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1.
Oncogene ; 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033382

RESUMO

Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is an extremely recalcitrant disease capable of bypassing current targeted therapies via engagement of several growth promoting pathways. SH2 containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP2) is an oncogenic phosphatase known to facilitate growth and survival signaling downstream of numerous receptor inputs. Herein, we used inducible genetic depletion and two distinct pharmacological inhibitors to investigate the therapeutic potential of targeting SHP2 in MBC. Cells that acquired resistance to the ErbB kinase inhibitor, neratinib, displayed increased phosphorylation of SHP2 at the Y542 activation site. In addition, higher levels of SHP2 phosphorylation, but not expression, were associated with decreased survival of breast cancer patients. Pharmacological inhibition of SHP2 activity blocked ERK1/2 and AKT signaling generated from exogenous stimulation with FGF2, PDGF, and hGF and readily prevented MBC cell growth induced by these factors. SHP2 was also phosphorylated upon engagement of the extracellular matrix (ECM) via focal adhesion kinase. Consistent with the potential of SHP2-targeted compounds as therapeutic agents, the growth inhibitory property of SHP2 blockade was enhanced in ECM-rich 3D culture environments. In vivo blockade of SHP2 in the adjuvant setting decreased pulmonary metastasis and extended the survival of systemic tumor-bearing mice. Finally, inhibition of SHP2 in combination with FGFR-targeted kinase inhibitors synergistically blocked the growth of MBC cells. Overall, our findings support the conclusion that SHP2 constitutes a shared signaling node allowing MBC cells to simultaneously engage a diversity of growth and survival pathways, including those derived from the ECM.

2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17589, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067541

RESUMO

Dendritic spine injury underlies synaptic failure in many neurological disorders. Mounting evidence suggests a mitochondrial pathway of local nonapoptotic caspase signaling in mediating spine pruning. However, it remains unclear whether this caspase signaling plays a key role in spine loss when severe mitochondrial functional defects are present. The answer to this question is critical especially for some pathological states, in which mitochondrial deficits are prominent and difficult to fix. F1Fo ATP synthase is a pivotal mitochondrial enzyme and the dysfunction of this enzyme involves in diseases with spinopathy. Here, we inhibited F1Fo ATP synthase function in primary cultured hippocampal neurons by using non-lethal oligomycin A treatment. Oligomycin A induced mitochondrial defects including collapsed mitochondrial membrane potential, dissipated ATP production, and elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. In addition, dendritic mitochondria underwent increased fragmentation and reduced positioning to dendritic spines along with increased caspase 3 cleavage in dendritic shaft and spines in response to oligomycin A. Concurring with these dendritic mitochondrial changes, oligomycin A-insulted neurons displayed spine loss and altered spine architecture. Such oligomycin A-mediated changes in dendritic spines were substantially prevented by the inhibition of caspase activation by using a pan-caspase inhibitor, quinolyl-valyl-O-methylaspartyl-[-2,6-difluorophenoxy]-methyl ketone (Q-VD-OPh). Of note, the administration of Q-VD-OPh showed no protective effect on oligomycin A-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Our findings suggest a pivotal role of caspase 3 signaling in mediating spine injury and the modulation of caspase 3 activation may benefit neurons from spine loss in diseases, at least, in those with F1Fo ATP synthase defects.

3.
J Minim Access Surg ; 2020 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047687

RESUMO

Background: The enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programme is feasible and effective in reducing the length of hospital stay, overall complication rates and medical costs when applied to cases involving colonic and rectal resections. However, a recent prospective, randomised, open, parallel-controlled trial (Chinese Laparoscopic Gastrointestinal Surgery Study-01 trial), initiated by our team, indicated that under conventional peri-operative management, the reduction of the post-operative hospital stay of laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (LDG) is quite limited compared with open gastrectomy. Thus, if we could provide valuable clinical evidence for demonstrating the efficacy of the ERAS programme for gastric cancer patients undergoing LDG, it would significantly enhance the peri-operative management of gastrectomy and benefit the patients. Methods: In this prospective single-arm trial, patients who are 18-75 years of age with gastric adenocarcinoma diagnosed with cT1-4aN0-3M0 and expected to undergo curative resection through LDG, are considered eligible for this study. All participants underwent LDG with peri-operative management under the ERAS programme. The primary outcome measures included the post-operative hospital stays and rehabilitative rate of the post-operative day 4. The secondary outcome measures are morbidity and mortality (time frame: 30 days), post-operative recovery index (time frame: 30 days), post-operative pain intensity (time frame: 3 days) and the medical costs from surgery to discharge. Conclusion: With reasonable and scientific designing, the trial may be a great help to further discuss the benefit of ERAS programme and thus improving the peri-operative management of patients with gastrectomy.

4.
Updates Surg ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048340

RESUMO

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage (PTGBD) are common treatments for patients with acute cholecystitis. However, the safety and efficacy of emergency laparoscopic cholecystectomy (ELC) and delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy (DLC) after PTGBD in patients with acute cholecystitis remain unclear. The PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched through October 2019. The quality of the included nonrandomized studies was assessed using the Methodological Index for Nonrandomized Studies (MINORS). The meta-analysis was performed using STATA version 14.2. A random-effects model was used to calculate the outcomes. A total of fifteen studies involving 1780 patients with acute cholecystitis were included in the meta-analysis. DLC after PTGBD was associated with a shorter operative time (SMD - 0.51; 95% CI - 0.89 to - 0.13; P = 0.008), a lower conversion rate (RR 0.43; 95% CI 0.26 to 0.69; P = 0.001), less intraoperative blood loss (SMD - 0.59; 95% CI - 0.96 to - 0.22; P = 0.002) and longer time of total hospital stay compared to ELC (SMD 0.91; 95% CI 0.57-1.24; P < 0.001). There was no difference in the postoperative complications (RR 0.68; 95% CI 0.48-0.97; P = 0.035), biliary leakage (RR 0.65; 95% CI 0.34-1.22; P = 0.175) or mortality (RR 1.04; 95% CI 0.39-2.80; P = 0.933). Compared to ELC, DLC after PTGBD had the advantages of a shorter operative time, a lower conversion rate and less intraoperative blood loss.

5.
J Control Release ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010334

RESUMO

Successful treatment of pancreatic cancer remains a challenge due to desmoplasia, development of chemoresistance, and systemic toxicity. Herein, we synthesized (6-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxylphenyl)pyridin-2-yl) (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)methanone (CH-3-8), a novel microtubule polymerization inhibitor with little susceptible to transporter-mediated chemoresistance. CH-3-8 binding to the colchicine-binding site in tubulin protein was confirmed by tubulin polymerization assay and molecular modeling. CH-3-8 disrupted microtubule dynamics at the nanomolar concentration in MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cell lines. CH-3-8 significantly inhibited the proliferation of these cells, induced G2/M cell cycle arrest, and led to apoptosis. CH-3-8 is hydrophobic with an aqueous solubility of 0.97 ± 0.16 µg/mL at pH 7.4. We further conjugated it with dodecanol through diglycolate linker to increase hydrophobicity and thus loading in lipid-based delivery systems. Hence, we encapsulated CH-3-8 lipid conjugate (LDC) into methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(2-methyl-2-carboxyl-propylene carbonate-graft-dodecanol) (mPEG-b-PCC-g-DC) polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) by solvent evaporation, resulting in a mean particle size of 125.6 ± 2.3 nm and drug loading of 10 ± 1.0% (w/w) while the same polymer could only load 1.6 ± 0.4 (w/w) CH-3-8 using the same method. Systemic administration of 6 doses of CH-3-8 and LDC loaded NPs at the dose of 20 mg/kg into orthotopic pancreatic tumor-bearing NSG mice every alternate day resulted in significant tumor regression. Systemic toxicity was negligible, as evidenced by histological evaluations. In conclusion, CH-3-8 LDC loaded NPs have the potential to improve outcomes of pancreatic cancer by overcoming transporter-mediated chemoresistance and reducing systemic toxicity.

6.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 296-299, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017987

RESUMO

Recent developments in the field of deep learning has shown a rise in its use for clinical applications such as electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis and cardiac arrhythmia classification. Such systems are essential in the early detection and management of cardiovascular diseases. However, due to privacy concerns and also the lack of resources, there is a gap in the data available to run such powerful and data-intensive models. To address the lack of annotated, high-quality ECG data for heart disease research, ECG data generation from a small set of ECG to obtain huge annotated data is seen as an effective solution. Generative Feature Matching Network (GFMN) was shown to resolve few drawbacks of commonly used generative adversarial networks (GAN). Based on this, we developed a deep learning model to generate ECGs that resembles real ECG by feature matching with the existing data.Clinical relevance- This work addresses the lack of a large quantity of good quality, publicly available annotated ECG data required to build deep learning models for cardiac signal processing research. We can use the model presented in this paper to generate ECG signals of a target rhythm pattern and also subject-specific ECG morphology that could improve their cardiac health monitoring while maintaining privacy.

7.
Mitochondrion ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035689

RESUMO

Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy, and its incidence continues to rise. For clinicians with cancer patients, choosing and interpreting diagnostic laboratory studies has become increasingly important. Previously, changes in plasma free mitochondrial DNA levels have been found in colorectal, breast, lung, and urinary cancers, and have demonstrated diagnostic value. In this study, we investigated whether the occurrence and development of thyroid cancer might be predicted using mtDNA copy number (ND1), mtDNA integrity (ND4/ND1) and levels of cell-free nDNA (GAPDH). We analyzed ND1, ND4, and GAPDH levels in plasma and blood cells from 75 patients with thyroid cancer, 40 patients with nodular goiter, and 107 normal controls using real-time PCR. Although both the thyroid nodule and thyroid cancer patients had significantly increased ND1 levels, the ND4/ND1 ratio in the thyroid cancer group was higher than the thyroid nodule group (P< 0.05), and significantly higher than the normal control group (P<0.01). Plasma levels of nuclear DNA (GAPDH) in the thyroid cancer group were also higher compared to normal (P< 0.05). These results indicate that increased intactness of plasma free mtDNA is associated with increased levels of plasma cell-free nDNA, and that the ND4/ND1 ratio has the potential to be a new detection indicator in thyroid cancer. Furthermore, we classified thyroid cancer patients according to clinical data including age, tumor size, and metastasis. We found significantly higher levels of GAPDH in malignant tissues. Because ND4/ND1 correlated with plasma GAPDH in the plasma studies, this also suggests a potential relationship between ND4 intactness and thyroid tumor tissue size. Taken together, our findings suggest a tumor-specific process involving increased release of intact mtDNA, detectable in the plasma, which differentiates normal patients from patients with thyroid cancer.

8.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1678, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33013820

RESUMO

Increasing studies have highlighted the effects of the tumor immune micro-environment (TIM) on colon cancer (CC) tumorigenesis, prognosis, and metastasis. However, there is no reliable molecular marker that can effectively estimate the immune infiltration and predict the CC relapse risk. Here, we leveraged the gene expression profile and clinical characteristics from 1430 samples, including four gene expression omnibus database (GEO) databases and the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) database, to construct an immune risk signature that could be used as a predictor of survival outcome and immune activity. A risk model consisting of 10 immune-related genes were screened out in the Lasso-Cox model and were then aggregated to generate the immune risk signature based on the regression coefficients. The signature demonstrated robust prognostic ability in discovery and validation datasets, and this association remained significant in the multivariate analysis after controlling for age, gender, clinical stage, or microsatellite instability status. Leukocyte subpopulation analysis indicated that the low-risk signature was enriched with cytotoxic cells (activated CD4/CD8+ T cell and NK cell) and depleted of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and regulatory T cells. Further analysis indicated patients with a low-risk signature harbored higher tumor mutation loads and lower mutational frequencies in significantly mutated genes of APC and FBXW7. Together, our constructed signature could predict prognosis and represent the TIM of CC, which promotes individualized treatment and provides a promising novel molecular marker for immunotherapy.

9.
Plant Dis ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026303

RESUMO

Oat (Avena sativa) is extensively planted as a fodder crop on the vast ranges of northern and northwestern China, and it has become an important supplementary feed for grazing livestock (Yang et al. 2010). Microdochium nivale has been reported associated with seedling blight in many temperate regions (Imathiu et al. 2010) and the damage can result in serious loss of oat production. In August 2018, a serious seedling blight of oat (cv. Baiyan 7; about 30-day-old) was observed in the field in Shandan County, Zhangye City, Gansu Province (38.22° N, 101.22° E). More than 20% of oat plants were severely affected. Symptoms included leaf chlorosis and wilt. The root systems of infected plants were black and severely rotted, often with only a small amount of fine root remaining after removal from the soil. Twenty isolations were made from blackened roots on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and five isolations (TM-1, TM-2, TM-3, TM-4 and TM-5) were further purified by a single-spore method (Choi et al. 1999). Each isolate was identical based on preliminary molecular analyses of their DNA sequences of ITS by blast in the NCBI GenBank. The representative isolate TM-2 was selected for sequencing of the RNA polymerase II subunit (RPB2) gene. The isolated colonies were grown on PDA and formed colonies of approximately 62 mm (diameter) in 5 days at 25 ± 1 °C. Colonies exhibited entire margins, the color varied from white to pale yellow, and the sparse aerial mycelium were villous-floccose and cottony. The conidia were falcate, straight to curved, apex pointed or obtuse to subacute, lacking basal differentiation, 0-3-septate, most one-septate, 2.2 to 3.1 × 12.3 to 22.6µm (av.= 2.8 ×17.6; n=50). These morphological characteristics were consistent with previous descriptions of Microdochium (Zhang et al. 2010). Molecular identity was confirmed by sequencing partial sequences of ITS gene (ITS1 and ITS4 primers) (White et al. 1990) and RPB2 regions (RPB2-5f2 and RPB2-7cr) (O'Donnell et al. 2010). Sequences were deposited in GenBank under accessions MN428647 (RPB2) and MN428646 (ITS). Blast search revealed that both of the ITS and RPB2 sequences to be 99% similar to the corresponding sequences of M. nivale(CBS 116205) accession numbers KP859008.1 and KP859117.1. For pathogenicity tests, millet seed-based inoculum of M. nivale was prepared using a modified procedure of Fang et al. (2011). Three-week-old healthy oat seedlings of cv. Baiyan 7 were transplanted into potting mix containing millet seed-based inoculum of M. nivale at a rate of 3%. Control seedlings for comparison were transplanted into pots containing uninoculated potting mix. After 10 days, all the inoculated plants had developed seedling blight symptoms and that were similar to those observed in the field; while control plants remained healthy. The pathogen was reisolated from inoculated plants and identified as M. nivale based on morphological characteristics and the molecular methods described above. To our knowledge, this is the first report of seedling blight of oat caused by M. nivale in China.

10.
Elife ; 92020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001029

RESUMO

Understanding the emergence of novel viruses requires an accurate and comprehensive annotation of their genomes. Overlapping genes (OLGs) are common in viruses and have been associated with pandemics, but are still widely overlooked. We identify and characterize ORF3d, a novel OLG in SARS-CoV-2 that is also present in Guangxi pangolin-CoVs but not other closely related pangolin-CoVs or bat-CoVs. We then document evidence of ORF3d translation, characterize its protein sequence, and conduct an evolutionary analysis at three levels: between taxa (21 members of Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus), between human hosts (3978 SARS-CoV-2 consensus sequences), and within human hosts (401 deeply sequenced SARS-CoV-2 samples). ORF3d has been independently identified and shown to elicit a strong antibody response in COVID-19 patients. However, it has been misclassified as the unrelated gene ORF3b, leading to confusion. Our results liken ORF3d to other accessory genes in emerging viruses and highlight the importance of OLGs.

11.
Cancer Lett ; 495: 76-88, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920198

RESUMO

Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer associated mortality. Chemotherapeutic agents, such as paclitaxel, are important treatment options but drug resistance often develops upon prolonged use. We report here the preclinical evaluation of a new orally available tubulin inhibitor, VERU-111, which can overcome several ABC-transporters mediated multi-drug resistance associated with taxane treatment. In vitro, VERU-111 prevents cell proliferation, invasion, migration and colony formation in both paclitaxel-sensitive and paclitaxel-resistant A549 lung cancer cells. VERU-111 effectively inhibits tubulin polymerization, arrests cells in G2/M phase, and induces cancer cell apoptosis. Further evaluation of various apoptotic proteins revealed that treatment of VERU-111 increases the expression of cleaved-PARP, cleaved-caspase-3 and p-histone H3 proteins. In vivo, orally administered VERU-111 in a paclitaxel-sensitive A549 xenograft model strongly inhibits tumor growth in a dose-dependent manner and is equally potent with paclitaxel. When tested in a highly paclitaxel-resistant A549/TxR tumor model, VERU-111 is as effective as the parental A549 model in significantly reducing the tumor volume, whereas paclitaxel is essentially ineffective. Collectively, this study showed that VERU-111 is a promising new generation of anti-tubulin agent for the treatment of taxane-resistant lung cancer.

12.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 7(10): 1930-1941, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rapidly increasing case reports revealed that neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID) had concomitant other system symptoms besides nervous system symptoms. In this study, we systematically evaluated the symptoms, signs, auxiliary examination, and pathological changes in different systems in NIID patients. METHODS: NIID patients were confirmed by examining GGC repeats in the NOTCH2NLC gene. Clinical data of NIID patients including symptoms, signs, and auxiliary examinations were collected for analysis. Ubiquitin and p62 were detected in different tissues from previous surgical samples. RESULTS: Fifty-one NIID patients from 17 families were included in this study. Except neurological symptoms, clinical manifestations from other systems were very notable and diverse. The proportions of different system symptoms were 88.2% in nervous system, 78.4% in respiratory system, 72.5% in circulatory system, 72.5% in locomotor system, 66.7% in urinary system, 64.7% in digestive system, 61.5% in reproductive system, and 50.0% in endocrine system. In addition, other common symptoms included sexual dysfunction (43.1%), pupil constriction (56.9%), blurred vision (51.0%), and hearing loss (23.5%). Ubiquitin and p62-positive cells were found in different tissues and systems in 24 NIID patients with previous surgery. Initial symptoms of NIID and median onset age in different systems also revealed system heterogeneity of NIID. INTERPRETATION: For the first time, we systematically demonstrated that NIID is a heterogeneous and systemic neurodegenerative disease by providing clinical and pathological evidence. In addition to the nervous system, the clinical symptomatic and pathological spectrum of NIID has been extended to almost all systems.

13.
Cancer Lett ; 493: 189-196, 2020 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891712

RESUMO

Sulforaphane (SFN) is a compound derived from cruciferous plants shown to be effective in cancer prevention and suppression. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are known to inhibit anti-tumor immunity; however, whether SFN regulates the anti-tumor activity of MDSCs in breast cancer is still unknown. In the current study, we found that SFN blocked prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis in parental and doxorubicin (DOX)-resistant breast cancer 4T1 cell lines by activating NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Nrf2-mediated reduction of PGE2 was dependent on the enhanced expression of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCLC), and decreased COX-2 expression in breast cancer cells. Moreover, our study further revealed that reduced PGE2 secretion from SFN-treated 4T1 cells triggered MDSCs to switch to an immunogenic phenotype, enhancing the anti-tumor activities of CD8+ T cells. Co-administration of SFN and DOX was more efficacious for the treatment of breast cancer in a mouse model than either agent alone, as evidenced by the significant decrease in tumor volume, MDSC expansion, and increase in cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. Taken together, our data indicate that SFN reverses the immunosuppressive microenvironment and is a potent adjuvant chemotherapeutic candidate in breast cancer.

14.
Microbes Infect ; 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896641

RESUMO

Pulmonary infection activates acute inflammatory responses by recruiting neutrophils to the infection site; this recruitment is promoted by interleukin-8 (IL-8). However, IL-8 production in response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa HtpG (PA1596), a homolog of heat shock protein 90, has yet not been characterized in detail. htpG expression in P. aeruginosa strain was elevated upon infection of host cells, and HtpG was released into bacterial culture supernatant. Treatment of dTHP-1 macrophages with recombinant HtpG (rHtpG) increased production of IL-8 in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and this effect was abolished by inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 signaling. By contrast, the rHtpG-mediated production of IL-8 was increased by suppression of cylindromatosis (CYLD), suggesting that CYLD is a negative regulator of this pathway. The upregulation of expression was coordinated by signals transmitting through toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) with the aid of CD91. Together, these observations suggest that P. aeruginosa HtpG activates NF-κB, CYLD, and p38 MAPK in a TLR4-and CD91-dependent manner, leading to stimulation of IL-8 production in macrophages.

15.
Int J Med Sci ; 17(15): 2312-2327, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32922197

RESUMO

In order to investigate the altered expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the development of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), the aberrantly expressed miRNAs in the concanavalin A (Con A)-induced AIH mouse model were identified for the first time with microarray in this study. A total of 49 miRNAs (31 up- and 18 down-regulated) were screened out, and the qRT-PCR validation results of 12 chosen miRNAs were consistent with the microarray data. Combined with the profiling of differently expressed mRNAs in the same model (data not shown), 959 predicted target genes (601 for up- and 358 for down-regulated miRNAs) were obtained according to the intersection of databases miRWalk and miRDB, and several hub genes were obtained from the regulatory networks, including Cadm1 and Mier3. These target genes were significantly enriched in the Gene ontology (GO) terms of "transcription, DNA-templated", and were annotated in 47 signaling pathways, comprising "Wnt signaling pathway", "Hippo signaling pathway", "Ferroptosis" and "mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway", according to the GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis. In the miRNA-GO-network, mmu-miR-193b-3p were exhibited in 33 GO terms of biological processes (BP), and the most significantly regulated GO term in BP categories was "regulation of transcription, DNA-templated". While in the miRNA-pathway-network, mmu-miR-7005-5p were enriched in 37 pathways, which was more than the other specifically expressed miRNAs, and the most significantly enriched pathways were "Endocytosis" and "MAPK signaling pathway". In conclusion, these differently expressed miRNAs seemed to be associated with the onset of AIH, and have the potential to serve as the new targets on the treatment of this disease.

17.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 44(10): 1429-1439, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conservative management with progestin is a treatment option for atypical hyperplasia (AH). However, pathologic diagnosis of residual/recurrent lesions is often problematic because of the profound morphologic changes induced by progestin and the lack of established diagnostic criteria for progestin-treated residual AH. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal study of 265 endometrial biopsies from 54 patients with a history of AH on progestin therapy. Patient outcomes were divided into 3 categories after morphologic review and immunohistochemical staining with phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and paired box 2 (PAX2): (1) persistent or residual disease; (2) recurrent disease; (3) complete response. All specimens were classified into 3 categories based on morphology: (1) persistent/recurrent disease (nonresponse), (2) morphologically uncertain response, (3) optimally treated (complete response). The staining patterns of PTEN/PAX2 were tracked over time in individual patients and correlated with morphologic findings before and after progestin therapy. RESULTS: Our data showed that aberrant expression patterns of PTEN and/or PAX2 were identified in 48 (88.9%) of the 54 primary biopsies and persisted in persistent/recurrent AH across serial endometrial biopsies (n=99, P<0.00001), while normal PTEN and PAX2 expressions were consistently observed in optimally treated cases (n=84, P<0.00001). More importantly, follow-up biopsies that showed a morphologically uncertain response but a PTEN/PAX2 expression pattern identical to the initial biopsy were significantly correlated with persistent or recurrent disease (n=18, P=0.000182), as evidenced by areas with morphologic features diagnostic of AH on subsequent biopsy. CONCLUSIONS: Biomarker PTEN/PAX2 signatures offer a valuable diagnostic aid to identify residual AH in progestin-treated endometrial samples for which the biomarker status from preprogestin treated AH is known. The findings of this study are promising for a possible future change of diagnostic practice.

18.
FEBS Open Bio ; 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965791

RESUMO

Without treatment, autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) often leads to cirrhosis, liver failure, and in some cases, death. However, the pathogenesis of AIH remains incompletely understood. Here, we explored the relationship between differentially expressed circRNAs (DECs) and development of AIH by obtaining an expression profile of DECs in concanavalin A-induced AIH mouse model by microarray. In total, we identified 27 DECs; the host genes of these DECs were annotated with 140 GO terms and 19 pathways, revealing potential roles in the metabolism of cellular ions and regulation of protein expression, as well as possible involvement in endocytosis and apoptosis. We constructed a circRNA-miRNA network which was used to infer that a mmu_circ_0001520/mmu-miR-193b-3p/MAPK10 network may be associated with the occurrence of AIH. These findings may help lay the foundation for validation of the potential roles of circRNAs in AIH.

19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15199, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939004

RESUMO

One of the most important and striking characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with intrahepatic metastasis, is that it results in extremely poor prognosis. Animal models have become a fundamental and very useful in research for disease study. However, some limitation has arisen from these model systems. We have therefore established a model of HCC with intrahepatic metastasis and noticed some differential appearances in different HCC cell lines. Luciferase-transfected HCC cell lines MHCC97-H and PLC/PRF/5 were inoculated into SCID mice via spleen. Observation the intrahepatic metastasis by bioluminescence imaging in vivo and comparing of the differential formation of metastatic lesions between different HCC cell lines by incorporating physical anatomy was done. Animal models for HCC intrahepatic metastasis were well established. However, there were some clearly noticed differences between MHCC97-H and PLC/PRF/5 cell lines. The group of MHCC97-H cell line readily metastasis in the liver, whereas group PLC/PRF/5 cell line developed extensive intrahepatic metastasis and formed large tumor in situ in the spleen. MHCC97-H and PLC/PRF/5 cell lines can be used to successfully establish a model of HCC intrahepatic metastasis with distinctive characteristics, which provides an important direction for the study of the mechanism of HCC intrahepatic metastasis, and may hopefully provide a basis for clinical treatment.

20.
Comput Biol Med ; 125: 104006, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Managing bone defects is a critical aspect of total knee arthroplasty. In this study, we compared the metal block and cement-screw techniques for the treatment of Anderson Orthopaedic Research Institute type 2A tibial bone defects from the biomechanical standpoint. METHOD: The metal block and cement-screw techniques were applied to finite element models of 5- and 10-mm tibial bone defects. Biomechanical compatibility was evaluated based on the stress distributions of the proximal tibia and tibial tray. The displacement of the tibial tray and maximum relative micromotion between the tibial stem and tibia were analyzed to assess the stability of the implant. RESULTS: The maximum stress in both the proximal tibia and tibial tray was greater with the cement-screw technique than with the metal block technique. The stress of the proximal lateral tibia with the cement-screw technique was significantly larger than with the metal block technique (p < 0.05). For the 5-mm bone defect, the maximum relative micromotion was lower than the critical value of 150 µm. For the 10-mm defect, the maximum relative micromotion was 128 µm with the metal block technique and 155 µm with the cement-screw technique, with the latter exceeding the critical value. CONCLUSIONS: The cement-screw technique showed superior biomechanical compatibility to the metal block technique and is more suitable for 5-mm bone defects. However, as it may reduce the fixation strength in 10-mm bone defects, the metal block technique is more appropriate in this case.

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