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1.
Nano Lett ; 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587938

RESUMO

Effective bimetallic nanoelectrocatalysis demands precise control of composition, structure, and understanding catalytic mechanisms. To address these challenges, we employ a two-in-one approach, integrating online synthesis with real-time imaging of bimetallic Au@Metal core-shell nanoparticles (Au@M NPs) via electrochemiluminescence microscopy (ECLM). Within 120 s, online electrodeposition and in situ catalytic activity screening alternate. ECLM captures transient faradaic processes during potential switches, visualizes electrochemical processes in real-time, and tracks catalytic activity dynamics at the single-particle level. Analysis using ECL photon flux density eliminates size effects and yields quantitative electrocatalytic activity results. Notably, a nonlinear activity trend corresponding to the shell metal to Au surface atomic ratio is discerned, quantifying the optimal surface component ratio of Au@M NPs. This approach offers a comprehensive understanding of catalytic behavior during the deposition process with high spatiotemporal resolution, which is crucial for tailoring efficient bimetallic nanocatalysts for diverse applications.

2.
World J Diabetes ; 15(3): 568-571, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38591081

RESUMO

The following letter to the editor highlights the article "Effects of vitamin D supplementation on glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and risk factors for insulin resistance" in World J Diabetes 2023 Oct 15; 14 (10): 1514-1523. It is necessary to explore the role of vitamin family members in insulin resistance and diabetes complications.

4.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574343

RESUMO

Current disinfection processes pose an emerging environmental risk due to the ineffective removal of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, especially disinfection residual bacteria (DRB) carrying multidrug-resistant plasmids (MRPs). However, the characteristics of DRB-carried MRPs are poorly understood. In this study, qPCR analysis reveals that the total absolute abundance of four plasmids in postdisinfection effluent decreases by 1.15 log units, while their relative abundance increases by 0.11 copies/cell compared to investigated wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influent. We obtain three distinctive DRB-carried MRPs (pWWTP-01-03) from postdisinfection effluent, each carrying 9-11 antibiotic-resistant genes (ARGs). pWWTP-01 contains all 11 ARGs within an ∼25 Kbp chimeric genomic island showing strong patterns of recombination with MRPs from foodborne outbreaks and hospitals. Antibiotic-, disinfectant-, and heavy-metal-resistant genes on the same plasmid underscore the potential roles of disinfectants and heavy metals in the coselection of ARGs. Additionally, pWWTP-02 harbors an adhesin-type virulence operon, implying risks of both antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity upon entering environments. Furthermore, some MRPs from DRB are capable of transferring and could confer selective advantages to recipients under environmentally relevant antibiotic pressure. Overall, this study advances our understanding of DRB-carried MRPs and highlights the imminent need to monitor and control wastewater MRPs for environmental security.

5.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 366, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As an important medical personnel training system in China, standardized residency training plays an important role in enriching residents' clinical experience, improving their ability to communicate with patients and their clinical expertise. The difficulty of teaching neurology lies in the fact that there are many types of diseases, complicated conditions, and strong specialisation, which puts higher requirements on residents' independent learning ability, the cultivation of critical thinking, and the learning effect. Based on the concept of ADDIE (Analysis-Design-Development-Implementation-Evaluation), this study combines the theory and clinical practice of flipped classroom teaching method to evaluate the teaching effect, so as to provide a basis and reference for the implementation of flipped classroom in the future of neurology residency training teaching. METHODS: The participants of the study were 90 neurology residents in standardised training in our hospital in the classes of 2019 and 2020. A total of 90 residents were divided into a control group and an observation group of 45 cases each using the random number table method. The control group used traditional teaching methods, including problem based learning (PBL), case-based learning (CBL), and lecture-based learning (LBL). The observation group adopted the flipped classroom teaching method based on the ADDIE teaching concept. A unified assessment of the learning outcomes of the residents was conducted before they left the department in the fourth week, including the assessment of theoretical and skill knowledge, the assessment of independent learning ability, the assessment of critical thinking ability, and the assessment of clinical practice ability. Finally, the overall quality of teaching was assessed. RESULTS: The theoretical and clinical skills assessment scores achieved by the observation group were significantly higher than those of the control group, and the results were statistically significant (P < 0.001). The scores of independent learning ability and critical thinking ability of the observation group were better than those of the control group, showing statistically significant differences (P < 0.001). The observation group was better than the control group in all indicators in terms of Mini-Cex score (P < 0.05). In addition, the observation group had better teaching quality compared to the control group (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Based on the concept of ADDIE combined with flipped classroom teaching method can effectively improve the teaching effect of standardized training of neurology residents, and had a positive effect on the improvement of residents' autonomous learning ability, critical thinking ability, theoretical knowledge and clinical comprehensive ability.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Aprendizagem , Pensamento , Ensino
6.
Heliyon ; 10(7): e28865, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38576562

RESUMO

Inhibition of activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is a promising approach for treating liver fibrosis, and the ferroptosis has emerged as a pivotal mechanism to achieve this inhibition. The effects of naringenin, a flavonoid with anti-inflammatory properties, have not been thoroughly examined in liver fibrosis. Therefore, we used cholestasis model to study the effect of naringenin on liver fibrosis. Our findings demonstrated a significant exacerbation of liver tissue damage and fibrosis in mice subjected to bile duct ligation (BDL), accompanied by a substantial upregulation of fibrogenesis-related gene expression. Notably, naringenin administration markedly alleviated liver injury and fibrosis in these mice. Furthermore, naringenin exhibited inhibitory effects on the activation of HSCs, concurrently inducing ferroptosis. Importantly, naringenin significantly increased autophagic activity in HSCs. This effect was counteracted by co-administration of the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA, leading to a notable reduction in naringenin-induced HSC ferroptosis. In BDL model mice, naringenin demonstrated a mitigating effect on liver fibrosis, suggesting a potential correlation with naringenin-induced ferroptosis of HSCs. These results provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of naringenin-induced ferroptosis and highlight autophagy-dependent ferroptosis as a promising therapeutic strategy for liver fibrosis.

7.
World J Gastrointest Surg ; 16(3): 966-973, 2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cavernous hemangioma is a rare vascular malformation resulting in recurrent lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and can be misinterpreted as colitis. Surgical resection is currently the mainstay of treatment, with an emphasis on sphincter preservation. CASE SUMMARY: We present details of two young patients with a history of persistent hematochezia diagnosed with colorectal cavernous hemangioma by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). Cavernous hemangioma was relieved by several EUS-guided lauromacrogol injections and the patients achieved favorable clinical prognosis. CONCLUSION: Multiple sequential EUS-guided injections of lauromacrogol is a safe, effective, cost-efficient, and minimally invasive alternative for colorectal cavernous hemangioma.

8.
World J Stem Cells ; 16(3): 245-256, 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577237

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are stem/progenitor cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. The transformation of multipotent MSCs to adipocytes mainly involves two subsequent steps from MSCs to preadipocytes and further preadipocytes into adipocytes, in which the process MSCs are precisely controlled to commit to the adipogenic lineage and then mature into adipocytes. Previous studies have shown that the master transcription factors C/enhancer-binding protein alpha and peroxisome proliferation activator receptor gamma play vital roles in adipogenesis. However, the mechanism underlying the adipogenic differentiation of MSCs is not fully understood. Here, the current knowledge of adipogenic differentiation in MSCs is reviewed, focusing on signaling pathways, noncoding RNAs and epigenetic effects on DNA methylation and acetylation during MSC differentiation. Finally, the relationship between maladipogenic differentiation and diseases is briefly discussed. We hope that this review can broaden and deepen our understanding of how MSCs turn into adipocytes.

9.
Cell Rep Med ; : 101483, 2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579727

RESUMO

Immune cell phenotyping frequently detects lineage-unrelated receptors. Here, we report that surface receptors can be transferred from primary macrophages to CD4 T cells and identify the Fcγ receptor CD32 as driver and cargo of this trogocytotic transfer. Filamentous CD32+ nanoprotrusions deposit distinct plasma membrane patches onto target T cells. Transferred receptors confer cell migration and adhesion properties, and macrophage-derived membrane patches render resting CD4 T cells susceptible to infection by serving as hotspots for HIV-1 binding. Antibodies that recognize T cell epitopes enhance CD32-mediated trogocytosis. Such autoreactive anti-HIV-1 envelope antibodies can be found in the blood of HIV-1 patients and, consistently, the percentage of CD32+ CD4 T cells is increased in their blood. This CD32-mediated, antigen-independent cell communication mode transiently expands the receptor repertoire and functionality of immune cells. HIV-1 hijacks this mechanism by triggering the generation of trogocytosis-promoting autoantibodies to gain access to immune cells critical to its persistence.

10.
Heliyon ; 10(7): e28278, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38560217

RESUMO

Background: Globally, lung carcinoma remains the leading cause of death, with its associated morbidity and mortality rates remaining elevated. Despite the slow advancement of treatment, the outlook remains bleak. Cellular senescence represents a halt in the cell cycle, encompassing a range of physiological and pathological activities, along with diverse phenotypic alterations, including variations in secretory phenotype, macromolecular harm, and metabolic disturbances. Research has revealed its vital function in the formation and growth of tumors. This study aimed to examine cellular senescence-related mRNAs linked to the outlook of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to formulate a predictive risk framework for NSCLC. Methods: We acquired the NSCLC expression data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to examine mRNAs linked to cellular senescence. Both single-variable and multiple-variable cox proportion risk assessments were utilized to determine the traits of cellular senescence-related mRNAs linked to NSCLC prognosis. Subsequently, the prognostic model for cellular senescence-related mRNAs was integrated with clinical-pathological characteristics to create a prognostic nomogram. Furthermore, the study delved into the risk-oriented predictive model, examining immune infiltration and responses to immunotherapy among both high and low-risk categories. Results: Utilizing both univariate and multivariate Cox proportion risk assessments, a risk model comprising 12 mRNAs associated with cellular aging was ultimately developed: IGFBP1, TLR3, WT1, ID1, PTTG1, ERRFI1, HEPACAM, MAP2K3, RAD21, NANOG, PRKCD, SOX5. Univariate analysis and multivariate analysis illustrated that the risk score served as a standalone indicator for prognosis, and the hazard ratio (HR) of the risk score were 1.182 (1.139-1.226) (p < 0.001) and 1.162 (1.119 - 1.206) (p < 0.001), respectively. Individual prognoses were forecasted using nomogram, c-index, and principal component analysis (PCA). Furthermore, the risk-oriented model revealed notable statistical variances in immune infiltration and response to immunotherapy among the high and low risk categories. Conclusions: This study shows that mRNAs related to cell senescence associated with prognosis are reliable predictors of NSCLC immunotherapy reaction and prognosis.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587467

RESUMO

Recently, C60 has emerged as a promising anode material for Li-ion batteries, attracting significant interest due to its excellent lithium storage capacity. The electrochemical performance of C60 as an anode is largely dependent on its internal crystal structure, which is significantly influenced by the synthesis method and corresponding conditions. However, there have been few reports on how the synthesis process affects the crystal structure and Li+ storage capacity of C60. This study used the liquid-liquid interface precipitation method and a low-temperature annealing process to fabricate one-dimensional C60 nanorods (NRs). We thoroughly investigated synthesis conditions, including the growth time, drying temperature, annealing time, and annealing atmosphere. The results demonstrate that these synthesis conditions directly impact the morphology, phase transition, and electrochemical efficiency of pure C60 NRs. Remarkably, the hexagonal close-packed structural C60 NRs-6012h, in a metastable form, exhibits a reversible Li+ storage capacity as an anode material in Li-ion batteries. Furthermore, the face-centered cubic C60 NRs-603001h electrode shows significantly enhanced rate performance and long-cycle stability. A discharge-specific capacity of 603 mAh g-1 was maintained after 2000 cycles at a current density of 2 A g-1. This study elucidates the effect of synthesis conditions on C60 crystals, offering an effective strategy for preparing high-performance C60 anode materials.

12.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 972: 176557, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574839

RESUMO

Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI) can induce massive death of ischemic penumbra neurons via oxygen burst, exacerbating brain damage. Parthanatos is a form of caspase-independent cell death involving excessive activation of PARP-1, closely associated with intense oxidative stress following CIRI. 4'-O-methylbavachalcone (MeBavaC), an isoprenylated chalcone component in Fructus Psoraleae, has potential neuroprotective effects. This study primarily investigates whether MeBavaC can act on SIRT3 to alleviate parthanatos of ischemic penumbra neurons induced by CIRI. MeBavaC was oral gavaged to the middle cerebral artery occlusion-reperfusion (MCAO/R) rats after occlusion. The effects of MeBavaC on cerebral injury were detected by the neurological deficit score and cerebral infarct volume. In vitro, PC-12 cells were subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R), and assessed cell viability and cell injury. Also, the levels of ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and intracellular Ca2+ levels were detected to reflect mitochondrial function. We conducted western blotting analyses of proteins involved in parthanatos and related signaling pathways. Finally, the exact mechanism between the neuroprotection of MeBavaC and parthanatos was explored. Our results indicate that MeBavaC reduces the cerebral infarct volume and neurological deficit scores in MCAO/R rats, and inhibits the decreased viability of PC-12 cells induced by OGD/R. MeBavaC also downregulates the expression of parthanatos-related death proteins PARP-1, PAR, and AIF. However, this inhibitory effect is weakened after the use of a SIRT3 inhibitor. In conclusion, the protective effect of MeBavaC against CIRI may be achieved by inhibiting parthanatos of ischemic penumbra neurons through the SIRT3-PARP-1 axis.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581333

RESUMO

Objective: COPD patients have a high incidence of frailty and numerous complications, which seriously affect their quality of life. This study systematically evaluated and analyzed the current state of frailty incidence and risk factors in COPD patients to reduce the prevalence of frailty and enhance their quality of life. Method: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, CBM, CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang databases were searched for relevant studies from the inception of each database until November 2022. A thorough literature screening, quality evaluation, and data extraction was conducted. Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan5.3Meta. Twelve articles were selected as most relevant to this review; 10 were in Chinese, and 2 were in English. Results: The results showed that the incidence of asthenia in COPD patients was 26% (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.17~0.34). Discussion: The main risk factors for frailty in COPD patients were age (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.30~1.34), GOLD pulmonary function class (OR 3.18, 95% CI 2.14~4.71), mMRC score (OR 3.90, 95% CI 1.53~9.92), comorbidity (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.48~3.18), polypharmacy (OR 6.74, 95% CI 3.23~14.08), malnutrition (OR 3.32, 95% CI 1.77~6.24), depression (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.07~1.76) and ≥2 admissions within 1 year (OR 4.84, 95% CI 2.45~9.57). Conclusion: The study presented comprehensive evidence through meta-analysis and proposed that the prevalence of frailty in COPD patients is 26%. Risk factors were identified, including age, pulmonary function class according to GOLD criteria, mMRC score, comorbidity polypharmacy malnutrition, depression, or 2 or more hospital admissions within a year. It is recommended that clinical medical staff identify these risk factors at an early stage.

14.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 132: 111994, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581992

RESUMO

Acute liver failure (ALF) is a potentially fatal disorder characterized by extensive hepatocyte necrosis and rapid decline in liver function. Numerous factors, including oxidative stress, cell death, and inflammatory responses, are associated with its pathogenesis. Endotoxin tolerance (ET) refers to the phenomenon in which the body or cells exhibit low or no response to high-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation after pre-stimulation with low-dose LPS. However, the specific mechanism through which ET regulates LPS/D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-induced ALF remains unclear. An ALF mouse model was established by intraperitoneal injection of D-GalN (400 mg/kg) and LPS (10 mg/kg). A low dose of LPS (0.1 mg/kg/d) was continuously administered to mice for 5 d before modeling to assess the protective effect of ET. The data from this study showed that ET alleviated the inflammatory response in mice with LPS/D-GalN-induced ALF. ET inhibited LPS-induced oxidative damage and pyroptosis in macrophages in vitro. RNA sequencing analysis showed that the NF-κB/NLRP3 pathway was linked to the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects of ET. Furthermore, using western blot, RT-qPCR, and immunofluorescence, we verified that ET inhibited the NF-κB/NLRP3 pathway and triggered the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway to attenuate oxidative stress and cell pyroptosis. Sirt1 knockdown reversed this protective effect. In summary, our research elucidates that ET prevents ALF advancement by upregulating Sirt1 levels, triggering the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling axis, and suppressing the NF-κB/NLRP3 signaling cascade to inhibit oxidative stress and cell pyroptosis. Our results provide a mechanistic explanation for the protective effect of ET against ALF.

15.
Case Rep Oncol ; 17(1): 543-548, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38595961

RESUMO

Introduction: Patients with advanced primary liver cancer often lose the opportunity for surgery when they are found, and the treatment options are limited. Lenvatinib, as a multi-target tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been used as the first-line treatment for advanced liver cancer. Immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as programmed cell death protein 1 inhibitors, have been successfully used in advanced or metastatic liver cancer. Case Presentation: We report a case of combined lenvatinib and the programmed cell death protein 1 inhibitor camrelizumab in the treatment of primary liver cancer, in which the rare complication of full-thickness gastric mucosa exfoliation occurred. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the side effect of hemorrhagic exfoliative gastritis with the combination of lenvatinib and camrelizumab. Conclusion: Hemorrhagic exfoliative gastritis is an extremely rare clinical complication. Lenvatinib inhibits vascular proliferation and could cause gastrointestinal perforation, which is considered to be the main factor, but whether camrelizumab plays a role in it or only causes gastrointestinal reactions leading to nausea and vomiting, resulting in gastric mucosal exfoliation bleeding, remains to be further explored.

16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(14): 8200-8213, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38560889

RESUMO

Zearalenone (ZEN) is a mycotoxin that is harmful to humans and animals. In this study, female and male rats were exposed to ZEN, and the results showed that ZEN reduced the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) expression levels in the liver and disrupted the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids (BAs). A decrease in food intake induced by ZEN was negatively correlated with an increase in the level of total BAs. BA-targeted metabolomics revealed that ZEN increased glycochenodeoxycholic acid levels and decreased the ratio of conjugated BAs to unconjugated BAs, which further increased the hypothalamic FXR expression levels. Preventing the increase in total BA levels induced by ZEN via Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG intervention restored the appetite. In conclusion, ZEN disrupted the enterohepatic circulation of BAs to decrease the level of food intake. This study reveals a possible mechanism by which ZEN affects food intake and provides a new approach to decrease the toxic effects of ZEN.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares , Zearalenona , Humanos , Ratos , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Zearalenona/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Hipotálamo , Ingestão de Alimentos
17.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; : e202402853, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598262

RESUMO

In the development of dendritic cell (DC) vaccines, the maturation of DCs is a critical stage. Adjuvants play a pivotal role in the maturation of DCs, with a major concern being to ensure both efficacy and safety. This study introduces an innovative approach that combines high efficacy with safety through the synthesis of micro-adjuvants grafted with copolymers of 2-(methacrylamido) glucopyranose (MAG) and methacryloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (DMC). The utilization of metal-free surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization enables the production of safe and recyclable adjuvants. These micrometer-sized adjuvants surpass the optimal size range for cellular endocytosis, enabling the retrieval and reuse of them during the ex vivo maturation process, mitigating potential toxicity concerns associated with the endocytosis of non-metabolized nanoparticles. Additionally, the adjuvants exhibit a "micro-ligand-mediated maturation enhancement" effect for DC maturation. This effect is influenced by the shape of the particle, as evidenced by the distinct promotion effects of rod-like and spherical micro-adjuvants with comparable sizes. Furthermore, the porous structure of the adjuvants enables them to function as cargo-carrying "micro-shuttles", releasing antigens upon binding to DCs to facilitate efficient antigen delivery.

18.
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue ; 33(1): 85-89, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583031

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study the relationship between the expression of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and the osteogenic activity and oxygen level of alveolar bone. METHODS: The alveolar bones of 56 patients with chronic periodontitis who received dental treatment from March 2021 to March 2023 were collected as the experimental (periodontitis) group, and the healthy alveolar bones of 53 patients who received dental treatment during the same period were selected as the control group. The osteoblasts were cultured by tissue block culture, and modified Kaplow's alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining was used to identify the cells. COX-2, PGE2 and osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor (OPG) receptor activator of nuclear factor-κb ligand (RANKL) and other indicators were determined by ELISA. PGE2, COX-2, OPG, internal oxygen level, ALP, RANKL and their correlation were compared between the two groups. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 27.0 software package. RESULTS: PGE2, COX-2 and RANKL in periodontitis group were significantly higher than those in the control group, but OPG, internal oxygen level and ALP were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). PGE2 and COX2 were highly positively correlated with OPG, internal oxygen level and ALP, but were highly positively correlated with RANKL(P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The expression of PGE2 and COX-2 is highly negatively correlated with ALP and oxygen levels. Clinical treatment may consider increasing oxygen levels, increasing oxygen partial pressure, and regulating ALP levels by drugs, so as to change the inflammatory condition of periodontitis or other dental diseases.


Assuntos
Dinoprostona , Periodontite , Humanos , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/farmacologia , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteogênese , Osteoprotegerina/metabolismo , Ligante RANK/metabolismo
19.
Water Res ; 255: 121549, 2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564891

RESUMO

Conventional disinfection processes, such as chlorination and UV radiation, are ineffective in controling antibiotic-resistant bacteria, especially disinfection residual Enterobacteriaceae (DRE) encoding ß-lactamases, some of which have been classified as "critical priority pathogens" by the World Health Organization. However, few studies have focused on the transferability, phenotype, and genetic characteristics of DRE-derived plasmids encoding ß-lactamases, especially extended-spectrum ß-lactamases and carbapenemases. In this study, we isolated 10 typical DRE harboring plasmid-mediated blaNDM, blaCTX-M, or blaTEM in post-disinfection effluent from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), with transfer frequency ranging from 1.69 × 10-6 to 3.02 × 10-5. According to genomic maps of plasmids, all blaNDM and blaTEM were cascaded with IS26, and blaCTX-M was adjacent to ISEcp1 or IS26, indicating the important role of these elements in the movement of ß-lactamase-encoding genes. The presence of intact class 1 integrons on pWTPN-01 and pWTPC-03 suggested the ability of these DRE-derived plasmids to integrate other exogenous antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The coexistence of antibiotic, disinfectant, and heavy metal resistance genes on the same plasmid (e.g., pWTPT-03) implied the facilitating role of disinfectants and heavy metals in the transmission of DRE-derived ARGs. Notably, two plasmid transconjugants exhibited no discernible competitive fitness cost, suggesting a heightened environmental persistence. Furthermore, enhanced virulence induced by ß-lactamase-encoding plasmids in their hosts was confirmed using Galleria mellonella infection models, which might be attributed to plasmid-mediated virulence genes. Overall, this study describes the landscape of ß-lactamase-encoding plasmids in DRE, and highlights the urgent need for advanced control of DRE to keep environmental and ecological security.

20.
Anim Genet ; 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561945

RESUMO

The Kazakh cattle in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China are highly adaptable and have multiple uses, including milk and meat production, and use as draft animals. They are an excellent original breed that could be enhanced by breeding and hybrid improvement. However, the genomic diversity and signature of selection underlying the germplasm characteristics require further elucidation. Herein, we evaluated 26 Kazakh cattle genomes in comparison with 103 genomes of seven other cattle breeds from regions around the world to assess the Kazakh cattle genetic variability. We revealed that the relatively low linkage disequilibrium at large SNP distances was strongly correlated with the largest effective population size among Kazakh cattle. Using population structural analysis, we next demonstrated a taurine lineage with restricted Bos indicus introgression among Kazakh cattle. Notably, we identified putative selected genes associated with resistance to disease and body size within Kazakh cattle. Together, our findings shed light on the evolutionary history and breeding profile of Kazakh cattle, as well as offering indispensable resources for germplasm resource conservation and crossbreeding program implementation.

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