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1.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; : e1048, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31962008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy (APIP) is a life-threatening disease for both mother and fetus. To date, only three patients with recurrent hypertriglyceridemia-induced APIP (HTG-APIP) have been reported to carry rare variants in the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene, which encodes the key enzyme responsible for triglyceride (TG) metabolism. Coincidently, all three patients harbored LPL variants on both alleles and presented with complete or severe LPL deficiency. METHODS: The entire coding regions and splice junctions of LPL and four other TG metabolism genes (APOC2, APOA5, GPIHBP1, and LMF1) were analyzed by Sanger sequencing in a Han Chinese patient who had experienced two episodes of HTG-APIP. The impact of a novel LPL missense variant on LPL protein expression and activity was analyzed by transient expression in HEK293T cells. RESULTS: A novel heterozygous LPL missense variant, p.His210Leu (c.629A > T), was identified in our patient. This variant did not affect protein synthesis but significantly impaired LPL secretion and completely abolished the enzymatic activity of the mutant protein. CONCLUSION: This report describes the first identification and functional characterization of a heterozygous variant in the LPL that predisposed to recurrent HTG-APIP. Our findings confirm a major genetic contribution to the etiology of individual predisposition to HTG-APIP.

2.
Gastroenterology ; 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Changes in pancreatic calcium levels affect secretion and might be involved in development of chronic pancreatitis (CP). We investigated the association of CP with the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 6 gene (TRPV6), which encodes a Ca2+-selective ion channel, in an international cohort of patients and in mice. METHODS: We performed whole-exome sequencing DNA from a patient with idiopathic CP and from his parents, who did not have CP. We validated our findings by sequencing DNA from 300 patients with CP (not associated with alcohol consumption) and 1070 persons from the general population in Japan (controls). In replication studies, we sequenced DNA from patients with early-onset CP (20 y or younger), not associated with alcohol consumption, from France (n=470) or Germany (n=410). We expressed TRPV6 variants in HEK293 cells and measured their activity using Ca2+ imaging assays. CP was induced by repeated injections of cerulein in TRPV6mut/mut mice. RESULTS: We identified the variants c.629C>T (p.A210V) and c.970G>A (p.D324N) in TRPV6 in the index patient. Variants that affected function of the TRPV6 product were found in 13/300 cases (4.3%) and 1/1070 controls (0.1%) from Japan (OR, 48.4; 95% CI, 6.3-371.7; P=2.4 × 10-8). Twelve of 124 patients (9.7%) with early-onset CP had such variants. In the replication set from Europe, 18 patients with CP (2.0%) carried variants that affected the function of the TRPV6 product compared with 0 controls (P=6.2 × 10-8). Variants that did not affect the function of the TRPV6 product (p.I223T and p.D324N) were overrepresented in Japanese cases vs controls (OR, 10.9; 95% CI, 4.5-25.9; P=7.4 × 10-9 for p.I223T; and P=.01 for p.D324N), whereas the p.L299Q was overrepresented in European cases vs controls (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.9-4.8; P = 1.2 × 10-5). TRPV6mut/mut given cerulein developed more severe pancreatitis than control mice, demonstrated by increased levels of pancreatic enzymes, histologic alterations, and pancreatic fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: We found that patients with early-onset CP not associated with alcohol consumption carry variants in TRPV6 that affect the function of its product, perhaps by altering Ca2+ balance in pancreatic cells. TRPV6 regulates Ca2+ homeostasis and pancreatic inflammation.

3.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(9): 3973-3981, 2019 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854859

RESUMO

Nitrous acid (HONO) is easily photolyzed with the production of·OH, which plays an important role in the formation of regional secondary pollution. In China, research of HONO observation is concentrated mainly in urban areas and is rarely reported in rural areas. In our study, a one-month HONO field observation was conducted at the Station of Rural Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Dongbaituo Village, Wangdu County, Hebei Province) in November 2017 using the long path absorption photo meter (LOPAP). The concentration, variety characteristics, and budget of HONO was studied. During the observation period, HONO exhibited pronounced diurnal variation with low concentrations in the day and high concentration in the evening. The highest concentration at night was about 3.70×10-9, and the lowest concentration at noon was about 0.10×10-9, indicating the presence of a strong source of HONO in rural areas. The CO concentration increased significantly before and after heating, whereas the HONO concentration did not change significantly, indicating that heating combustion contributed less to HONO, Direct emission of motor vehicles at night contributed 23.20% and 31.20% to HONO in polluted and clean weather conditions, respectively, indicating the presence of strong sources of HONO in polluted weather conditions. The average formation rate of HONO at night from homogeneous reaction of·OH and NO could reach 0.40×10-9 h-1, which is 0.67 times higher than that of heterogeneous reaction of NO2 (0.24×10-9 h-1), indicating that the homogeneous reaction of·OH and NO is the main source of HONO at night. HONO has a strong unknown source in the daytime with an intensity reaching 1.37×10-9 h-1, which contributes about 50% to HONO.

4.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710467

RESUMO

High levels of HONO have frequently been observed in Chinese haze periods and underestimated by current models due to some unknown sources and formation mechanisms. Combining lab-chamber simulations and field measurements in Xi'an and Beijing, China, we found that NH3 can significantly promote HONO formation via the reduction-oxidation of SO2 with NO2 in the aqueous phase of hygroscopic particles (e.g., NaCl). Concentrations of HONO formed in the aerosol phase showed an exponential increase (R2 = 0.91) with NH3 levels under the chamber conditions and a linear growth with NH3 levels in the two Chinese cities. The uptake coefficient of NO2 on NaCl particles ranged from 2.0 × 10-5 to 1.7 × 10-4, 3-4 orders of magnitude larger than that on water droplets. Our results further showed that HONO formed from the aerosol phase accounted for 4-33% of the total in the chamber, indicating that aerosol-phase formation is an important source of HONO in China, especially in haze periods. Since NH3, SO2, and NO2 abundantly coexist in China, the positive effect of NH3 on HONO formation could enhance the atmospheric oxidizing capacity in the country, causing severe secondary aerosol pollution. Our work suggests that NH3 emission control is imperative for mitigating air pollution in China.

5.
Neurol Sci ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713753

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) combined with conventional swallowing training on the swallowing function in brainstem stroke patients with cricopharyngeal muscle dysfunction (CPD). METHODS: Twenty-eight brainstem stroke patients with CPD were assigned randomly to an anodal tDCS group or a sham tDCS group. The patients received anodal tDCS or sham tDCS over the bilateral oesophageal cortical area combined with simultaneous catheter balloon dilatation and conventional swallowing therapy for 20 days. Swallowing function was assessed using the functional oral intake scale (FOIS) and the functional dysphagia scale (FDS) and by measuring the pharyngoesophageal Segment Opening (PESO) before and immediately after the intervention. RESULTS: Both groups showed a significant improvement in the FDS, FOIS and PESO scores immediately after the intervention (all p < .005). However, compared with the sham stimulation group, the anodal tDCS group showed greater improvements in the FDS, FOIS and PESO scores immediately after the intervention (all p < .005). CONCLUSION: The bihemispheric anodal tDCS combined with simultaneous catheter balloon dilatation and conventional swallowing therapy effectively improves the swallowing function in patients with CPD caused by a brainstem stroke. tDCS may be an effective adjuvant therapy in CPD rehabilitation.

6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729864

RESUMO

Nitrite (NO2-) and its conjugate acid, nitrous acid (HNO2), have long been recognized as a ubiquitous atmospheric pollutant as well as an important photochemical source of hydroxyl radicals (·OH) and reactive nitrogen species (·NO, ·NO2, ·N2O3, etc.) in both the gas phase and aqueous phase. Although NO2-/HNO2 plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry, our understanding on its role in the chemical evolution of organic components in atmospheric waters is rather incomplete and is still in dispute. In this study, the nitrite-mediated photooxidation of vanillin (VL), a phenolic compound abundant in biomass burning emissions, was investigated under pH conditions relevant for atmospheric waters. The influence of solution pH, dissolved oxygen, and ·OH scavengers on the nitrite-mediated photooxidation of VL was discussed in detail. Our study reveals that the molecular composition of the products is dependent on the molar ratio of NO2-/VL in the solution and that nitrophenols are the major reaction products. We also found that the light absorbance of the oxidative products increases with increasing pH in the visible region, which can be attributed to the deprotonation of the nitrophenols formed. These results contribute to a better understanding of methoxyphenol photooxidation mediated by nitrite as a source of toxic nitrophenols and climatically important brown carbon in atmospheric waters.

7.
Environ Pollut ; : 113401, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753639

RESUMO

This study reveals the impact of biomass burning (BB) on secondary organic aerosols (SOA) formation in the North China Plain (NCP). Filter samples were analyzed for secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA), oxalic acid (C2) and related aqueous-phase SOA compounds (aqSOA), stable carbon isotope composition of C2 (δ13C(C2)) and aerosol liquid water content (ALWC). Based on the PM2.5 loadings, BB tracer concentrations, wildfire spots and air-mass back trajectories, we distinguished two episodes from the whole campaign, Episode I and Episode II, which were characteristic of regional and local BB, respectively. The abundances of PM2.5 and organic matter in the two events were comparable, but concentrations and fractions of SIA, aqSOA during Episode I were much higher than those during Episode II, along with heavier δ13C(C2), suggesting an enhanced aqSOA formation in the earlier period. We found that the enhancement of aqSOA formation during Episode I was caused by an increased ALWC, which was mainly driven by SIA during the regional BB event. Our work showed that intensive burning of crop residue in East Asia can sharply enhance aqSOA production on a large scale, which may have a significant impact on the regional climate and human health.

8.
J Sep Sci ; 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697033

RESUMO

A method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometer was developed to identify and quantify imidazoles in aqueous extracts of aerosol particles. The aqueous particle extract was used without further enrichment or sample clean-up. Five columns were tested for efficient separation of ten imidazoles and the Acquity HSS T3 column was chosen for further optimization. Low limits of detection (<25 nM) and good intraday and interday repeatability (<1.6 and <6%, respectively) were achieved. Investigation of matrix effects showed that external calibration is applicable when the loading of organic carbon in the sample is below 10 µg m-3 . The developed method was applied to ten real samples, and six out of the ten test imidazoles were successfully quantified, while six further imidazoles were qualitatively identified, among them 4-imidazolecarboxaldehyde and 4-methyl-5-imidazolecarboxaldehyde. Advantages of the method are the minimal sample preparation, the short run time for each sample, and the low detection limits. These allow for a fast and reliable quantification of imidazoles even in a large number of aqueous particle extract samples.

9.
Analyst ; 145(1): 277-285, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746822

RESUMO

Detecting atmospheric bioaerosols in a quantitative way is highly desirable for public health and safety. This work demonstrates that surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a simple and rapid analytical technique for the detection of atmospheric bioaerosols, on a Klarite substrate. For both simulated and ambient bioaerosols, this detection assay results in an increase in the enhancement factor of the Raman signal. We report a strong SERS signal generated by bioaerosols containing living Escherichia coli deposited on Klarite. Furthermore, we demonstrate that SERS mapping can be used to estimate the percentage of airborne, living Escherichia coli. Moreover, Klarite provides differently distinct SERS spectra at different bacterial growth phases, indicating its potential to identify changes occurring in the bacterial envelope. Finally, we applied SERS for the rapid detection of Escherichia coli in ambient bioaerosols without using time-consuming and laborious culture processes. Our results represent rapid, culture-free and label-free detection of airborne bacteria in the real-world environment.

10.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 226: 117642, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614273

RESUMO

Tyrosinase is the rate-limiting enzyme for controlling the production of melanin in the human body, and overproduction of melanin can lead to a variety of skin disorders. In this paper, the inhibitory kinetics of phloretin on tyrosinase and their binding mechanism were determined using spectroscopy, molecular docking, antioxidant assays and chromatography. The spectroscopic results indicate that phloretin reversibly inhibits tyrosinase in a mix-type manner through a multiphase kinetic process with the IC50 of 169.36 µmol/L. It is shown that phloretin has a strong ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of tyrosinase mainly through a static quenching procedure, suggesting that a stable phloretin-tyrosinase complex is generated. Molecular docking results suggest that the dominant conformation of phloretin binds to the gate of the active site of tyrosinase. Moreover, the antioxidant assays demonstrate that phloretin has powerful antioxidant capacity and has the ability to reduce o-dopaquinone to l-dopa just like ascorbic acid. Interestingly, the results of spectroscopy and chromatography indicate that phloretin is a substrate of tyrosinase but also an inhibitor. The possible inhibitory mechanism is proposed, which will be helpful to design and search for tyrosinase inhibitors.

11.
Front Genet ; 10: 835, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31572445

RESUMO

Polyhydramnios is sometimes associated with genetic defects. However, establishing an accurate diagnosis and pinpointing the precise genetic cause of polyhydramnios in any given case represents a major challenge because it is known to occur in association with over 200 different conditions. Whole exome sequencing (WES) is now a routine part of the clinical workup, particularly with diseases characterized by atypical manifestations and significant genetic heterogeneity. Here we describe the identification, by means of WES, of novel compound heterozygous truncating variants in the LMOD3 gene [i.e., c.1412delA (p.Lys471Serfs*18) and c.1283dupC (p.Gly429Trpfs*35)] in a Chinese family with two successive fetuses affected with polyhydramnios, thereby potentiating the prenatal diagnosis of nemaline myopathy (NM) in the proband. LMOD3 encodes leiomodin-3, which is localized to the pointed ends of thin filaments and acts as a catalyst of actin nucleation in skeletal and cardiac muscle. This is the first study to describe the prenatal and postnatal manifestations of LMOD3-related NM in the Chinese population. Of all the currently reported NM-causing LMOD3 nonsense and frameshifting variants, c.1412delA generates the shortest truncation at the C-terminal end of the protein, underscoring the critical role of the WH2 domain in LMOD3 structure and function. Survey of the prenatal phenotypes of all known LMOD3-related severe NM cases served to identify fetal edema as a novel presenting feature that may provide an early clue to facilitate prenatal diagnosis of the disease.

12.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0222927, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661534

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) may be caused by oxidative stress. An important source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the methylglyoxal-derived formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE). Methylglyoxal is detoxified by Glyoxalase I (GLO1). A reduction in GLO1 activity results in increased ROS. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of GLO1 have been linked to various inflammatory diseases. Here, we analyzed whether common GLO1 variants are associated with alcoholic (ACP) and non-alcoholic CP (NACP). METHODS: Using melting curve analysis, we genotyped a screening cohort of 223 ACP, 218 NACP patients, and 328 controls for 11 tagging SNPs defined by the SNPinfo LD TAG SNP Selection tool and the functionally relevant variant rs4746. For selected variants the cohorts were extended to up to 1,441 patient samples. RESULTS: In the ACP cohort, comparison of genotypes for rs1937780 between patients and controls displayed an ambiguous result in the screening cohort (p = 0.08). However, in the extended cohort of 1,441 patients no statistically significant association was found for the comparison of genotypes (p = 0.11), nor in logistic regression analysis (p = 0.214, OR 1.072, 95% CI 0.961-1.196). In the NACP screening cohort SNPs rs937662, rs1699012, and rs4746 displayed an ambiguous result when patients were compared to controls in the recessive or dominant model (p = 0.08, 0.08, and 0.07, respectively). Again, these associations were not confirmed in the extended cohorts (rs937662, dominant model: p = 0.07, logistic regression: p = 0.07, OR 1.207, 95% CI 0.985-1.480) or in the replication cohorts for rs4746 (Germany, p = 0.42, OR 1.080, 95% CI 0.673-1.124; France, p = 0.19, OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.76-1.06; China, p = 0.24, OR 1.18, 95% CI 0.90-1.54) and rs1699012 (Germany, Munich; p = 0.279, OR 0.903, 95% CI 0.750-1.087). CONCLUSIONS: Common GLO1 variants do not increase chronic pancreatitis risk.

13.
Phytopathology ; 109(10): 1732-1740, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479403

RESUMO

Plant polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) is a structural protein that can specifically recognize and bind to fungal polygalacturonase (PG). PGIP plays an important role in plant antifungal activity. In this study, a maize PGIP gene, namely ZmPGIP3, was cloned and characterized. Agarose diffusion assay suggested that ZmPGIP3 could inhibit the activity of PG. ZmPGIP3 expression was significantly induced by wounding, Rhizoctonia solani infection, jasmonate, and salicylic acid. ZmPGIP3 might be related to disease resistance. The gene encoding ZmPGIP3 was posed under the control of the ubiquitin promoter and constitutively expressed in transgenic rice. In an R. solani infection assay, ZmPGIP3 transgenic rice was more resistant to sheath blight than the wild-type rice regardless of the inoculated plant part (leaves or sheaths). Digital gene expression analysis indicated that the expression of some rice PGIP genes significantly increased in ZmPGIP3 transgenic rice, suggesting that ZmPGIP3 might activate the expression of some rice PGIP genes to resist sheath blight. Our investigation of the agronomic traits of ZmPGIP3 transgenic rice showed that ZmPGIP3 overexpression in rice did not show any detrimental phenotypic or agronomic effect. ZmPGIP3 is a promising candidate gene in the transgenic breeding for sheath blight resistance and crop improvement.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Oryza , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Rhizoctonia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oryza/microbiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/microbiologia , Rhizoctonia/fisiologia
14.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 9(9)2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547427

RESUMO

A facile in situ synthesis approach and a size control strategy were established to obtain Ag2S nanoparticles in polyimide (PI) composite coatings. Such Ag2S nanoparticles in the composite coatings were characterized, and the effects of the as-obtained Ag2S nanoparticles of different sizes on the mechanical and tribological properties of the nanocomposite coatings were investigated. Results indicate that the in situ synthesized Ag2S nanoparticles exhibited good dispersibility and bimodal and multimodal size distribution in the nanocomposite coatings. The size of the Ag2S nanoparticles can be effectively controlled by adjusting the substituent alkyl chain length of single-source precursor, and these Ag2S nanoparticles exhibited superior improvement to mechanical and tribological properties of the nanocomposite coatings. More importantly, the Ag2S nanoparticles with the proper grain size and bimodal size distribution provided the optimal mechanical and tribological properties for the nanocomposite coatings, and the excellent tribological properties were attributed to their outstanding mechanical properties and strong ability to form a homogenous and stable protective tribofilm.

15.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(17): 10361-10370, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390862

RESUMO

"Ultralow-emission" standards have started to be implemented for steel plants in China. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems integrating desulfurization and dedusting, common end-of-pipe technologies before the stacks, have been a key process for controlling the complexity of sintering flue gas to meet ultralow-emission requirements. This study reports comprehensive analysis of the influence of wet/semidry/dry FGD systems on particulate emissions via a field investigation of five typical sinter plants equipped with various FGD devices. The size distribution and mass concentration of particulate matter (PM) are adjusted to different ranges by these FGD systems. Chemical analysis of the PM compositions shows that 20-95% of the mass of inlet PM is removed by FGD systems, while it is estimated that approximately 17, 63, 59, and 71% of the outlet PMs are newly contributed by desulfurizers and their byproducts for the tested wet limestone, wet ammonia, semidry circulating fluidized bed, and activated coke FGD systems, respectively. The newly contributed compositions of PM2.5 emitted from these FGD systems are dominated by CaSO4, (NH4)2SO4, CaSO4 + CaO, and coke carbon, respectively. These results suggest that the deployment of FGD technology should be comprehensively considered to avoid additional negative impacts from byproducts generated in control devices on the atmosphere.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Aço , China , Carvão Mineral , Material Particulado
16.
Environ Pollut ; 254(Pt A): 112864, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369912

RESUMO

To better understand the mechanism of PM2.5 explosive growth (EG), we conducted concurrent measurements of gaseous pollutants, PM2.5 and its chemical composition (inorganic ions, organic carbon, and element carbon) with a time resolution of 1 h in Shanghai in late autumn and winter from 2014 to 2017. In this study, the EG events, which are defined as the net increase in the mass concentration of PM2.5 by more than 100 µg m-3 within hours, are separately discussed for 3, 6, or 9 h. The number of EG events decreased from 19 cases in 2014 to 6 cases in 2017 and the corresponding PM2.5 concentration on average decreased from 183.6 µg m-3 to 128.8 µg m-3. Both regional transport and stagnant weather (windspeed < 2.0 m s-1) could lead to EG events. The potential source contribution function (PSCF) shows that the major high-pollution region is in East China (including Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Shandong, and Anhui Province) and the North China Plain. The contribution of stagnant conditions to EG episode hours of 55% (198 h, 156.9 µg m-3) is higher than that of regional transport (45%, 230 h, 163.0 µg m-3). To study the impact of local emission, chemical characteristics and driving factors of EG were discussed under stagnant conditions. The major components contributing to PM2.5 are NO3- (17.9%), organics (14.1%), SO42- (13.1%), and NH4+ (13.1%). The driving factors of EG events are the secondary aerosol formation of sulfate and nitrate and primary emissions (vehicle emissions, fireworks, and biomass burning), but the secondary transformation contributes more to EG events. The formation of sulfate and nitrate is dominated by gas-phase oxidation and heterogeneous reactions, which are enhanced by a high relative humidity. The current study helps to understand the chemical mechanism of haze and provides a scientific basis for air pollution control in Shanghai.

17.
N Engl J Med ; 381(8): 705-715, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The systematic evaluation of the results of time-series studies of air pollution is challenged by differences in model specification and publication bias. METHODS: We evaluated the associations of inhalable particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 µm or less (PM10) and fine PM with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 µm or less (PM2.5) with daily all-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality across multiple countries or regions. Daily data on mortality and air pollution were collected from 652 cities in 24 countries or regions. We used overdispersed generalized additive models with random-effects meta-analysis to investigate the associations. Two-pollutant models were fitted to test the robustness of the associations. Concentration-response curves from each city were pooled to allow global estimates to be derived. RESULTS: On average, an increase of 10 µg per cubic meter in the 2-day moving average of PM10 concentration, which represents the average over the current and previous day, was associated with increases of 0.44% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39 to 0.50) in daily all-cause mortality, 0.36% (95% CI, 0.30 to 0.43) in daily cardiovascular mortality, and 0.47% (95% CI, 0.35 to 0.58) in daily respiratory mortality. The corresponding increases in daily mortality for the same change in PM2.5 concentration were 0.68% (95% CI, 0.59 to 0.77), 0.55% (95% CI, 0.45 to 0.66), and 0.74% (95% CI, 0.53 to 0.95). These associations remained significant after adjustment for gaseous pollutants. Associations were stronger in locations with lower annual mean PM concentrations and higher annual mean temperatures. The pooled concentration-response curves showed a consistent increase in daily mortality with increasing PM concentration, with steeper slopes at lower PM concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show independent associations between short-term exposure to PM10 and PM2.5 and daily all-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality in more than 600 cities across the globe. These data reinforce the evidence of a link between mortality and PM concentration established in regional and local studies. (Funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China and others.).


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Mortalidade , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Global , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Risco
18.
Biomed Microdevices ; 21(3): 63, 2019 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273475

RESUMO

Microneedle (MN) patch has been used for collecting dermal interstitial fluid (ISF) containing biomarkers from patients with safety, pain-free and easy-to-use manner. However, long sampling time for biomarkers analysis still poses a significant challenge. Here, we describe a new sponge-forming MN patch consisting of polyvinyl formal (PVF) for rapidly extracting ISF from skin. Owing to the supreme water affinity of PVF, this MN patch can extract 1.6 mg ISF in 1 min without the assistance of extra devices, which remarkably facilitates timely analysis. The MN patch had preserved structural integrity in the swelling hydrated state without leaving residues in skin after usage, and the treated skin recovered within 8 h. More importantly, the extracted ISF can be efficiently recovered from the MN patch by simple centrifugation for the subsequent offline analysis of biomarkers such as glucose and cholesterol. Our results reveal that the new sponge-forming MN patch holds considerable promise for minimally invasive sampling ISF for biomarkers detection in real-life situations.

19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(17): 10236-10245, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361474

RESUMO

The effect of photochemical reaction time on glyoxal and hydrogen peroxide at the air-liquid (a-l) interface is investigated using in situ time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) enabled by a system for analysis at the liquid vacuum interface (SALVI) microreactor. Carboxylic acids are formed mainly by reaction with hydroxyl radicals in the initial reactions. Oligomers, cluster ions, and water clusters formed due to longer photochemistry. Our results provide direct molecular evidence that water clusters are associated with proton transfer and the formation of oligomers and cluster ions at the a-l interface. The oligomer formation is facilitated by water cluster and cluster ion formation over time. Formation of higher m/z oligomers and cluster ions indicates the possibility of highly oxygenated organic components formation at the a-l interface. Furthermore, new chemical reaction pathways, such as surface organic cluster, hydration shell, and water cluster formation, are proposed based on SIMS spectral observations, and the existing understanding of glyoxal photochemistry is expanded. Our in situ findings verify that the a-l interfacial reactions are important pathways for aqueous secondary organic aerosol (aqSOA) formation.


Assuntos
Glioxal , Radical Hidroxila , Aerossóis , Fotoquímica , Água
20.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(11): 6580-6586, 2019 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074976

RESUMO

Plants used for phytoremediation of contaminated soil are often enriched in certain metals present in the soil. However, the role of the inherent metal content of the plants on their recycling by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) has not been considered in previous studies. The present study showed that Rhus chinensis plants grown in highly Pb-polluted soil can release inherent metals (such as Pb, K, Ca, Na, and Mg) into the HTL solution, further enhancing the production of formic and acetic acids and decreasing the yield of levulinic acid. Theoretical calculations using HTL reactions of model compounds showed that a low Pb content could enhance production of levulinic and formic acids via catalysis of the rehydration reaction for 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural, while a high Pb content promoted the decomposition of levulinic acid to acetic acid. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry analysis confirmed that Pb2+ preferentially promoted the depolymerization of macromolecular compounds with the lignin structure. In general, the inherent metals occurring in the phytoremediation plant influenced the production of organic acids during HTL recycling. Undoubtedly, the combination of phytoextraction and HTL reaction can present a practical pathway toward a sustainable soil remediation technology.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Metais , Plantas , Solo
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