Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.240
Filtrar
1.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127968, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182104

RESUMO

Electrocoagulation (EC) coupled with E-peroxone process (ECP) was a promising and cost-effective integrated technology for shale gas fracturing flowback water (SGFFW) treatment. In this study, the ECP process was comprehensively compared with two sequential processes (EC followed by E-peroxone (EC-E-peroxone) and E-peroxone followed by EC (E-peroxone-EC)) to elucidate the synergistic effect of this coupled process. In EC-E-peroxone process, COD decreased by 89.2%, while COD decreased by 82.5% for 180 min in E-peroxone-EC process. However, COD removal efficiency was 82.4% in ECP for only 90 min. Average current efficiency of the ECP process was 29.9%, which was twice than that of the sequential processes. The enhancement factor was calculated to be 1.63, demonstrating the substantial significant synergistic effects for ECP. Only low MW components could be observed for the EC-E-peroxone (average MW = 533 Da with PD ≈ 1) and ECP process (MW = 538 Da with PD ≈ 1). These results suggested that EC-E-peroxone and ECP process had much stronger oxidation ability, demonstrating the enhancement of OH production induced by the Al-based coagulants might be responsible for the significant enhancement of COD removal. These results indicated there could be a synergistic effect between EC and ozone in addition to EC and E-peroxone reactions. Compared to the two sequential processes, ECP was a high efficiency and space-saving electrochemical system with simultaneous coagulation and enhanced OH generation by the products of anode and the cathode.

2.
Behav Brain Res ; 396: 112925, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971195

RESUMO

Chronic methamphetamine (METH) treatment induces behavioral sensitization in rodents. During this process, hyperactivation of the mesolimbic dopamine system plays a central role, and dopamine D2-like receptor-based antipsychotics are known to alleviate the behavioral hyperactivity. The atypical antipsychotic, clozapine (Clz), acts partially as a dopamine D4 receptor (D4R) antagonist and mitigates hyperdopaminergic drug addiction and/or comorbid psychotic symptoms; however, it remains unclear whether D4R blockade contributes to the therapeutic effects of Clz. Here, we evaluated the potential role of D4R in regulating hyperdopaminergia-induced behavioral hyperactivity in METH behavioral sensitization and dopamine transporter (DAT) knockdown (KD) mice. Clz or a D4R-selective antagonist, L-745,870, were co-administered to mice with daily METH in a METH sensitization model, and Clz or L-745,870 were administered alone in a DAT KD hyperactivity model. Locomotor activity and accumbal D4R expression were analyzed. Clz suppressed both the initiation and expression of METH behavioral sensitization, as well as DAT KD hyperactivity. However, repetitive Clz treatment induced tolerance to the suppression effect on METH sensitization initiation. In contrast, D4R inhibition by L-745,870 had no effect on METH sensitization or DAT KD hyperactivity. Accumbal D4R expression was similar between METH-sensitized mice with and without Clz co-treatment. In sum, our results suggest the mesolimbic D4R does not participate in behavioral sensitization encoded by hyperdopaminergia, a finding which likely extends to the therapeutic effects of Clz. Therefore, molecular targets other than D4R should be prioritized in the development of future therapeutics for treatment of hyperdopaminergia-dependent neuropsychiatric disorders.

3.
Talanta ; 221: 121399, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076054

RESUMO

Herein, we present a facile strategy for dopamine (DA) sensing by a water-stable MOF of {[Tb(Cmdcp)(H2O)3]2(NO3)2·5H2O}n (1, H3CmdcpBr = N-carboxymethyl-(3,5-dicarboxyl)pyridinium bromide). Without any post-modification, MOF 1 functions as an effective fluorescent sensor for the label-free detection of DA with the detection limit of 0.41 µM (S/N = 3). Under the optimum condition of 80 °C, pH 9 for 80 min in Tris-HCl with natural ambient oxygen, DA polymerizes to give polydopamine (pDA), which adheres to the surface of MOF 1 and quenched its green luminescence thoroughly. The sensing process is visible to naked eyes under 365 nm UV light irradiation due to the partial overlap of its excitation spectrum with the absorption spectrum of pDA. The sensing process is not interfered by coexisting of bio-related organic substances, such as glucose (Glu), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), homocysteine (Hcy), ascorbic acid (AA), uric acid (UA), cysteine (Cys), glutathione (GSH), as well as the presence of metal ions, including Zn2+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Ni2+ and Co2+. The sensing process is also adaptable in biological fluids of serum and urine with satisfactory recoveries ranging from 96.14% to 104.32%.

4.
Bioresour Technol ; 319: 124172, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011627

RESUMO

Combining biomass pyrolysis with microwave heating technologies provides a novel and efficient approach for low-grade pyrolusite reduction. The microwave reduction behavior and pyrolysis kinetic characteristics of walnut shell-pyrolusite blends were explored. Results indicated the optimal reduction parameters were: reduction temperature of 650 °C, holding time of 30 min, Mbio/More of 1.8:10, and microwave power of 1200 W. The co-pyrolysis characteristics of the blends included four stages: dehydration, pre-pyrolysis, intense pyrolysis and reduction, and slow pyrolysis and reduction. Fitting analysis based on Coats-Redfern method revealed that chemical reaction was the control step of the process of reducing pyrolusite by biomass, which the finding matched to the isothermal kinetic analysis results determined through unreacted shrinking nuclear model. The activation energies and pre-exponential factors were determined at 5.62 kJ·mol-1-16.69 kJ·mol-1 and 0.0426 min-1-0.515 min-1. The work provides sound references for promoting the industrial application of the combined method on minerals reduction.

5.
J Phys Chem B ; 124(45): 10237-10244, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143425

RESUMO

Spin relaxation, a defining mechanism of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), has been a prime method for determining three-dimensional molecular structures and their dynamics in solution. It also plays key roles for contrast enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In bulk solutions, rapid Brownian molecular diffusion modulates dipolar interactions between a spin pair from different molecules, resulting in very weak intermolecular relaxations. We show that in fluids confined in nanospace or nanopores (nanoconfined fluids) the correlation of dipolar coupling between spin pairs of different molecules is greatly enhanced by the nanopore constraint boundaries on the molecular diffusion, giving rise to an enhanced correlation for the spin pair. As a result, the intermolecular dipolar interaction behaves cooperatively, which leads to a large intermolecular dipolar relaxation rate and opposite in sign to the bulk solution. We found that the classical NMR relaxation theory fails to capture these observations in a nanoconfined fluid environment. Hence, we developed a formal theory and experimentally confirmed that enhanced correlation and cooperated relaxation are ubiquitous in nanoconfined fluids. The newly discovered phenomenon and the developed NMR method reveal new applications in a broad range of synthesized and naturally occurring materials in the field of nanofluidics to study molecular dynamics and structure as well as for MRI image enhancement.

6.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33177393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Benvitimod cream, a novel synthetic small molecule, was effective in treating mild-to-moderate plaque psoriasis. We conducted a phase III clinical trial to assess the efficacy and safety of benvitimod cream in patients with mild-to-moderate plaque psoriasis. METHODS: We randomly assigned 686 patients (2:1:1) to receive 1% benvitimod cream, 0.005% calcipotriol ointment or placebo twice a day for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy end points were the percentage of patients with a 75% or greater reduction from baseline in the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI 75) score and with a score of 0 or 1 in static physician's global assessment (sPGA) at week 12. RESULTS: The results showed that 50.4% of patients in the benvitimod group achieved PASI 75, which was significantly higher than that in the calcipotriol (38.5%, P < 0.05) and placebo (13.9%, P < 0.05) groups. The proportion of patients achieving an sPGA score 0 or 1 was 66.3% in the benvitimod group and 63.9% in the calcipotriol group, which were both significantly higher than that in the placebo group (34%, P < 0.05). In the long-term follow-up study, 50.8% of patients experienced recurrence. After retreatment with 1% benvitimod, 73.3% of patients achieved an sPGA score of 0 or 1 again at week 52. Adverse events included application site irritation, follicular papules, and contact dermatitis. No systemic adverse reactions were reported. CONCLUSION: During this 12-week study, benvitimod cream was demonstrated with high effectiveness and safety in patients with mild-to-moderate plaque psoriasis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR), ChiCTR-TRC-13003259; http://www.chictr.org.cn/showprojen.aspx?proj=6300.

7.
Infect Dis Ther ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146854

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sepsis is a complication in acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) patients associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity. Early diagnosis of sepsis in ACLF patients can improve prognosis. This study aimed to explore potential effective biomarkers for the early diagnosis of sepsis in ACLF patients. METHODS: Ninety-four ACLF patients with sepsis were enrolled from 10 hospitals across China from January 2015 to June 2016 as well as 49 ACLF patients without infection from Xiangya Hospital. The first-day admission data and SOFA score and CLIF-SOFA score were collected. The differences of indicators between groups were compared with Kruskal-Wallis test. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was analyzed to evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of the selected factors. RESULTS: Soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell-1 (sTREM-1) and presepsin were significantly higher in ACLF-sepsis patients compared with ACLF patients with no infection (P < 0.001). sTREM-1 and presepsin presented higher diagnostic value in sepsis for ACLF patients compared with other biomarkers [white blood cells (WBC), procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP)]. Combining sTREM-1 or presepsin with the CLIF-SOFA score increased the diagnostic efficiency (AUC = 0.876 or AUC = 0.913, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: sTREM-1 and presepsin are potential biomarkers for the early diagnosis of sepsis in ACLF patients. The combination of presepsin and the CLIF-SOFA score is a promising method for diagnosing sepsis in ACLF patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT02457637.

8.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(11): 983, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199694

RESUMO

FAM134B (also called JK-1, RETREG1), a member of the family with sequence similarity 134, was originally discovered as an oncogene in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. However, its most famous function is that of an ER-phagy-regulating receptor. Over the decades, the powerful biological functions of FAM134B were gradually revealed. Overwhelming evidence indicates that its dysfunction is related to pathophysiological processes such as neuropathy, viral replication, inflammation, and cancer. This review describes the biological functions of FAM134B, focusing on its role in ER-phagy. In addition, we summarize the diseases in which it is involved and review the underlying mechanisms.

9.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 122020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203795

RESUMO

Pituitary adenoma (PA) is mostly benign intracranial tumor, but it also displays invasive growth characteristics and provokes challenging clinical conditions. S100A9 protein enhances tumor progression. In this study, we firstly demonstrated that both intracellular and extracellular S100A9 promoted the expression of Vimentin and Intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), coupled with reduced E-cadherin in PA. As a result, PA acquired the phenotype of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), leading to proliferation, cell cycle progression, migration and invasion. In addition, we indicated S100A9-induced EMT was mediated by activation of AKT1. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry showed that S100A9 expression was higher in invasive PA than that in non-invasive PA. These data extended our understanding for the effects of S100A9 on PA invasion and contributed to further development of a promising therapeutic target for invasive PA.

10.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-8, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33205667

RESUMO

Two new phenolic glycosides 7R,8R-threo-4,7,9,9'-tetrahydroxy-3-methoxy-8-O-4'-neolignan-3'-O-(3''-α-L-arabinofuranosyl)-ß-D-glucopyranoside. (1), 4-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone-4''-O-(6-ß-D-xylosyl)-ß-D-glucopyranoside (2), along with two known related analogues 7R,8R-threo-4,7,9,9'-tetrahydroxy-3-methoxy-8-O-4'-neolignan-3'-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (3), 4-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone-4'-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (4) were obtained from the roots of Sanguisorba officinalis. Combined with acid hydrolysis derivatization, the absolute configurations of these new compounds were elucidated by comprehensive analyses of spectroscopic data including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electrospray ionization high resolution mass (HRESIMS) as well as circular dichroism (CD). Compounds 1-4 exhibited anti-inflammatory properties in vitro by attenuating the production of inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO) as well as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6).

11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33205968

RESUMO

Okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench], as a kind of nutritive vegetable, is rich in flavonoids, polyphenols, polysaccharides, amino acids, and other bioactive substances and has various biological activities. As one of main bioactive components, okra polysaccharides (OPs), mainly comprising pectic polysaccharides, have various biological activities. OPs have been extensively investigated in recent years. Many studies characterized structures of OPs obtained by different extraction methods, which were confirmed to be rhamnogalacturonan-I-type polysaccharides in most cases. OPs have a thick and slimy texture, suggesting that they can be a promising source of texture modifiers for complex food matrices. They have various biological activities, such as antioxidant activity, immunomodulatory activity, hypoglycaemic activity, and improving intestinal function. Therefore, OPs may potentially serve as novel immunomodulators or an adjuvant for diabetic nephropathy. Up to now, there is no specific summary on the research progress of OPs. In this paper, the latest research progress on the extraction, purification, characterization, rheological properties, biological activities, and applications of OPs is reviewed, to provide the reference for the processing and comprehensive utilization of OPs in the future.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206326

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Psoriasis is a common skin disease, with chronic inflammation and a complex etiology. It has long been recognized that chronic skin conditions and mental health disorders are often co-morbid. Thus, the concept of the gut-brain-skin axis emphasized in mental health disorders may also regulate the health of skin. RESULTS: The gut microbiota has been found to be the bridge between the immune system and nervous system. By leveraging clinical cases and animal models of psoriasis, an important communication pathway has been identified along the gut-brain-skin axis that is associated with the modulation of neurotransmitters from the microbiota. Furthermore, mammalian neurotransmitters, including dopamine, serotonin, or γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), can be produced and/or consumed by several types of bacteria. Other studies suggest that manipulating these neurotransmitters by bacteria may have an effect on host physiology, and the levels of neurotransmitter can be altered by microbiota-based interventions. CONCLUSIONS: Nonetheless, it is unknown whether or not the manipulation of neurotransmitter levels by bacteria can affect the occurrence and development of psoriasis. Notably, preliminary experiments found that oral consumption of probiotics improves the clinical symptoms in patients with psoriasis, perhaps correlated with the gut microbiome-mediated crosstalk between the immune system and the nervous system by secreting neurotransmitters in psoriasis. In this review, the communication along the gut-brain-skin axis is discussed.

13.
Nurse Educ Today ; 96: 104621, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To maintain patient safety, effective first-aid skills are necessary during emergencies. It is important to develop in-service education programs to equip clinical nurses with first-aid skills. OBJECTIVES: This study explored the effects of first-aid skills and knowledge between situational simulation training and online teaching. It also examined the different effects of two training programs associated with nurses' baseline first-aid ability. DESIGN: This was a randomized, single-blind controlled study. SETTING: The study was conducted from December 15, 2016 to May 28, 2018, in the nursing department of a medical center in Taiwan. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were 92 general ward nurses. METHODS: Participants were randomly assigned to either a situational simulation training or an online teaching group. We used a first-aid knowledge test (FAKT) and a first-aid skills test (FAST) to measure the participants' learning outcomes after intervention and we did cost comparisons between groups. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the changes in FAKT and FAST scores after intervention between situational simulation training and online teaching groups (p = 0.76, p = 0.45). All the participants in both training programs showed improvements via increased scores on FAST (M ± SD = 35.27 ± 12.08 for online teaching, M ± SD = 36.08 ± 10.78 for situational simulation training) and FAKT (M ± SD = 21.09 ± 18.59 for online teaching, M ± SD = 23.39 ± 15.36 for situational simulation training). However, for the subgroup of participants who scored <75% on the FAST pretest, better improvements only occurred in the situational simulation training, but the situational simulation training program had higher costs than the online teaching program. CONCLUSIONS: The improvement was greater in the situational simulation training group among nurses who could not exceed scores of 75% for first-aid skills. First-aid skill scores below 75% are likely a sign of nurses who need more assistance, discussion, and debriefing from situational simulation training.

14.
Cells ; 9(11)2020 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202667

RESUMO

Mental stress is highly related to many clinical symptoms and disorders, as it activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis to affect a wide variety of physiological functions. Furthermore, stress leads to the aberrations in HPA axis activity and disruptions of body homeostasis. It was previously shown that neuropeptide FF (NPFF) regulates the HPA axis through the activation of hypothalamus paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and genetic overexpression or pharmacological stimulation of NPFF receptor 2 (NPFFR2) triggers hyperactivity of HPA axis and suppresses behavioral correlates of emotion in mice. In this study, we further examined the role of NPFFR2 in stress response in mice by utilizing a single prolonged stress (SPS). SPS is considered a model of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and mice undergo physical restraint, forced swimming, and ether anesthesia within a day followed by social isolation for one week. NPFFR2 knockout B6 mice were generated by CRISPR/Cas9 technology and exposed to SPS. The NPFFR2 knockouts showed resistance to stress exposure-induced anxiety-like behaviors and HPA axis hyperactivity. Additionally, the hippocampal mRNA levels of glucocorticoid receptor and mineralocorticoid receptor were reduced in wild-type (WT) mice but not in NPFFR2 knockouts after stress exposure. Our data also suggested that NPFFR2 knockout mice have stronger negative feedback on the HPA axis after exposure to SPS. Mice with intra-PVN Npffr2 shRNA injection displayed trends toward resistance to SPS exposure in both behavioral and molecular assays. Together, our findings suggest that NPFFR2 may be a potential therapeutic target for disorders relating to stress/anxiety and HPA dysregulation.

15.
Chemistry ; 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33231936

RESUMO

Here, we report the reaction, CH 3 CN at 120 °C, of (1-methyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)methanamine ( L1 ) with Co(H 2 O) 6 Cl 2 leading to the 2,3,5,6-tetrakis(1-methyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)pyrazine ( 3 ), isolated as a dimeric cluster {[Co II 2 ( 3 )Cl 4 ]∙2CH 3 CN} ( 2 ). When O 2 and H 2 O are present, (1-methyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-2-carbonyl)amide ( HL1' ) is first formed and crystallized as [Co III ( L1 ) 2 ( L1' )]Cl 2 ∙2H 2 O ( 4 ) before fusion of H L1' with L1 giving 1-methyl-N-(1-methyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-carbonyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-carboxamide ( HL2'' ) forming one-dimensional (1D) chain of [Co II 3 ( L2'' ) 2 Cl 4 ] n ( 5 ). The combination of crystallography and mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) of isolated crystals and the solutions taken from the reaction as a function time reveal seven intermediate steps leading to 2 , but six steps for 5 which a different sequence takes place. Control and isotope labeling experiments confirm the two carbonyl oxygen atoms in 5 originate from both air and water. The dependence on the metals, compared to FeCl 3 ·6H 2 O leading to a stable triheteroarylmethyl radical, is quite astounding, which could be attributed to the different oxidation states of the metals and coordination modes confirmed by DFT calculations. This metal and valence dependent process is a very useful way for selectively obtaining these large molecules which are unachievable by common organic synthesis.

16.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 14: 4625-4637, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154629

RESUMO

Background: Osteosarcoma (OS) is a primary bone tumor associated with locally aggressive growth and early metastatic potential that typically occurs in children and adolescents. Chinese traditional medicine Cinnamomum cassia Presl has been shown to have significant tumor-killing effect, in which cinnamaldehyde (CA) is the main active ingredient. Purpose: To explore the anticancer effect of CA on the osteosarcoma cells and the possible molecular mechanism. Methods: Crystal violet assay, MTT assay and colony-forming assay were used to confirm the inhibitory role of CA in the proliferation of 143B and MG63 osteosarcoma cells. Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry were used to observe apoptosis. The migration and invasion role of OS cells were evaluated using transwell assays and wound healing assays. Western blotting was used to analyse the protein expression levels. Nude mice were inoculated with 143B cells to establish an orthotopic OS tumor animal model and to investigate the effects of CA on OS tumors. Results: According to crystal violet assay, MTT assay and colony-forming assay, CA significantly inhibited cell proliferation. Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry analysis showed that CA-induced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, transwell assays and wound healing assays showed that CA inhibited the migration and invasion of osteosarcoma cells. In vivo mouse models, CA inhibited the growth of osteosarcoma. The potential mechanisms could be that CA inhibited the transcriptional activity of Wnt/ß-catenin and PI3K/Akt of the osteosarcoma. Conclusion: CA may inhibit the proliferation, migration, invasion and promote apoptosis of OS cells by inhibiting Wnt/ß-catenin and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. CA may be a potentially effective anti-tumor drug.

17.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33200882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is a notorious pest of cruciferous plants. In temperate areas, annual populations of DBM originate from adult migrants. However, the source populations and migration trajectories of immigrants remain unclear. Here, we investigated migration trajectories of DBM in China with genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped using double-digest RAD (ddRAD) sequencing. We first analyzed patterns of spatial and temporal genetic structure among southern source and northern recipient populations, then inferred migration trajectories into northern regions using discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC), assignment tests and spatial kinship patterns. RESULTS: Temporal genetic differentiation among populations was low, indicating sources of recipient populations and migration trajectories are stable. Spatial genetic structure indicated three genetic clusters in the southern source populations. Assignment tests linked northern populations to the Sichuan cluster, and central-eastern populations to the South and Yunnan clusters, indicating that Sichuan populations are sources of northern immigrants and South and Yunnan populations are sources of central-eastern populations. First-order (full-sib) and second-order (half-sib) kin pairs were always found within populations, but about 35-40% of third-order (cousin) pairs were found in different populations. Closely related individuals in different populations were in about 35-40% of cases found at distances of 900 to 1500 km, while some were separated by over 2000 km. CONCLUSION: This study unravels seasonal migration patterns in the DBM. We demonstrate how careful sampling and population genomic analyses can be combined to help understand cryptic migration patterns in insects. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

18.
Int J Pharm ; 591: 119964, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137449

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to resolve the lag time problem for peptides loaded PLGA-Hydrogel Microspheres (PLGA-gel-Ms) by blending low molecular PLGA (Mw. 1 kDa) into PLGA (Mw. 10 kDa) as an intrinsic porogen, and then assess the in vitro-in vivo relationship (IVIVR). Here, Goserelin acetate (GOS) was chosen as the model peptides. When compared to additional types of porogen, the intrinsic porogen avoided impurities remaining and protected the bioactivities of the peptides. By adding 10% PLGA (Mw. 1 kDa), the lag time was eliminated both in vitro and in vivo with a desirable EE (97.04% ± 0.51%). The release mechanisms were found to be: a) initial GOS release mainly controlled by pores diffusion and b) autocatalysis of PLGA (Mw. 1 kDa) which increased the quantity of aqueous pores, as revealed by SEM images. To solve the challenges caused by multiphasic release profiles, for the first time the Segmented phases IVIVR were proposed and developed, and showed improved linear fitting effects and supported the proposed release mechanisms. The application of PLGA blends could provide a new insight into PLGA microsphere initial release rate regulation.

19.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242429, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211759

RESUMO

Elevated Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk has been associated with the use of several antihypertensive medications but has not yet been elucidated in the populations prescribed alpha-1 blockers that are commonly used in the treatment of hypertension and lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS-BPH). The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between alpha-1 blocker use and the risk of developing RCC using a nationwide population-based database in Taiwan. Patients who were treated with alpha-1 blockers for at least 28 days were identified through the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from 2000 to 2010. The unexposed participants were matched with the exposed cases according to age, sex, and index year at a ratio of 3:1. Cox proportional hazards regression, stratified by sex and comorbidities and adjusted for age, was performed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for the risk of subsequent RCC. Among 2,232,092 subjects, patients who received alpha-1 blocker treatment had a higher risk of RCC than the unexposed group. Taking into account hypertension and BPH, the adjusted HR was significantly higher in male alpha-1 blocker users who had no BPH and either the presence (HR: 1.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22-2.18) or absence (HR: 2.31, 95% CI = 1.40-3.81) of hypertension than in men not receiving these drugs. Taken together, male alpha-1 blocker users who had no comorbidity of BPH exhibited an increased risk for developing RCC independent of hypertension. Further study is warranted to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of this association.

20.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 193: 113713, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160222

RESUMO

Aconitum L., the main source of Aconitum medicinal materials, is rich in diterpenoid alkaloids. Several drugs derived from diterpenoid alkaloids are widely used to the current clinical treatment of pain, inflammation, and other symptoms. This paper aims to clarify the main metabolites and distribution of diterpenoid alkaloids in different parts of Aconitum plants. To that end, 7 species of Aconitum from three subgenera were analyzed by UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS under identical conditions. The fragmentation regularity of various types of diterpene alkaloids were determined and a total of 126 metabolites were identified by comparing the reference material and secondary mass spectrometry, with the literature. 67, 49, 17, 41, 14, 17 and 21 metabolites were identified from Aconitum carmichaeli, Aconitum stylosum, Aconitum sinomontanum, Aconitum vilmorinianum, Aconitum pendulum, Aconitum tanguticum and Aconitum gymnandrum, respectively. Meanwhile, the structure type of A. carmichaeli, A. stylosum, A. vilmorinianum, A. pendulum, A. gymnandrum were identified as C19 type, A. sinomontanum was C18 type, while A. tanguticum was C20 type. A high similarity of metabolites was found between A. stylosum and A. vilmorinianum. The quantitative analysis of 19 compounds and the relative peak area of all metabolites which obtained through internal standard berberine, highlighted compounds like karakoline, talatisamine and atisine as references for future study of metabolic pathways. Furthermore, results from metabolites distribution and relative peak area analysis suggest that the leaf of A. carmichaeli, the leaf and stem of A. stylosum and A. vilmorinianum, and the flower of A. pendulum have potential as medicinal resources and are worth further development. These results establish a foundation for the comprehensive utilization of Aconitum resources.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA