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1.
World J Surg ; 2020 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The development of inguinal hernia might be related with collagen metabolism, which was regulated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the mRNA and protein expression levels of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 in anterior rectus sheath fascia to investigate the function of them in inguinal hernia formation. METHODS: The study enrolled 48 primary inguinal hernia patients: 32 participants had indirect inguinal hernia and 16 patients suffered direct inguinal hernia. Specimens were taken from the anterior rectus sheath fascia. The amounts of MMP-2 mRNA and TIMP-2 mRNA were evaluated by real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and immunohistochemistry was performed to assess the protein expression of them. RESULTS: The mRNA and protein expression levels of MMP-2 in direct group were significantly higher than those of control group (P < 0.05) and indirect group (P < 0.05), while the expression levels of TIMP-2 in direct group were significantly lower than those of control group (P < 0.05) and indirect group (P < 0.05). The ratio of MMP-2 mRNA/TIMP-2 mRNA in direct group was significantly higher than that of control group (P < 0.05) and indirect group (P < 0.05), and the ratio of indirect group was significantly higher than that of control group (P < 0.05). According to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, MMP-2/TIMP-2 can diagnose direct hernia from controls with area under the curve (AUC) of 0.950 and indirect hernia with AUC of 0.730 effectively. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated level of MMP-2 and decreased level of TIMP-2 may play a role in direct inguinal hernia development. The ratio of MMP-2/TIMP-2 may be useful in identification of direct hernia.

2.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515977

RESUMO

The International Agency of Research on Cancer identifies high-temperature frying, which features prominently in Chinese cooking, as producing group 2A carcinogens. This study simultaneously characterized particulate and gaseous-phase cooking emissions, monitored their reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentrations, and evaluated their impact on genetic damage and expression in exposed human bronchial epithelial cells. Five types of edible oil, three kinds of seasonings, and two dishes were assessed. Among tested edible oils, heating of soybean oil released the largest particle number concentration (2.09 × 1013 particles/(g cooking material and oil)·h) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions (12103.42 µg/(g cooking material and oil)·h). Heating of lard produced the greatest particle mass concentration (0.75 mg/(g cooking material and oil)·h). The main finding was that sunflower and rapeseed oils produced the highest ROS concentrations (80.48 and 71.75 nmol/(g cooking material and oil)·h, respectively). ROS formation most likely occurred during the autoxidation of both polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Among all the tested parameters, only ROS concentrations exhibited consistency with cell viability and showed significant correlations with the expression levels of CYP1A1, HIF-1a, and especially with IL-8 (the marker for oxidative stress within the cell). These findings indicate that ROS concentration is potentially a suitable metric for direct assessment of exposure levels and potential toxicity.

3.
J Clin Lipidol ; 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The etiology of hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) and, consequently, HTG-induced acute pancreatitis (HTG-AP), is complex. OBJECTIVE: Herein, we explore a possible gene-environment interaction between APOA5 c.553G>T (p.185Gly>Cys, rs2075291), a common variant associated with altered triglyceride levels, and pregnancy in HTG-AP. METHODS: We enrolled 318 Chinese HTG-AP patients and divided them into 3 distinct groups: Group 1, male patients (n = 183); Group 2, female patients whose disease was unrelated to pregnancy (n = 105); and Group 3, female patients whose disease was related to pregnancy (n = 30). APOA5 rs2075291 genotype status was determined by Sanger sequencing. A total of 362 healthy Han Chinese subjects were used as controls. Data on body mass index, peak triglyceride level, age of disease onset, episode number, and clinical severity of HTG-AP were collected from each patient. Multiple comparisons, between patient groups, between patient groups and controls, or within each patient group, were performed. RESULTS: A robust association of APOA5 rs2075291 with HTG-AP in general, and HTG-AP during pregnancy in particular, was demonstrated. The minor T allele showed a stronger association with Group 3 patients than with either Group 1 or Group 2 patients. This stronger association was due mainly to the much higher frequency of TT genotype in Group 3 patients (20%) than that (<6%) in Group 1 and Group 2 patients. Moreover, the TT genotype was associated with a significantly higher peak triglyceride level in Group 3 patients compared with the GG genotype. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide evidence for an interaction between APOA5 rs2075291 and pregnancy in HTG-AP.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 728: 138454, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32570333

RESUMO

This work studied the impacts of ship emissions at a high temporal resolution on the real-time concentrations of PM2.5, NO2, and SO2 in urban harbors and coastal sea areas, taking the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) as an example. The WRF-Chem model with 3 nested grids and ship emissions derived from an automatic identification system (AIS) were combined to simulate the air quality. The AIS data showed significant temporal fluctuations in ship emissions, with hourly mean fluxes of approximately 1082.41 ± 444.41 and 593.55 ± 404.95 g/h/km2 near ports and in the channel waters of the YRD, respectively. The monthly mean contributions of shipping emissions reached 80.72% (2.15 ppbv) and 81.79% (8.79 ppbv) to ambient SO2 and NO2 in Ningbo Port, and 10.61% (6.96 µg/m3) to PM2.5 in Shanghai Port, respectively, regions with dense ship traffic. The relative differences in the PM2.5, SO2, and NO2 concentrations modeled using monthly and hourly ship emissions accounted for -10-15%, -10-30%, and - 5-30%, respectively. Compared with cruise- and land-based measurements, the simulations using hourly emissions were in much better agreement with the observations than those using monthly emissions and appropriately captured some air pollutant concentration peaks. Simulations during shipping-related periods with hourly ship emissions improved the normalized mean bias (NMBs) from -43.03%, 301.49%, and 223.02% to -27.28%, 90.45%, and 167.52%, respectively, for PM2.5, SO2, and NO2, highlighting the importance of using ship emissions with a fine temporal resolution. Our study showed that ignoring hourly fluctuations in ship emissions during air quality modeling leads to considerable uncertainties, especially in coastal urban areas and harbors with high ship activities. These results imply that data with a high temporal resolution, such as hourly ship emissions, are necessary to understand the realistic impacts of shipping traffic and to implement more precise control policies to improve coastal air quality.

5.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt A): 114847, 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502871

RESUMO

This study aims to understand the characteristics of surface ozone (O3), search for factors affecting the variations in its concentration, and estimate its impacts on the secondary organic carbon (SOC) levels and atmospheric oxidation capacities in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD). Four years of continuous observations (2014-2017) of the surface O3, organic carbon, elemental carbon, nitrogen oxides, PM2.5 and meteorological factors along with three years of measurements (2015-2017) of the concentrations of 56 volatile organic compounds were conducted at a rural site. Our measurements showed that the total number of O3 pollution days more than doubled over the four-year period, from 28 days in 2014 to 76 days in 2017. The annual mean of the maximum daily 8-h average O3 concentration during the months with the strongest solar radiation (July-September) showed a 6.8% growth rate, from 124.5 (2014) to 149.8 µg m-3 (2017). Regional transport was shown to be the dominant contributor to the high level of O3 based on a process analysis of the O3 variation using the Weather Research and Forecasting-Community Multiscale Air Quality model for this site. The simulation results indicated that the city junction site served well as an epitome of the regional background of the YRD. We also found that the level of SOC, which is a major component of PM2.5 that results from atmospheric oxidizing processes, gradually increased with the increase in the surface O3 level, even though the overall PM2.5 concentration significantly decreased each year. There was an increasingly strong correlation between SOC and Ox (O3 + nitrogen dioxide) during both the daytime and night-time from 2014 to 2017 when the highest annual O3 concentration was observed. These findings imply that the atmospheric oxidation capacity increased and likely contributed to the SOC production in the YRD during 2014-2017.

6.
J Chromatogr A ; 1624: 461234, 2020 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540074

RESUMO

Atmospheric amines contribute to the nucleation and initial growth of new particles as well as secondary organic aerosol formation, influencing the radiative balance of the Earth's atmosphere. In this study, we develop an ion chromatography (IC) method for separating and quantifying the nine most abundant amines (methylaminium (MMAH+), dimethylaminium (DMAH+), trimethylaminium (TMAH+), ethylaminium (MEAH+), diethylaminium (DEAH+), propylaminium (MPAH+), butylaminium (MBAH+), ethanolaminium (MEOH+), and triethanolaminium (TEOH+)) from six common inorganic species in atmospheric aerosols. The retention times of the amines were altered by the addition of acetonitrile to the eluent because acetonitrile can reduce the adsorption of hydrophobic amines on the stationary phase. The developed method achieved the successful separation of DEAH+ and TMAH+ from inorganic cations, which often coelute with each other in established IC methods. The interference of K+ on the determination of MEAH+ was eliminated by the complexation of K+ with 18-crown-6, which prolonged the retention time of K+. Finally, 9 target amines and 6 common inorganic cations were separated, with a resolution Rs ≥ 1.2 for DEAH+ and MPAH+ and Rs > 1.5 for other species. The detection limits varied in the range of 0.34-1.48 ng for the 9 amines and 0.19-0.56 ng for the inorganic cations. The developed method was successfully applied for the determination of low molecular weight amines and inorganic cations in PM2.5 collected from an urban site in Shanghai and an isolated coast of Chongming Island. Eight amines were detected in the urban samples, in which MMAH+ and DMAH+ dominated. The average amine concentration in the urban aerosols was 76.3 ± 38.4 ng m-3, which is approximately 4-fold higher than those in the marine samples collected from the coast.

7.
Cell Cycle ; 19(13): 1621-1631, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32420808

RESUMO

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are key players in cancer progression. However, the function of lncRNA NNT-AS1 on glioma is unclear. In the present study, a total of 73 tumor tissues and matched adjacent non-tumor tissues were collected, and glioma cell lines were cultured in vitro. mRNA expression was tested using RT-qPCR. The protein expression level was determined using the western blot assay, cell proliferation was measured using the CCK-8 and BrdU proliferation assay, and the cell cycle, cell migration and invasion were determined using flow cytometry analysis, the wound healing assay and transwell, respectively. The results showed that lncNNT-AS1 is significantly up-regulated during the early stages of glioma. In particular, high levels of NNT-AS1 are observed in glioma cell lines compared to human astrocyte (HA) cells. Furthermore, the inhibition of lnc-NNT-AS1 by siRNA interfere attenuates the cell viability, proliferation, migration and invasion of glioma cell lines. Mechanistically, the inhibition of NNT-AS1 directly interacted with miRNA-494-3p, and positively regulated the downstream target PRMT1 in vitro. Further study proved that the overexpression of miRNA-494-3p and the inhibition of PRMT1 could attenuate both glioma cell proliferation and metastases. Collectively, our results indicated that the miR-494-3p-PRMT1 axis is involved the tumor-suppressive effects of NNT-AS1 inhibition, which sheds new light on lncRNA-directed diagnostics and the therapeutics of glioma.

8.
Chemosphere ; 256: 127050, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446002

RESUMO

Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) can cause adverse health effects through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) after inhalation. Humic-like substances (HULIS) are major constituents contributing to the ROS-generation potential in organic aerosols. In this study, PM2.5 samples in urban Shanghai during autumn and winter (2018-2019) were collected. Mass-normalized ·OH generation rate in surrogate lung fluid (SLF) was used to denote the intrinsic ROS-generation potential of PM2.5 or of the HULIS isolated from PM2.5. In this study, ROS-generation potential of PM2.5 decreased with increasing ambient PM2.5 concentration due to higher percentage of inorganic components in high PM2.5 event. Same trend was observed for the ROS-generation potential of unit mass of HULIS, which was higher when HULIS and PM2.5 concentrations were both relatively lower. The HULIS with high ROS-generation potential but low concentration (High-ROS/Low-Conc HULIS) were likely produced by the atmospheric aqueous-phase reactions during nighttime or under high relative humidity conditions, not from biomass burning emissions or the photochemical pollution products. The association between ROS-generation potential and light absorption properties of HULIS was studied as well. The High-ROS/Low-Conc HULIS also showed stronger light absorbance than the other HULIS. Our results implied the potentially important roles that HULIS species might play in atmospheric environment and human health even when the PM2.5 pollution is low.

9.
Brain Res Bull ; 161: 1-12, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380188

RESUMO

Human WBSCR22 is involved in cancer proliferation, invasion and metastasis; however, its function in glioma remains unexplored. In our research, we aimed to investigate the role of WBSCR22 in the development of glioma and its possible molecular mechanisms. Using bioinformatic analysis of public datasets, we determined that WBSCR22 overexpression in glioma specimens was correlated with an unfavorable patient prognosis. Our results revealed that WBSCR22 was highly expressed in glioma cell lines. The loss of WBSCR22 inhibited the growth, invasion and migration of glioma cells, while WBSCR22 overexpression produced the opposite effects. Moreover, we found that WBSCR22 downregulation reduced the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3ß and decreased the levels of ß-catenin and CyclinD1 in glioma cells. The opposite effects were observed when WBSCR22 was overexpressed. Additionally, we verified with a dual-luciferase reporter assay that WBSCR22 was a direct target of miR-146b-5p. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-146b-5p suppressed WBSCR22 mRNA and protein expression. Notably, the restoration of WBSCR22 expression remarkably reversed the effects of miR-146b-5p overexpression on cell survival, apoptosis and the cell cycle in glioma cells. Collectively, our findings revealed a tumor-promoting role for WBSCR22 in glioma cells, thus providing molecular evidence for WBSCR22 as a novel therapeutic target in glioma.

10.
Hum Mutat ; 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369867

RESUMO

In the human genome, most 5' splice sites (~99%) employ the canonical GT dinucleotide whereas a small minority (~1%) use the noncanonical GC dinucleotide. The functionality and pathogenicity of 5' splice site GT>GC (+2T>C) variants have been extensively studied but we know very little about 5' splice site GC>GT (+2C>T) variants. Herein, we have addressed this deficiency by performing a meta-analysis of reported +2C>T "pathogenic" variants together with a functional analysis of engineered +2C>T substitutions using a cell culture-based full-length gene splicing assay. Our results establish proof of concept that +2C>T variants are qualitatively different from +2T>C variants in terms of their functionality and suggest that, in sharp contrast to +2T>C variants, most if not all +2C>T variants have no pathological relevance. Our findings have important implications for interpreting the clinical relevance of +2C>T variants and understanding the evolutionary switching between GT and GC 5' splice sites in mammalian genomes.

11.
Life Sci ; 255: 117828, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454160

RESUMO

AIMS: To explore the role of chemokine CC motif ligand 2 (CCL2) in spatial memory and cognition impairment, and the underlying mechanisms focused on inflammatory, glutamate metabolistic and apoptotic- associated mRNA expression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Stereotaxic surgery was performed here to establish a rat model by bilateral intra-hippocampal injection of CCL2. Morris water maze (MWM) and Novel object recognition test (NORT) were used to assess the learning, memory and cognitive ability respectively. RT-PCR was used to detect the relative mRNA expression of inflammatory, glutamate metabolistic and apoptotic- associated indexes. Nissl and TUNEL staining were performed to observe the morphological changes of hippocampal CA1 zone and quantified the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons of CA1 zones respectively. KEY FINDINGS: We found CCL2 injured cognitive function in rats. Six days after CCL2 injection, we revealed the following obvious mRNA expression changes: (1) increasing of the neuroinflammatory cytokines IL-1ß, CXCL-10, IL-6; (2) decreasing of the glutamate transporters GLT-1 and GLAST and increasing of PAG; (3) increasing of the apoptotic genes caspase-8, caspase-3 and Bax, while decreasing the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2. Further, Nissl staining and TUNEL confirmed the injury of the structure of hippocampal CA1 zones and the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicated that CCL2 impaired spatial memory and cognition, the involving mechanisms may link to the up-regulation of mRNA expression of the three major pathological events: inflammation, excitotoxicity and neuronal apoptosis, which were involved in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). Taken together, these findings suggest a potential therapeutic strategy against CCL2.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Inflamação/patologia , Transtornos da Memória/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/fisiopatologia , Animais , Apoptose/fisiologia , Quimiocina CCL2/administração & dosagem , Cognição/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/fisiologia , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/virologia , Neurônios/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Memória Espacial/fisiologia
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 720: 137617, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325589

RESUMO

The measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was carried out using an online GC-FID/MS at a rural site in North China Plain from 1 Nov. 2017 to 21 Jan. 2018. Their concentrations, emission ratios and source apportionment are investigated. During the entire experiment period, the average mixing ratio of VOCs was 69.5 ± 51.9 ppb, among which alkanes contributed the most (37% on average). Eight sources were identified in the non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) model as short-chain alkanes (13.3%), biomass burning (4.6%), solvent (10.8%), industry (3.7%), coal combustion (41.1%), background (4.5%), vehicular emission (7.7%) and secondary formation (14.2%). In addition to the formation of OVOCs through photochemical reactions, the primary sources, such as coal combustion, biomass burning, vehicular emission, solvent and industry, can also contribute to OVOCs emissions. High OVOCs emission ratios thus were observed at Wangdu site. Primary emission was estimated to contribute 50%, 45%, 73%, 77%, 40%, and 29% on average to acrolein, acetone, methylvinylketone (MVK), methylethylketone (MEK), methacrolein and n-hexanal according to NMF analysis, respectively, which was well consistent with the contribution from photochemical age method. Secondary organic aerosol formation potential (SOAFP) was evaluated by SOA yield, which was significantly higher under low-NOx condition (13.4 µg m-3 ppm-1) than that under high-NOx condition (3.2 µg m-3 ppm-1). Moreover, the photochemical reactivity and sources of VOCs showed differences in seven observed pollution episodes. Among, the largest OH loss rate and SOAFP were found in severe pollution plumes, which were induced primarily by coal combustion. Therefore, mitigation strategies for severe pollution formation should focus on reducing coal combustion emitted VOCs that lead to SOA formation.

13.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 127: 110139, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302948

RESUMO

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are characterized by synaptic damage and neuronal loss in the brain, ultimately leading to progressive decline of cognitive abilities and memory. Chemokine CC motif ligand 2 (CCL2) is elevated in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and has been believed to contribute to HAND. Previous studies by our research team have shown that CCL2 enhances N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and causes nerve cell damage. However, there are few drugs currently available to treat nerve damage that is caused by CCL2. Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) are isolated from Panax notoginseng and benefit the human body in various ways, including the neuroprotective effect. However, the protective effect of PNS on CCL2-induced neurotoxicity remains unknown. In this study, we found that PNS improved CCL2-induced learning and memory impairment, and inhibited CCL2-induced cell death. These effects may be due to inhibiting over-activation of NMDA receptors by alleviating the dysfunction of glutamate metabolism. Furthermore, PNS-modulated CCL2-inducd intracellular oxidative stress was found to attenuate cell inflammation. Additionally, PNS pretreatment evidently inhibited apoptotic pathways by reducing the Bax/BCL-2 ratio and caspase-3, 8, 9 expressions. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that PNS provides substantial neuroprotection against CCL2-induced neurotoxicity, and may be a novel therapeutic agent in CCL2-induced HAND or other neurodegenerative diseases.

14.
Lipids Health Dis ; 19(1): 63, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32264896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is a leading cause of acute pancreatitis. HTG can be caused by either primary (genetic) or secondary etiological factors, and there is increasing appreciation of the interplay between the two kinds of factors in causing severe HTG. OBJECTIVES: The main aim of this study was to identify the genetic basis of hypertriglyceridemia-induced acute pancreatitis (HTG-AP) in a Chinese family with three affected members (the proband, his mother and older sister). METHODS: The entire coding and flanking sequences of LPL, APOC2, APOA5, GPIHBP1 and LMF1 genes were analyzed by Sanger sequencing. The newly identified LPL nonsense variant was subjected to functional analysis by means of transfection into HEK-293 T cells followed by Western blot and activity assays. Previously reported pathogenic LPL nonsense variants were collated and compared with respect to genotype and phenotype relationship. RESULTS: We identified a novel nonsense variant, p.Gln118* (c.351C > T), in the LPL gene, which co-segregated with HTG-AP in the Chinese family. We provided in vitro evidence that this variant resulted in a complete functional loss of the affected LPL allele. We highlighted a role of alcohol abuse in modifying the clinical expression of the disease in the proband. Additionally, our survey of 12 previously reported pathogenic LPL nonsense variants (in 20 carriers) revealed that neither serum triglyceride levels nor occurrence of HTG-AP was distinguishable among the three carrier groups, namely, simple homozygotes, compound heterozygotes and simple heterozygotes. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings, taken together, generated new insights into the complex etiology and expression of HTG-AP.

15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(18): 22414-22422, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314292

RESUMO

The Sinkiang Uygur Autonomous Region is located in western China and the centre of the Asian-European continent, which frequently suffers from sandstorm disasters and haze weathers. A 1-year measurement campaign in two selected points in Shihezi and Urumqi of Sinkiang was conducted to characterise the effects of particle matters and factors on particle extinction under different weather conditions. Results showed that the average concentration of PM1-2.5 was 19.83, 9.230, 28.93 and 122.4 µg/m3 in Shihezi and 67.25, 16.80, 59.19 and 324.0 µg/m3 in Urumqi for spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively. PM5-10 concentrations can reach up to 500.0 and 160.0 µg/m3 during polluted weather conditions in Shihezi and Urumqi, respectively. PM5-10 also accounted for the largest fraction in Shihezi and Urumqi for all types of weather, reaching up to 40.0% under dusty weather conditions. PM1-2.5 significantly increased during winter possibly due to the increased demand for heating compared with non-heating periods. PM0.5-1 is possibly produced from motor vehicle exhaust. Particle size is concluded to be the dominant factor for particle extinction capability under fine weather based on calculations of aerosol optical properties. The refractive index for a particle with a diameter of 100 µm (3.10-3.11i) is substantially larger than that with a diameter of 0.5000 µm (1.600-0.07000i), but the extinction capability of the latter is 1.30 times that of the former. Comparatively, when the mass concentration of coarse particles is over 17.0 times that of the fine particles, and then mass concentration becomes the dominant factor. Therefore, visibility is negatively correlated to particle mass variations during dust storms and hazy days but not for fine days.

16.
Sci Total Environ ; 722: 137911, 2020 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199390

RESUMO

Frost as a kind of deposition plays an important role in the removal of atmospheric compounds. However, studies concerning frost in the atmospheric environment were rare although chemical composition in frost samples might be affected by the surrounding atmospheric environment. In this study, a total of 35 frost samples were collected by means of a homemade glass-plate frost condenser under severe polluted condition in the North China Plain (NCP) from Dec. 4, 2018 to Mar. 2, 2019. The pH values and water-soluble ions (WSI) were conducted. The extremely high concentrations of WSI were found, which reflected the severe pollution significantly affecting the level of chemical composition in frost. The major ions were Ca2+, SO42- and HCO3- with averaged concentrations of 1242, 1143, 1076 µeq L-1, respectively. These ions were at least one order of magnitude higher than the previous frost studies. HCO3- was one of the most abundant components in frost. Its high proportion contributed to the ionic balance and led to the alkaline characteristic of frost. SO42- had the almost doubled ratio in frost compared with the concurrent PM2.5 samples. Different from the huge diversity of chemical components in PM2.5, the frost had similar ratio of WSI under great variety of PM2.5 concentrations. It proved that PM2.5 had less effect on the ratio of WSI in frost. Nutrient ions of NH4+, NO3- and K+ accounted for 13.9%, 5.4% and 1.6% of the total averaged concentrations, respectively. On average, per square meter soil would receive 563 µg nitrogen and 123 µg potassium nutrient during a frost night. High occult deposition flux of ions indicated the strong scavenging effect from the frost event. In addition, the occult deposition flux of SO42- was comparable to the dry deposition flux, further emphasizing frost process as a non-negligible atmospheric removal pathway of SO42-.

17.
Sci Total Environ ; 722: 137756, 2020 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208242

RESUMO

Ammonia (NH3), as a dominant alkaline gas in the atmosphere, plays a vital role in Chinese urban haze formation process, but its source in urban areas of China is controversial. To identify the sources of urban NH3 in the semi-arid region of East Asia, real-time measurements of NH3 and NH4+ of PM2.5 in the urban atmosphere of Xi'an, inland China during the winter and summer of 2017 were performed and their stable nitrogen isotope composition were analyzed. NH3 was 38.0 ± 9.4 µg/m3 in the summer, which is 1.5 times higher than that in the winter. Concentration of NH3 in both seasons well correlated with that of PAHs in PM2.5 and the mass ratio of (BbF + BeP + IP + BghiP) to the total PAHs, suggesting that fossil fuel combustion is an important source of NH3 in Xi'an. Moreover, diurnal variation pattern of NH3 was consistent with that of CO in the summer, peaking in the morning and evening rush hours, respectively, further indicating an importance of the contribution of traffic emissions to NH3 in the city. Based on the source apportionment by using isotope mixing model, we found that 66.4% and 62.5% of NH3 in the urban atmosphere were contributed by non-agricultural sources in the summer and winter, respectively. Our work revealed that non-agricultural sources dominate the atmospheric NH3 of Xi'an, where haze pollution is still severe, and suggested that emission controls of non-agricultural NH3 could be an effective way to mitigate the air pollution problem in the semi-arid region of East Asia.

18.
ChemSusChem ; 2020 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222061

RESUMO

Non-noble metal-based bifunctional electrocatalysts are highly desired for water electrolysis. However, constructing a water electrolyzer using a sole catalyst without compromising either its oxygen evolution reaction (OER) or hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) performance is still challenging. In this study, a simple strategy is developed to integrate 2 D and 0 D CoP in the same metal-organic framework precursor-derived hollow N-doped carbon nanotube-assembled polyhedron (HNCNP). The unique hierarchical structure endows the resulting nanocomposite with both the advantages of more exposed active sites for 2 D and large surface-to-volume ratio for 0 D materials, whereas the hollow interior could benefit the charge and mass transfer properties. Thus, CoP/HNCNP@2 D CoP exhibits outstanding OER and HER activity and a low cell voltage when employed as both the anode and cathode in a two-electrode water electrolyzer. The approach of integrating the same metal phosphide phase with diverse dimensions may inspire new ways to design hierarchical nanostructures for advanced energy conversion applications.

19.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 2702175, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32185196

RESUMO

Chemokine CC motif ligand 2 (CCL2) is one of the most recognized proinflammatory chemokines, and the expression of CCL2 in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients infected with HIV-1 is significantly higher than that of healthy people. As such, it is seen as an important cause of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). Our previous investigation has confirmed the pathological role of CCL2 in mediating brain damage leading to cognitive dysfunction. Currently, however, research on therapeutic drugs for the central nervous system targeting CCL2 is very limited. Our present study used brain stereotactic technology to induce cognitive impairment in rats by injecting CCL2 (5 ng) into the bilateral hippocampus. To investigate the protective effect and mechanism of Tanshinone IIA (25, 50, 75 mg/kg/d) on CCL2-induced learning memory and cognitive impairment in rats, we performed the Morris water maze (MWM) and novel object recognition tests (NORT) on the rats. The results showed that Tanshinone IIA significantly alleviated CCL2-induced learning memory and cognitive dysfunction. Further studies on the hippocampal tissue of the rats revealed that Tanshinone IIA treatment significantly increased the activity of SOD and GSH-Px while the level of MDA decreased compared to the model group. Additionally, the relative expression of apoptosis-associated genes caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 and inflammation-associated genes IL-1ß and IL-6 in Tanshinone IIA-treated rats was lower than that in model rats. Finally, we confirmed hippocampal neuron loss and apoptosis by Nissl staining and TdT-mediated dUTP Nick end labeling (TUNEL). Taken together, these data imply that Tanshinone IIA can ameliorate CCL2-induced learning memory and cognitive impairment by impacting oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. Tanshinone IIA may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of HAND.

20.
Am Surg ; 86(2): 110-115, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32167045

RESUMO

Several randomized trials comparing self-gripping mesh with polypropylene (PL) mesh in Lichtenstein hernioplasty revealed that the self-gripping mesh significantly reduced the operation time. In these studies, some enrolled only male patients, and in others, the proportion of women was extremely low. The aim of this research was to compare outcomes after self-gripping mesh repair with PL mesh secured with sutures in female Lichtenstein hernioplasty. Female patients with primary unilateral inguinal hernia were assigned randomly to undergo Lichtenstein hernioplasty with a self-gripping ProGrip (PG) mesh or a sutured PL mesh, followed-up at one week, one month, three months, one year, and two years. Demographics, hernia characteristics, and operative outcomes data were analyzed. Pain was assessed with a visual analog scale (0-10), and quality of life (QOL) was estimated by a 36-item short-form general survey (0-26). Forty eight patients in the PG group and 51 participants in the PL group completed the follow-up. The operation time of the PG (54.1 ± 12 minutes) group was significantly shorter than that of the PL (60.9 ± 11.3 minutes) group (P = 0.045). At the one-month follow-up, the incidence of foreign body feeling in the PG group was significantly higher than that in the PL group (P = 0.031), whereas no significant difference was observed in visual analog scale ≥3 and QOL. In a follow-up of three months, one year, and two years, there was no significant difference in foreign body feeling, chronic pain, QOL, and recurrence between two groups. The surgical outcomes of self-gripping mesh are comparable to those of the ordinary PL mesh with a reduced operation time in female Lichtenstein hernioplasty. Registration number: ChiCTR1800017360 (http://www.chictr.org.cn).


Assuntos
Hérnia Inguinal/cirurgia , Herniorrafia/métodos , Telas Cirúrgicas , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Corpos Estranhos/diagnóstico , Herniorrafia/instrumentação , Humanos , Duração da Cirurgia , Medição da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Polipropilenos , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Recidiva , Telas Cirúrgicas/efeitos adversos , Suturas , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
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