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1.
Reprod Sci ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025530

RESUMO

Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) is usually associated with pregnant and neonatal complications. Most of the PROM cases are caused by ascending asymptomatic genital infection. In China, PROM (15.3%) is more common than spontaneous preterm labor (7.3%) and leads to more adverse pregnancy outcomes. Here, we designed a prospective cohort study to measure the metabolomics changes in vaginal swab samples and explored their potential contribution to PROM. A total of 260 differentially expressed metabolites were identified and further analyzed. In the PROM group, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and sucrose were downregulated (P = 0.0025, P = 0.0195, respectively), both of which are the upstream metabolites of the glycolysis pathway. Furthermore, estriol 3-sulfate 16-glucuronide (P = 0.0154) and 2-methoxy-17beta-estradiol 3-glucosiduronic acid (P = 0.004), two final metabolites in steroid hormone biosynthesis, were both downregulated in the PROM group. Finally, we found two catechin metabolites (epigallocatechin-7-glucuronide, P = 0.0009; 4'-methyl-epigallocatechin-7-glucuronide, P = 0.01) as well as DL-citrulline (P = 0.0393) were also significantly downregulated in the PROM group compared with the healthy control (HC) group, which are related to important antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in the human body. Altogether, metabolite changes in glycolysis, steroid hormone biosynthesis, and antioxidant/anti-inflammatory pathways may contribute to (or be a consequence of) vaginal dysbiosis and PROM. Metabolite pathway analysis is a new and promising approach to further investigate the mechanism of PROM and help prevent its unfavorable pregnant outcomes at a functional level. Trial registration number: ChiCTR2000034721.

3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(41): e21913, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031257

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The incidence of psoriasis vulgaris is increasing worldwide. Chronic recurrence of the disease, as well as accompanying cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and depression has affected the physical and mental health of these patients. Psoriasis vulgaris is a difficult and major disease in the dermatology field. Short-term curative effects using conventional therapy for psoriasis vulgaris has made major strides. However, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment has long-term curative advantages for psoriasis vulgaris but lacks the scientific and clinical evidence for its use. This study intends to demonstrate and provide scientific and clinical evidence for the use of TCM to delay the recurrence of psoriasis vulgaris. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This will be a prospective, multicenter cohort study. We intend to recruit 1521 psoriasis vulgaris patients from 14 hospitals in Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei. Treatment will be based on the diagnosis specifications and clinical practice guidelines of TCM and conventional therapy. During inclusion and the subsequent follow-up period, doctors through electronic case reports will collect different therapeutic TCM regimens and conventional therapy that were administered. Information on life condition, skin lesions at each visit, World Health Organization Quality of Life Instruments, Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale, Zung Self-assessment of Depression, laboratory examinations, incidence of new rash and recurrence during the remission and recurrence stages will be recorded. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The clinical trial protocol for this study was approved by the ethics committee of the Beijing hospital of TCM affiliated to capital medical university (Ethics number: 2019BL02-010-02). We will publish and present our results at national and international conferences and in peer-reviewed journals specialized in dermatology. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This protocol has been registered in clinicaltrials. gov (ChiCTR1900021629).

4.
Curr Microbiol ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034767

RESUMO

Zearalenone (ZEN) is a severe contaminant mycotoxin found worldwide. Our previous results indicate that Bacillus velezensis A2 isolated from ZEN-contaminated crop soil can degrade ZEN. Here, we present the complete genomic sequence of B. velezensis A2 (the Genbank accession number: CP053717), which contains 3,929,218 bp in the chromosome, has a GC content of 46.5%, and contains the encoded ZEN-degrading enzyme gene. The complete genomic sequence can provide a genomic basis for a series of A2 biotechnology applications as an effective method of degrading ZEN.

5.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 5220-5223, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019161

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to design an implantable Lower Esophageal Sphincter (LES) stimulator connected and controlled by an Android Bluetooth for the treatment of the gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Then the animal experiments are carried out to evaluate the function of the system. The LES stimulator is composed of an external controller, an Android application (APP) via a smart phone and an implantable electronic device (IED). The external controller is designed to receive the settings parameters information sent by the Android APP via a Bluetooth module, and then is programmed to generate specific electrical stimulation pulses to the LES. The Android APP controls the start and stop of stimulation and the settings of stimulation parameters. The in vivo IED consists of a bipolar stimulating lead, a bipolar head connector and a receiving module. The bipolar stimulating lead is constructed of biocompatible materials: platinum-iridium electrodes which are coated with parylene and an outer silicone rubber sheathing. The size of the receiving module has been significantly decreased to 20×20×2 mm3, which is packaged by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and proposed to deliver stimulation pulses from the external controller to the implantable lead. The one-month implantation experiment on rabbits has been performed to evaluate the LES stimulator. The results indicate that the proposed LES stimulator meets the requirements of the functions, effectiveness and safety.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33005952

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) impairs the elimination of fluids, electrolytes and metabolic wastes, which can affect the outcomes of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) treatment. This study aimed to elucidate the impact of CKD on in-hospital mortality and mid-term survival of adult patients who received ECMO treatment. METHODS: Patients who received first-time ECMO treatment between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2013 were included. Those with CKD were identified and matched to patients without CKD using a 1:2 ratio and were followed for 3 years. The study outcomes included in-hospital outcomes and the 3-year mortality rate. A subgroup analysis was conducted by comparing the dialytic patients with the non-dialytic CKD patients. RESULTS: The study comprised 1008 CKD patients and 2016 non-CKD patients after propensity score matching. The CKD patients had higher in-hospital mortality rates [69.5% vs 62.2%; adjusted odds ratio 1.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-1.72] than the non-CKD patients. The 3-year mortality rate was 80.4% in the CKD group and 68% in the non-CKD group (adjusted hazard ratio 1.17; 95% CI 1.06-1.28). The subgroup analysis showed that the 3-year mortality rates were 84.5% and 78.4% in the dialytic and non-dialytic patients, respectively. No difference in the 3-year mortality rate was noted between the 2 CKD subgroups (P = 0.111). CONCLUSIONS: CKD was associated with increased risks of in-hospital and mid-term mortalities in patients who received ECMO treatment. Furthermore, no difference in survival was observed between the patients with end-stage renal disease and non-dialytic CKD patients.

7.
Transl Oncol ; 14(1): 100889, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065386

RESUMO

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC), an aggressive and devastating malignancy, is characterized by rapid growth and early metastasis. Although most patients respond to first-line chemotherapy, the majority of patients rapidly relapse and have a relatively poor prognosis. Fortunately, immunotherapy, mainly including antibodies that target the cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), checkpoints programmed death-1 (PD-1), and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) to block immune regulatory checkpoints on tumor cells, immune cells, fibroblasts cells and endothelial cells, has achieved the milestone in several solid tumors, such as melanoma and non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC). In recent years, immunotherapy has made progress in the treatment of patients with SCLC, while its response rate is relatively low to monotherapy. Interestingly, the combination of immunotherapy with other therapy, such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and targeted therapy, preliminarily achieve greater therapeutic effects for treating SCLC. Combining different immunotherapy drugs may act synergistically because of the complementary effects of the two immune checkpoint pathways (CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1 pathways). The incorporation of chemoradiotherapy in immunotherapy may augment antitumor immune responses because chemoradiotherapy can enhance tumor cell immunogenicity by rapidly inducing tumor lysis and releasing tumor antigens. In addition, since immunotherapy drugs and the molecular targets drugs act on different targets and cells, the combination of these drugs may achieve greater therapeutic effects in the treatment of SCLC. In this review, we focused on the completed and ongoing trials of the combination therapy for immunotherapy of SCLC to find out the rational combination strategies which may improve the outcomes for SCLC.

8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17580, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067480

RESUMO

Cytolytic score (CYT), calculated from mRNA expression levels of granzyme and perforin, positively correlates with CD8+ T cell infiltration/activity in a variety of cancers. Unlike other cancers, higher CYT has been associated with worse prognosis in glioblastoma (GBM). To address this discrepancy, we sought to investigate the relationship between CYT and immune checkpoint gene score (ICGscore), as well as their correlation with patient survival and tumor immune cell infiltration. Clinical and RNA-sequencing data for patients with newly diagnosed GBM were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Maximally-selected rank statistics was used to dichotomize subgroups. CIBERSORT was used to estimate abudence of immune cell-types. Spearman correlation was used to characterize the relationship between CYT and ICGscore. Kaplan-Meier curves were generated for survival analysis. Overall, 28/151 patients had high CYT. High CYT was associated with a mesenchymal subtype (p < 0.001) and worse survival (7.45 vs. 12.2 months, p < 0.001). There were no differences in patient demographics, IDH/MGMT mutation status, or treatment. On subgroup analysis, patients with high CYT/ICGscore had significantly increased CD8+ infiltration (p < 0.001), as expected, and worse survival (HR 0.445, p < 0.01). Furthermore, CYT strongly correlated with ICGscore (RS = 0.675, p < 0.001). The high CYT/ICGscore subgroup was associated with greater infiltration of M2 macrophages (p = 0.011) and neutrophils (p = 0.055). Our study highlights a multidimensional immunosuppressive GBM microenvironment in patients with higher CYT and potentially identifies patients with high CYT/ICGscore as a subgroup that may particularly benefit from multi-faceted immunotherapies, given their already elevated tumor CD8+ T cell levels.

9.
Placenta ; 103: 16-23, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068962

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects of the Human Chorionic Gonadotropin beta (ß-hCG) and the VEGF-MEK/ERK signaling pathway on villi angiogenesis in early missed abortion. METHODS: A total of 12 cases of women with missed abortion and 12 cases of women who had induced abortion voluntarily without any disease were included in the present study. The age, pregnancy time and gestation period in the control group corresponded to the missed abortion group. Wes Simple Western system and qRT-PCR were used to detect the expression of VEGF-MEK/ERK signaling pathway related proteins and genes in villous. Radioimmunoassay and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to detect ß-hCG and VEGF levels in serum. The microvascular density (MVD) in villous tissue was analyzed by immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS: The levels of ß-hCG and VEGF in serum, the expression of VEGF-MEK/ERK signaling pathway and MVD in villous tissue of the missed abortion group were lower than those of the control group. In addition, compared with the control group, the layers of trophoblasts of the villous tissue in the missed abortion group became thinner significantly, the number of cells reduced, the cell structures were disorganized, and parts of the trophoblast cells were absent. Correlational analysis showed that the protein expression of ERK1/2 was positively correlated with MVD in missed abortion group. CONCLUSIONS: Our results reveal that decreased production of ß-hCG in early pregnant women could down-regulate the expression of VEGF-MEK/ERK signal pathway, then reduce angiogenesis and eventually leading to the abnormal angiogenesis of villous, which may be an important mechanism of missed abortion.

10.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(10)2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33003346

RESUMO

Preeclampsia is a multi-systemic syndrome that presents in approximately 5% of pregnancies worldwide and is associated with a range of subsequent postpartum and postnatal outcomes, including fetal growth restriction. As the placenta plays a critical role in the development of preeclampsia, surveying genomic features of the placenta, including expression of imprinted genes, may reveal molecular markers that can further refine subtypes to aid targeted disease management. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive survey of placental imprinted gene expression across early and late onset preeclampsia cases and preterm and term normotensive controls. Placentas were collected at delivery from women recruited at the Magee-Womens Hospital prenatal clinics, and expression levels were profiled across 109 imprinted genes. We observed downregulation of placental Mesoderm-specific transcript (MEST) and Necdin (NDN) gene expression levels (false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05) among early onset preeclampsia cases compared to preterm controls. No differences in placental imprinted gene expression were observed between late onset preeclampsia cases and term controls. While few studies have linked NDN to pregnancy complications, reductions in MEST expression levels, as observed in our study, are consistently reported in the literature in relation to various pregnancy complications, including fetal growth restriction, suggesting a potential role for placental MEST expression as a biosensor of an adverse in utero environment.

11.
Cell ; 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038342

RESUMO

Many approaches to identify therapeutically relevant neoantigens couple tumor sequencing with bioinformatic algorithms and inferred rules of tumor epitope immunogenicity. However, there are no reference data to compare these approaches, and the parameters governing tumor epitope immunogenicity remain unclear. Here, we assembled a global consortium wherein each participant predicted immunogenic epitopes from shared tumor sequencing data. 608 epitopes were subsequently assessed for T cell binding in patient-matched samples. By integrating peptide features associated with presentation and recognition, we developed a model of tumor epitope immunogenicity that filtered out 98% of non-immunogenic peptides with a precision above 0.70. Pipelines prioritizing model features had superior performance, and pipeline alterations leveraging them improved prediction performance. These findings were validated in an independent cohort of 310 epitopes prioritized from tumor sequencing data and assessed for T cell binding. This data resource enables identification of parameters underlying effective anti-tumor immunity and is available to the research community.

12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(10): e0008643, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clonorchis sinensis, a fluke dwelling in the intrahepatic bile ducts causes clonorchiasis, which affect about 15 million people wide-distributed in eastern Asia. During C. sinensis infection, worm-host interaction results in activation of patterns recognition receptors (PRRs) such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and further triggers immune responses, which determines the outcome of the infection. However, the mechanisms by which pathogen-associated molecules patterns from C. sinensis interact with TLRs were poorly understood. In the present study, we assumed that the molecules from C. sinensis may regulate host immune responses via TLR2 signaling pathway. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we have identified a ~34 kDa CsHscB from C. sinensis which physically bound with TLR2 as demonstrated by molecular docking and pull-down assay. We also found that recombinant CsHscB (rCsHscB) potently activates macrophage to express various proteins including TLR2, CD80, MHCII, and cytokines like IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10, but rCsHscB failed to induce IL-10 in macrophages from Tlr2-/- mice. Moreover, ERK1/2 activation was required for rCsHscB-induced IL-10 production in macrophages. In vivo study revealed that rCsHscB triggered a high production of IL-10 in the wild-type (WT) but not in Tlr2-/- mice. Consistently, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was also attenuated in Tlr2-/- mice compared to the WT mice, after the treatment with rCsHscB. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data thus demonstrate that rCsHscB from C. sinensis interacts with TLR2 to be endowed with immune regulatory activities, and may have some therapeutic implications in future beyond parasitology.

13.
Epigenetics ; : 1-13, 2020 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016211

RESUMO

MicroRNAs are non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. In the placenta, the master regulator of foetal growth and development, microRNAs shape the basic processes of trophoblast biology and specific microRNA have been associated with foetal growth. To comprehensively assess the role of microRNAs in placental function and foetal development, we have performed small RNA sequencing to profile placental microRNAs from two independent mother-infant cohorts: the Rhode Island Child Health Study (n = 225) and the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study (n = 317). We modelled microRNA counts on infant birthweight percentile (BWP) in each cohort, while accounting for race, sex, parity, and technical factors, using negative binomial generalized linear models. We identified microRNAs that were differentially expressed (DEmiRs) with BWP at false discovery rate (FDR) less than 0.05 in both cohorts. hsa-miR-532-5p (miR-532) was positively associated with BWP in both cohorts. By integrating parallel whole transcriptome and small RNA sequencing in the RICHS cohort, we identified putative targets of miR-532. These targets are enriched for pathways involved in adipogenesis, adipocytokine signalling, energy metabolism, and hypoxia response, and included Leptin, which we further demonstrated to have a decreasing expression with increasing BWP, particularly in male infants. Overall, we have shown a robust and reproducible association of miR-532 with BWP, which could influence BWP through regulation of adipocytokines Leptin and Adiponectin.

14.
Surg Endosc ; 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suprapancreatic lymphadenectomy is the essence of D2 radical gastric cancer surgery. The present study aimed to describe clockwise modularized laparoscopic lymphadenectomy in the suprapancreatic area. METHODS: The data from gastric cancer patients who underwent surgical treatment from September 2016 to December 2018 were collected. Patients were divided into clockwise modularized lymphadenectomy (CML) and traditional open gastrectomy (OG) groups according to the surgical treatment strategy. The propensity score matching method was utilized to balance the baseline characteristics between the two groups. RESULTS: Finally, 551 gastric cancer patients were included in the present study. Following propensity score matching, 106 pairs of patients in the CML group and OG group were included in the final analysis. The CML group had more total examined lymph nodes (36, IQR 28-44.74 vs. 29, IQR 29-39.5, p = 0.002) and no. 9 station nodes (2, IQR 1-5 vs. 2, IQR 1-3, p = 0.007) than the OG group. There was less intraoperative blood loss (30, IQR 20-80 ml vs. 80, IQR 50-80 ml, p < 0.001) and a longer surgical duration (262.5 min, IQR 220-303.25 min vs. 232, IQR 220-255 min, p < 0.001) in the CML group than in the OG group. The incidence of postoperative complications (19.8% vs. 16.0%, p = 0.591) and postoperative hospital stay (8, IQR 7-9 days vs. 8, IQR 7-9 days, p = 0.452) were comparable between the CML and OG groups. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic lymphadenectomy for gastric cancer surgery is technically demanding. Clockwise modularized laparoscopic lymphadenectomy in the suprapancreatic area can attain similar effects as traditional open surgery and without an increase in postoperative adverse events.

15.
J Appl Toxicol ; 40(11): 1480-1490, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020912

RESUMO

As an organophosphorus ester, tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate (TOCP) has been widely used in agriculture and industry. It is reported that TOCP can induce organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN) in sensitive animal and human species. However, the exact molecular mechanisms underlying TOCP-induced neurotoxicity are still unknown. In this study, we found that TOCP could induce autophagy by activating protein kinase C alpha (PKCα) signaling in neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells. PKCα activators could positively regulate TOCP-induced autophagy by increasing the expression levels of neighbor BRCA1 gene protein 1 (NBR1), LC3 and P62 autophagic receptor protein. Furthermore, PKCα activation impaired the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), resulting in inhibition of proteasome activity and accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins. UPS dysfunction could stimulate autophagy to serve as a compensatory pathway, which contributed to the accumulation of the abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau proteins and degradation of impaired proteins of the MAP 2 and NF-H families in neurodegenerative disorders.

16.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2001888, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026938

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with advanced esophageal cancer have a poor prognosis and limited treatment options after first-line chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this open-label, phase III study, we randomly assigned (1:1) 628 patients with advanced/metastatic squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma of the esophagus, that progressed after one prior therapy, to pembrolizumab 200 mg every 3 weeks for up to 2 years or chemotherapy (investigator's choice of paclitaxel, docetaxel, or irinotecan). Primary end points were overall survival (OS) in patients with programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) combined positive score (CPS) ≥ 10, in patients with squamous cell carcinoma, and in all patients (one-sided α 0.9%, 0.8%, and 0.8%, respectively). RESULTS: At final analysis, conducted 16 months after the last patient was randomly assigned, OS was prolonged with pembrolizumab versus chemotherapy for patients with CPS ≥ 10 (median, 9.3 v 6.7 months; hazard ratio [HR], 0.69 [95% CI, 0.52 to 0.93]; P = .0074). Estimated 12-month OS rate was 43% (95% CI, 33.5% to 52.1%) with pembrolizumab versus 20% (95% CI, 13.5% to 28.3%) with chemotherapy. Median OS was 8.2 months versus 7.1 months (HR, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.63 to 0.96]; P = .0095) in patients with squamous cell carcinoma and 7.1 months versus 7.1 months (HR, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.75 to 1.05]; P = .0560) in all patients. Grade 3-5 treatment-related adverse events occurred in 18.2% of patients with pembrolizumab versus 40.9% in those who underwent chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: Pembrolizumab prolonged OS versus chemotherapy as second-line therapy for advanced esophageal cancer in patients with PD-L1 CPS ≥ 10, with fewer treatment-related adverse events.

17.
Oral Oncol ; 111: 105025, 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032180

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effect of prophylactic oral nutrition supplements (ONS) in locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy and concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). METHODS: Eligible patients were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. Patients in the intervention group were supported with prophylactic ONS from the beginning of CCRT. The control group received nutritional support only when necessary. Bodyweight, hematological indexes, nutritional status, and quality of life were measured at baseline and before, during, and after RT. RESULTS: We evaluated 114 patients from October 2016 to May 2018. More than half of patients experienced significant weight loss during CCRT, which continued for three months after radiotherapy (RT). Compared to baseline, the rate of weight loss ≥ 5% before, during, at the end of RT, and one and three months after RT were 3.5%, 28.9%, 51.8%, 61.4%, and 61.4%, respectively. Nutritional status and global health status scores progressively decreased during treatment. The rate of RT interruption was higher in the control group than in the intervention group (7.14% vs. 0%, χ2 = 4.29, P = 0.04). More patients experienced concurrent chemotherapy interruption in the control group than in the intervention group (28.57% vs 10.34%, χ2 = 6.08, P = 0.01). There were no significant differences in weight loss, nutritional status, quality of life, and global health status between two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Malnutrition and weight loss progressively increased during treatment. Prophylactic ONS can improve tolerance to CCRT, but it offers no advantage on short-term weight loss or nutritional assessment scores.

18.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 170: 112671, 2020 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035899

RESUMO

Acid phosphatase (ACP) is a lysosomal enzyme widely found in animals and plants. Particularly, abnormal ACP levels are often closely related to many diseases of the individual and are therefore widely used as biomarkers in clinical diagnosis. With the rapid development of precision medicine, the improvement or enhancement of the selectivity, sensitivity and broad target sample types of ACP biosensors based on the established methods has become an emerging demand for the treatment of diseases related to ACP levels. Therefore, a large number of ACP detection strategies have been used to improve these problems. In this review, the types and advantages/disadvantages of ACP detection methods were summarized and compared. According to the previous reports, the prospects and development trends of ACP detection were discussed. It was expected to provide some insights and inspiration for future research work.

19.
Zootaxa ; 4851(1): zootaxa.4851.1.11, 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056746

RESUMO

Euphorinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) is a large subfamily of endoparasitoid wasps with 1,270+ described species worldwide (Yu et al. 2016). In the phylogenetic analysis of Stigenberg et al. (2015) Rilipertus Haeselbarth, 1996 was recovered within the tribe Perilitini Forster,1862 together with several other genera. Rilipertus is morphologically similar to Microctonus Wesmael, 1836 and Perilitus Nees, 1819 by the type of wing venation, structure of propodeum, and shape and structure of first metasomal tergite. However, Rilipertus differs distinctly from them by having shorter and conspicuously broadened ovipositor sheaths and the sculpture of the first tergite is reduced. Six species of Rilipertus are currently known (Yu et al. 2016).

20.
Genome Res ; 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060173

RESUMO

Retrotransposons are populated in vertebrate genomes, and when active, are thought to cause genome instability with potential benefit to genome evolution. Retrotransposon-derived RNAs are also known to give rise to small endo-siRNAs to help maintain heterochromatin at their sites of transcription; however, as not all heterochromatic regions are equally active in transcription, it remains unclear how heterochromatin is maintained across the genome. Here, we address these problems by defining the origins of repeat-derived RNAs and their specific chromatin locations in Drosophila S2 cells. We demonstrate that repeat RNAs are predominantly derived from active gypsy elements and processed by Dcr-2 into small RNAs to help maintain pericentromeric heterochromatin. We also show in cultured S2 cells that synthetic repeat-derived endo-siRNA mimics are sufficient to rescue Dcr-2-deficiency-induced defects in heterochromatin formation in interphase and chromosome segregation during mitosis, demonstrating that active retrotransposons are required for stable genetic inheritance.

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