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1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38629947

RESUMO

Field observations of daytime HONO source strengths have not been well explained by laboratory measurements and model predictions up until now. More efforts are urgently needed to fill the knowledge gaps concerning how environmental factors, especially relative humidity (RH), affect particulate nitrate photolysis. In this work, two critical attributes for atmospheric particles, i.e., phase state and bulk-phase acidity, both influenced by ambient RH, were focused to illuminate the key regulators for reactive nitrogen production from typical internally mixed systems, i.e., NaNO3 and dicarboxylic acid (DCA) mixtures. The dissolution of only few oxalic acid (OA) crystals resulted in a remarkable 50-fold increase in HONO production compared to pure nitrate photolysis at 85% RH. Furthermore, the HONO production rates (PHONO) increased by about 1 order of magnitude as RH rose from <5% to 95%, initially exhibiting an almost linear dependence on the amount of surface absorbed water and subsequently showing a substantial increase in PHONO once nitrate deliquescence occurred at approximately 75% RH. NaNO3/malonic acid (MA) and NaNO3/succinic acid (SA) mixtures exhibited similar phase state effects on the photochemical HONO production. These results offer a new perspective on how aerosol physicochemical properties influence particulate nitrate photolysis in the atmosphere.

2.
Environ Sci Technol ; 58(15): 6736-6743, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564367

RESUMO

Acidity is an important property of particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere, but its association with PM toxicity remains unclear. Here, this study quantitively reports the effect of the acidity level on PM toxicity via pH-control experiments and cellular analysis. Oxidative stress and cytotoxicity potencies of acidified PM samples at pH of 1-2 were up to 2.8-5.2 and 2.1-13.2 times higher than those at pH of 8-11, respectively. The toxic potencies of PM samples from real-world smoke plumes at the pH of 2.3 were 9.1-18.2 times greater than those at the pH of 5.6, demonstrating a trend similar to that of acidified PM samples. Furthermore, the impact of acidity on PM toxicity was manifested by promoting metal dissolution. The dramatic increase by 2-3 orders of magnitude in water-soluble metal content dominated the variation in PM toxicity. The significant correlation between sulfate, the pH value, water-soluble Fe, IC20, and EC1.5 (p < 0.05) suggested that acidic sulfate could enhance toxic potencies by dissolving insoluble metals. The findings uncover the superficial association between sulfate and adverse health outcomes in epidemiological research and highlight the control of wet smoke plume emissions to mitigate the toxicity effects of acidity.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , Material Particulado/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Metais/toxicidade , Metais/análise , Fumaça/análise , Sulfatos/análise , Água , Monitoramento Ambiental
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38607749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After undergoing fibula-free flap harvest, patients may experience complications such as ankle instability. It remains unclear whether these patients have deficits of proprioception, and the recovery process is also uncertain. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to objectively evaluate proprioception on the donor and normal side of surgical patients during long-term follow-up using the Pro-kin system. METHODS: This study enrolled 36 patients who underwent reconstruction of the head and neck using osseous free flaps harvested from the fibula. Each patient underwent pre-operative evaluations and was subsequently evaluated at postoperative months 1, 3, 6, and 12. The study assessed the proprioceptive evaluation of the lower limbs, muscle function, range of motion of the ankle, and donor side complications. RESULTS: On the donor side, the average trace error (ATE) at postoperative month 1 was significantly higher than pre-operation, postoperative months 6 and 12 (P< 0.05). The test execution time (TTE) at postoperative month 1 was significantly increased by 9.875s compared to the pre-operative levels (P= 0.012, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4: 1.877-17.873) and by 11.583s compared to postoperative month 12 (P= 0.007, 95% CI: 2.858-20.309). The reduction in range of motion of ankle dorsiflexion was most pronounced at postoperative month 1, exhibiting an 11.25∘ decrease compared to pre-operative levels (P< 0.001, 95% CI: 6.304-16.16). Although the range of motion of ankle dorsiflexion gradually improved over time at postoperative months 3, 6, and 12, it remained lower than pre-operative levels (P< 0.05). CONCLUSION: The study revealed that the patients exhibited proprioceptive disturbances in both lower limbs at postoperative month 1. The proprioceptive function gradually improved over time, with a gradual decrease in donor site complications.

4.
Neural Regen Res ; 19(12): 2723-2734, 2024 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38595290

RESUMO

JOURNAL/nrgr/04.03/01300535-202412000-00028/figure1/v/2024-04-08T165401Z/r/image-tiff Immune changes and inflammatory responses have been identified as central events in the pathological process of spinal cord injury. They can greatly affect nerve regeneration and functional recovery. However, there is still limited understanding of the peripheral immune inflammatory response in spinal cord injury. In this study, we obtained microRNA expression profiles from the peripheral blood of patients with spinal cord injury using high-throughput sequencing. We also obtained the mRNA expression profile of spinal cord injury patients from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database (GSE151371). We identified 54 differentially expressed microRNAs and 1656 differentially expressed genes using bioinformatics approaches. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that various common immune and inflammation-related signaling pathways, such as neutrophil extracellular trap formation pathway, T cell receptor signaling pathway, and nuclear factor-κB signal pathway, were abnormally activated or inhibited in spinal cord injury patient samples. We applied an integrated strategy that combines weighted gene co-expression network analysis, LASSO logistic regression, and SVM-RFE algorithm and identified three biomarkers associated with spinal cord injury: ANO10, BST1, and ZFP36L2. We verified the expression levels and diagnostic performance of these three genes in the original training dataset and clinical samples through the receiver operating characteristic curve. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction results showed that ANO10 and BST1 mRNA levels were increased and ZFP36L2 mRNA was decreased in the peripheral blood of spinal cord injury patients. We also constructed a small RNA-mRNA interaction network using Cytoscape. Additionally, we evaluated the proportion of 22 types of immune cells in the peripheral blood of spinal cord injury patients using the CIBERSORT tool. The proportions of naïve B cells, plasma cells, monocytes, and neutrophils were increased while the proportions of memory B cells, CD8+ T cells, resting natural killer cells, resting dendritic cells, and eosinophils were markedly decreased in spinal cord injury patients increased compared with healthy subjects, and ANO10, BST1 and ZFP26L2 were closely related to the proportion of certain immune cell types. The findings from this study provide new directions for the development of treatment strategies related to immune inflammation in spinal cord injury and suggest that ANO10, BST1, and ZFP36L2 are potential biomarkers for spinal cord injury. The study was registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (registration No. ChiCTR2200066985, December 12, 2022).

5.
Lipids Health Dis ; 23(1): 92, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) plays a crucial role in triglyceride hydrolysis. Rare biallelic variants in the LPL gene leading to complete or near-complete loss of function cause autosomal recessive familial chylomicronemia syndrome. However, rare biallelic LPL variants resulting in significant but partial loss of function are rarely documented. This study reports a novel occurrence of such rare biallelic LPL variants in a Chinese patient with hypertriglyceridemia-induced acute pancreatitis (HTG-AP) during pregnancy and provides an in-depth functional characterization. METHODS: The complete coding sequences and adjacent intronic regions of the LPL, APOC2, APOA5, LMF1, and GPIHBP1 genes were analyzed by Sanger sequencing. The aim was to identify rare variants, including nonsense, frameshift, missense, small in-frame deletions or insertions, and canonical splice site mutations. The functional impact of identified LPL missense variants on protein expression, secretion, and activity was assessed in HEK293T cells through single and co-transfection experiments, with and without heparin treatment. RESULTS: Two rare LPL missense variants were identified in the patient: the previously reported c.809G > A (p.Arg270His) and a novel c.331G > C (p.Val111Leu). Genetic testing confirmed these variants were inherited biallelically. Functional analysis showed that the p.Arg270His variant resulted in a near-complete loss of LPL function due to effects on protein synthesis/stability, secretion, and enzymatic activity. In contrast, the p.Val111Leu variant retained approximately 32.3% of wild-type activity, without impacting protein synthesis, stability, or secretion. Co-transfection experiments indicated a combined activity level of 20.7%, suggesting no dominant negative interaction between the variants. The patient's post-heparin plasma LPL activity was about 35% of control levels. CONCLUSIONS: This study presents a novel case of partial but significant loss-of-function biallelic LPL variants in a patient with HTG-AP during pregnancy. Our findings enhance the understanding of the nuanced relationship between LPL genotypes and clinical phenotypes, highlighting the importance of residual LPL function in disease manifestation and severity. Additionally, our study underscores the challenges in classifying partial loss-of-function variants in classical Mendelian disease genes according to the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG)'s variant classification guidelines.


Assuntos
Hiperlipidemias , Hipertrigliceridemia , Pancreatite , Humanos , Lipase Lipoproteica/genética , Doença Aguda , Células HEK293 , Pancreatite/genética , Heparina
7.
Pancreatology ; 2024 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38485544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Protease-sensitive PNLIP variants were recently associated with chronic pancreatitis (CP) in European populations. The pathological mechanism yet remains elusive. Herein, we performed a comprehensive genetic and functional analysis of PNLIP variants found in a large Chinese cohort, aiming to further unravel the enigmatic association of PNLIP variants with CP. METHODS: All coding and flanking intronic regions of the PNLIP gene were analyzed for rare variants by targeted next-generation sequencing in 1082 Chinese CP patients and 1196 controls. All novel missense variants were subject to analysis of secretion, lipase activity, and proteolytic degradation. One variant was further analyzed for its potential to misfold and induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. p.F300L, the most common PNLIP variant associated with CP, was used as a control. RESULTS: We identified 12 rare heterozygous PNLIP variants, with 10 being novel. The variant carrier frequency did not differ between the groups. Of them, only the variant p.A433T found in a single patient was considered pathologically relevant. p.A433T exhibited increased susceptibility to proteolytic degradation, which was much milder than p.F300L. Interestingly, both variants exhibited an increased tendency to misfold, leading to intracellular retention as insoluble aggregates, reduced secretion, and elevated ER stress. CONCLUSIONS: Our genetic and functional analysis of PNLIP variants identified in a Chinese CP cohort suggests that the p.A433T variant and the previously identified p.F300L variant are not only protease-sensitive but also may be potentially proteotoxic. Mouse studies of the PNLIP p.F300L and p.A433T variants are needed to clarify their role in CP.

8.
PeerJ ; 12: e16985, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38436009

RESUMO

Tillering/branching pattern plays a significant role in determining the structure and diversity of grass, and trimming has been found to induce tillering in turfgrass. Recently, it has been reported that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) regulates axillary bud development. However, the role of H2O2 in trimming-induced tillering in bermudagrass, a kind of turfgrass, remains unclear. Our study unveils the significant impact of trimming on promoting the sprouting and growth of tiller buds in stolon nodes, along with an increase in the number of tillers in the main stem. This effect is accompanied by spatial-temporal changes in cytokinin and sucrose content, as well as relevant gene expression in axillary buds. In addition, the partial trimming of new-born tillers results in an increase in sucrose and starch reserves in their leaves, which can be attributed to the enhanced photosynthesis capacity. Importantly, trimming promotes a rapid H2O2 burst in the leaves of new-born tillers and axillary stolon buds. Furthermore, exogenous application of H2O2 significantly increases the number of tillers after trimming by affecting the expression of cytokinin-related genes, bolstering photosynthesis potential, energy reserves and antioxidant enzyme activity. Taken together, these results indicate that both endogenous production and exogenous addition of H2O2 enhance the inductive effects of trimming on the tillering process in bermudagrass, thus helping boost energy supply and maintain the redox state in newly formed tillers.


Assuntos
Cynodon , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Oxirredução , Antioxidantes , Citocininas , Sacarose
9.
Zhongguo Gu Shang ; 37(3): 271-7, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38515414

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish the finite element model of spinal canal reconstruction and internal fixation,analysis influence of spinal canal reconstruction and internal fixation on spinal stability,and verify the effectiveness and reliability of spinal canal reconstruction and internal fixation in spinal canal surgery. METHODS: A 30-year-old male healthy volunteer with a height of 172 cm and weight of 75 kg was selected and his lumbar CT data were collected to establish a finite element model of normal lumbar L3-L5,and the results were compared with in vitro solid results and published finite element analysis results to verify the validity of the model. They were divided into normal group,laminectomy group and spinal canal reconstruction group according to different treatment methods. Under the same boundary fixation and physiological load conditions,six kinds of activities were performed,including forward bending,backward extension,left bending,right bending,left rotation and right rotation,and the changes of range of motion (ROM) of L3-L4,L4-L5 segments and overall maximum ROM of L3-L5 were analyzed under the six conditions. RESULTS: The ROM displacement range of each segment of the constructed L3-L5 finite element model was consistent with the in vitro solid results and previous literature data,which confirms the validity of the model. In L3-L4,ROM of spinal canal reconstruction group was slightly increased than that of normal group during posterior extension(>5% difference),and ROM of other conditions was similar to that of normal group(<5% difference). ROM in laminectomy group was significantly increase than that in normal group and spinal canal reconstruction group under the condition of flexion,extension,left and right rotation. In L4-L5,ROM in spinal canal reconstruction group was similar to that in normal group(<5% difference),while ROM in laminectomy group was significantly higher than that in normal group and spinal canal reconstruction group(>5% difference). In the overall maximum ROM of L3-L5,spinal canal reconstruction group was only slightly higher than normal group under the condition of posterior extension(>5% difference),while laminectomy was significantly higher than normal group and spinal canal reconstruction group under the condition of anterior flexion,posterior extension,left and right rotation(>5% difference). The changes of each segment ROM and overall ROM of L3-L5 showed laminectomy group>spinal canal reconstruction group>normal group. CONCLUSION: Laminectomy could seriously affect biomechanical stability of the spine,but application of spinal canal reconstruction and internal fixation could effectively reduce ROM displacement of the responsible segment of spine and maintain its biomechanical stability.


Assuntos
Vértebras Lombares , Fusão Vertebral , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Fusão Vertebral/métodos , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Canal Medular/cirurgia
10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 146(10): 6580-6590, 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38427385

RESUMO

The multiphase oxidation of sulfur dioxide (SO2) to form sulfate is a complex and important process in the atmosphere. While the conventional photosensitized reaction mainly explored in the bulk medium is reported to be one of the drivers to trigger atmospheric sulfate production, how this scheme functionalizes at the air-water interface (AWI) of aerosol remains an open question. Herein, employing an advanced size-controllable microdroplet-printing device, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) analysis, nanosecond transient adsorption spectrometer, and molecular level theoretical calculations, we revealed the previously overlooked interfacial role in photosensitized oxidation of SO2 in humic-like substance (HULIS) aerosol, where a 3-4 orders of magnitude increase in sulfate formation rate was speculated in cloud and aerosol relevant-sized particles relative to the conventional bulk-phase medium. The rapid formation of a battery of reactive oxygen species (ROS) comes from the accelerated electron transfer process at the AWI, where the excited triplet state of HULIS (3HULIS*) of the incomplete solvent cage can readily capture electrons from HSO3- in a way that is more efficient than that in the bulk medium fully blocked by water molecules. This phenomenon could be explained by the significantly reduced desolvation energy barrier required for reagents residing in the AWI region with an open solvent shell.

11.
Gut ; 2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38553043

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Currently, there is no cure for chronic pancreatitis (CP). Germline loss-of-function variants in SPINK1 (encoding trypsin inhibitor) are common in patients with CP and are associated with acute attacks and progression of the disease. This preclinical study was conducted to explore the potential of adeno-associated virus type 8 (AAV8)-mediated overexpression of human SPINK1 (hSPINK1) for pancreatitis therapy in mice. DESIGN: A capsid-optimised AAV8-mediated hSPINK1 expression vector (AAV8-hSPINK1) to target the pancreas was constructed. Mice were treated with AAV8-hSPINK1 by intraperitoneal injection. Pancreatic transduction efficiency and safety of AAV8-hSPINK1 were dynamically evaluated in infected mice. The effectiveness of AAV8-hSPINK1 on pancreatitis prevention and treatment was studied in three mouse models (caerulein-induced pancreatitis, pancreatic duct ligation and Spink1 c.194+2T>C mouse models). RESULTS: The constructed AAV8-hSPINK1 vector specifically and safely targeted the pancreas, had low organ tropism for the heart, lungs, spleen, liver and kidneys and had a high transduction efficiency (the optimal expression dose was 2×1011 vg/animal). The expression and efficacy of hSPINK1 peaked at 4 weeks after injection and remained at significant level for up to at least 8 weeks. In all three mouse models, a single dose of AAV8-hSPINK1 before disease onset significantly alleviated the severity of pancreatitis, reduced the progression of fibrosis, decreased the levels of apoptosis and autophagy in the pancreas and accelerated the pancreatitis recovery process. CONCLUSION: One-time injection of AAV8-hSPINK1 safely targets the pancreas with high transduction efficiency and effectively ameliorates pancreatitis phenotypes in mice. This approach is promising for the prevention and treatment of CP.

12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38536960

RESUMO

Reduced nitrogen-containing organic compounds (NOCs) in aerosols play a crucial role in altering their light-absorption properties, thereby impacting regional haze and climate. Due to the low concentration levels of individual NOCs in the air, the utilization of accurate detection and quantification technologies becomes essential. For the first time, this study investigated the diurnal variation, chemical characteristics, and potential formation pathways of NOCs in urban ambient aerosols in Shanghai using a versatile aerosol concentration enrichment system (VACES) coupled with HPLC-Q-TOF-MS. The results showed that NOCs accounted over 60% of identified components of urban organic aerosols, with O/N < 3 compounds being the major contributors (>70%). The predominance of the positive ionization mode suggested the prevalence of reduced NOCs. Higher relative intensities and number fractions of NOCs were observed during nighttime, while CHO compounds showed an opposite trend. Notably, a positive correlation between the intensity of NOCs and ammonium during the nighttime was observed, suggesting that the reaction of ammonium to form imines may be a potential pathway for the formation of reduced NOCs during the nighttime. Seven prevalent types of reduced NOCs in autumn and winter were identified and characterized by an enrichment of CH2 long-chain homologues. These NOCs included alkyl, cyclic, and aromatic amides in CHON compounds, as well as heterocyclic or cyclic amines and aniline homologue series in CHN compounds, which were associated with anthropogenic activities and may be capable of forming light-absorbing chromophores or posing harm to human health. The findings highlight the significant contributions of both primary emissions and ammonium chemistry, particularly amination processes, to the pollution of reduced NOCs in Shanghai's atmosphere.

14.
Am J Surg ; 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38369416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Marginal ulcer (MU) is one of the postoperative complications of pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), which needs particular attention in postoperative treatments. METHODS: The data of 190 patients who underwent PD and follow-up gastroscopic review due to upper GI symptoms within two years were retrospectively analyzed. The incidence of MU and risk factors were analyzed based on personal history, surgical procedure, past medical history, postoperative complications, and other relevant indicators. RESULTS: The proportion of MU in patients who underwent endoscopic follow-up for upper gastrointestinal symptoms in the postoperative period in this cohort was 10.5% (20/190). Advanced age (69y vs. 59y, P â€‹= â€‹0.012), alcohol consumption (20% vs. 8.2%, P â€‹= â€‹0.03), and cigarette smoking (35% vs. 14.7%, P â€‹= â€‹0.022) were associated with an increased incidence of MU. Longer surgery time (276.5min vs. 240min, P â€‹= â€‹0.049), postoperative bleeding (10% vs. 1.8%, P â€‹= â€‹0.030), and failure to take antacid regularly postoperatively (75% vs. 97.1%, P â€‹= â€‹0.000) would increase the risk of MU; taking antacid regularly was an independent protective factor for postoperative anastomotic ulceration (OR: 0.091, CI: 0.022-0.383, P â€‹= â€‹0.001). CONCLUSION: Advanced age, alcohol consumption, smoking, longer operation time, or postoperative extraluminal hemorrhage are associated with MU. Regular use of antacids is an independent protective factor against the development of MU.

15.
J Hazard Mater ; 466: 133570, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309172

RESUMO

Mice exposed to diesel exhaust particulate matter (DEPM) exhibited accelerated weight gain. Several hypothalamic genes, hormones (serum Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis hormones and gastrointestinal peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY)), metabolites (intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) and fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)), and gut microbiota structure, which may influence obesity and appetite regulation, were examined. The result suggested that DEPM-induced accelerated weight gain may be associated with increased expression of hypothalamic Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type B receptor, tight junction protein, and orexin receptors, in addition with decreased IHTG and repressed HPA axis. Moreover, changes in the structure of intestinal microbiota are also related to weight changes, especially for phylum Firmicutes, genus Lactobacillus, and the ratio of relative abundance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes (F/B). DEPM exposure also caused widespread increase in the levels of intestinal SCFAs, the concentrations of propionic acid and isobutyric acid were associated with weight gain rate and the abundance of some bacteria. Although DEPM exposure caused changes in expression of hypothalamic serotonin, NPY, and melanocortin receptors, they were not associated with weight changes. Furthermore, no significant difference in gastrointestinal PYY and expression of hypothalamic receptors for leptin, insulin, and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptors was observed between DEPM-exposed and control mice.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Emissões de Veículos , Camundongos , Animais , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Apetite , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Aumento de Peso , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Insulina , Firmicutes/metabolismo , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Tirosina
16.
Hum Genomics ; 18(1): 21, 2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38414044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) within gene coding sequences can significantly impact pre-mRNA splicing, bearing profound implications for pathogenic mechanisms and precision medicine. In this study, we aim to harness the well-established full-length gene splicing assay (FLGSA) in conjunction with SpliceAI to prospectively interpret the splicing effects of all potential coding SNVs within the four-exon SPINK1 gene, a gene associated with chronic pancreatitis. RESULTS: Our study began with a retrospective analysis of 27 SPINK1 coding SNVs previously assessed using FLGSA, proceeded with a prospective analysis of 35 new FLGSA-tested SPINK1 coding SNVs, followed by data extrapolation, and ended with further validation. In total, we analyzed 67 SPINK1 coding SNVs, which account for 9.3% of the 720 possible coding SNVs. Among these 67 FLGSA-analyzed SNVs, 12 were found to impact splicing. Through detailed comparison of FLGSA results and SpliceAI predictions, we inferred that the remaining 653 untested coding SNVs in the SPINK1 gene are unlikely to significantly affect splicing. Of the 12 splice-altering events, nine produced both normally spliced and aberrantly spliced transcripts, while the remaining three only generated aberrantly spliced transcripts. These splice-impacting SNVs were found solely in exons 1 and 2, notably at the first and/or last coding nucleotides of these exons. Among the 12 splice-altering events, 11 were missense variants (2.17% of 506 potential missense variants), and one was synonymous (0.61% of 164 potential synonymous variants). Notably, adjusting the SpliceAI cut-off to 0.30 instead of the conventional 0.20 would improve specificity without reducing sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: By integrating FLGSA with SpliceAI, we have determined that less than 2% (1.67%) of all possible coding SNVs in SPINK1 significantly influence splicing outcomes. Our findings emphasize the critical importance of conducting splicing analysis within the broader genomic sequence context of the study gene and highlight the inherent uncertainties associated with intermediate SpliceAI scores (0.20 to 0.80). This study contributes to the field by being the first to prospectively interpret all potential coding SNVs in a disease-associated gene with a high degree of accuracy, representing a meaningful attempt at shifting from retrospective to prospective variant analysis in the era of exome and genome sequencing.


Assuntos
Splicing de RNA , Inibidor da Tripsina Pancreática de Kazal , Humanos , Inibidor da Tripsina Pancreática de Kazal/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Splicing de RNA/genética , Éxons/genética , Sequência de Bases , Processamento Alternativo/genética
17.
Environ Sci Technol ; 58(10): 4691-4703, 2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38323401

RESUMO

The negative effects of air pollution, especially fine particulate matter (PM2.5, particles with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤2.5 µm), on human health, climate, and ecosystems are causing significant concern. Nevertheless, little is known about the contributions of emerging pollutants such as plastic particles to PM2.5 due to the lack of continuous measurements and characterization methods for atmospheric plastic particles. Here, we investigated the levels of fine plastic particles (FPPs) in PM2.5 collected in urban Shanghai at a 2 h resolution by using a novel versatile aerosol concentration enrichment system that concentrates ambient aerosols up to 10-fold. The FPPs were analyzed offline using the combination of spectroscopic and microscopic techniques that distinguished FPPs from other carbon-containing particles. The average FPP concentrations of 5.6 µg/m3 were observed, and the ratio of FPPs to PM2.5 was 13.2% in this study. The FPP sources were closely related to anthropogenic activities, which pose a potential threat to ecosystems and human health. Given the dramatic increase in plastic production over the past 70 years, this study calls for better quantification and control of FPP pollution in the atmosphere.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Humanos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , China , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano , Aerossóis/análise
18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 16(2): 2774-2787, 2024 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38166402

RESUMO

Friction interfaces in liquid-embedded composite lubrication coatings commonly comprise a combination of discontinuous fluid films and rough solid contact surfaces, which together ensure easy shearing and a prolonged wear life. However, achieving high efficacy in mixed lubrication poses a challenge due to the conflicting nature of enhanced migration freedom for the liquid lubricant and increased mechanical strength of the solid matrix. Recent efforts have focused on incorporating reinforcing fillers to develop multicomponent, multiphase composites that can address this paradox. Here, we describe a modified attapulgite (APT) with strong biphasic wettability via the oil decompressive osmosis treatment on APT nanocontainers grafted with long nonpolar alkyl chains. This modified APT enables control over the size, distribution, and mobility of lubricant droplets by constructing a Pickering emulsion and toughens the solid-phase matrix through dispersion strengthening. Additionally, the introduction of APT induces the formation of a solid tribofilm during friction, which possesses a higher oil adsorption capacity, as verified through first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). Consequently, the fluid films can be replenished by the fracture of nanocontainers and adsorption from the bulk phase; further comprehensive and effective regulation of the friction interface leads to low friction and wear.

19.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 18, 2024 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38166738

RESUMO

Eukaryotic messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are often modified with methyl groups at the N6 position of adenosine (m6A), and these changes are interpreted by YTH domain-containing proteins to regulate the metabolism of m6A-modified mRNAs. Although alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is an established model organism for forage development, the understanding of YTH proteins in alfalfa is still limited. In the present investigation, 53 putative YTH genes, each encoding a YT521 domain-containing protein, were identified within the alfalfa genome. These genes were categorized into two subfamilies: YTHDF (49 members) and YTHDC (four members). Each subfamily demonstrates analogous motif distributions and domain architectures. Specifically, proteins encoded by MsYTHDF genes incorporate a single domain structure, while those corresponding to MsYTH5, 8, 12, 16 who are identified as members of the MsYTHDC subfamily, exhibit CCCH-type zinc finger repeats at their N-termini. It is also observed that the predicted aromatic cage pocket that binds the m6A residue of MsYTHDC consists of a sequence of two tryptophan residues and one tyrosine residue (WWY). Conversely, in MsYTHDF, the binding pocket comprises two highly conserved tryptophan residues and either one tryptophan residue (WWW) or tyrosine residue (WWY) in MsYTHDF.Through comparative analysis of qRT-PCR data, we observed distinct expression patterns in specific genes under abiotic stress, indicating their potential regulatory roles. Notably, five genes (MsYTH2, 14, 26, 27, 48) consistently exhibit upregulation, and two genes (MsYTH33, 35) are downregulated in response to both cold and salt stress. This suggests a common mechanism among these YTH proteins in response to various abiotic stressors in alfalfa. Further, integrating qRT-PCR with RNA-seq data revealed that MsYTH2, MsYTH14, and MsYTH16 are highly expressed in leaves at various development stages, underscoring their potential roles in regulating the growth of these plant parts. The obtained findings shed further light on the biological functions of MsYTH genes and may aid in the selection of suitable candidate genes for future genetic enhancement endeavors aimed at improving salt and cold tolerance in alfalfa.


Assuntos
Medicago sativa , Triptofano , Medicago sativa/genética , Triptofano/genética , Triptofano/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Tirosina/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Filogenia
20.
Environ Int ; 183: 108424, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38219539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased attention has been paid to humid-heat extremes as they are projected to increase in both frequency and intensity. However, it remains unclear how compound extremes of heat and humidity affects morbidity when the climate is projected to continue warming in the future, in particular for a megacity with a large population. METHODS: We chose the Wet-Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) index as the metric to characterize the humid-heat exposure. The historical associations between daily outpatient visits and daily mean WBGT was established using a Distributed Lag Non-linear Model (DLNM) during the warm season (June to September) from 2013 to 2015 in Shanghai, a prominent megacity of China. Future morbidity burden related to the combined effect of high temperature and humidity were projected under four greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission scenarios (SSP126, SSP245, SSP370 and SSP585). RESULTS: The humid-heat weather was significantly associated with a higher risk of outpatient visits in Shanghai than the high-temperature conditions. Relative to the baseline period (2010-2019), the morbidity burden due to humid-heat weather was projected to increase 4.4 % (95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.1 %-10.1 %) even under the strict emission control scenario (SSP126) by 2100. Under the high-GHGs emission scenario (SSP585), this burden was projected to be 25.4 % (95 % CI: 15.8 %-38.4 %), which is 10.1 % (95 % CI: 6.5 %-15.8 %) more than that due to high-temperature weather. Our results also indicate that humid-hot nights could cause large morbidity risks under high-GHGs emission scenarios particularly in heat-sensible diseases such as the respiratory and cardiovascular disease by the end of this century. CONCLUSIONS: Humid heat exposures significantly increased the all-cause morbidity risk in the megacity Shanghai, especially in humid-hot nights. Our findings suggest that the combined effect of elevated temperature and humidity is projected to have more substantial impact on health compared to high temperature alone in a warming climate.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Temperatura Alta , China , Temperatura , Umidade , Mudança Climática
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