had the highest concentrations (9-487 µg ·g-1), followed by TOTM (0.3-87 µg ·g-1) and ATBC (1.7-50 µg ·g-1). Daily intakes via dust ingestion for adults and children were estimated based on the dust concentrations. The total daily intake of children was 367 ng ·(kg ·d)-1, which was 8-9 times higher than that of adults[43 ng ·(kg ·d)-1]. Further risk assessment through the hazard quotient approach showed that the exposure of adults and children to non-phthalic plasticizers via dust ingestion was within an acceptable risk range.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Ácidos Ftálicos , Adulto , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Criança , Poeira , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Plastificantes/análise , Medição de Risco
20.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259511

RESUMO

The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) plays a paramount role in a variety of electrochemical energy conversion devices, and the exploration of highly active, stable, and low-cost electrocatalysts is one of the most important topics in this field. The exfoliated black phosphorus (EBP) nanosheet with a two-dimensional (2D) layered structure has high carrier mobility but is limited by excessive oxygen-containing intermediate absorption and fast deterioration in air. We here report the fabrication of nanohybrids of amorphous CoFeB nanosheets on EBP nanosheets (EBP/CoFeB). The 2D/2D heterostructure, thanks to the electronic interactions and oxygen affinity difference between EBP and CoFeB nanosheets, is capable of balancing the oxygen-containing intermediate absorption to an optimal status for facilitating the OER process. While the crystalline EBP contributes to the improved conductivity, the amorphous coating protects EBP and thus ensures the catalytic stability. The EBP/CoFeB electrocatalyst shows excellent OER performance with an ultralow overpotential of 227 mV at 10 mA cm-2 with an ultrasmall Tafel slope of 36.7 mV dec-1 with excellent stability. This study may inspire more researches to develop heterostructured nanohybrid electrocatalysts for a diversity of electrochemical reactions.

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