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1.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 15: 4741-4757, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34848946

RESUMO

Background: Osteolytic diseases such as osteoporosis are featured with accelerated osteoclast differentiation and strong bone resorption. Considering the complications and other limitations of current drug treatments, it is necessary to develop a safer and more reliable drug to deal with osteoclast-related diseases. Saikosaponin D (SSD) is the active extract of Bupleurum, which has anti-inflammation, anti-tumor and liver protection functions. However, the role of SSD in regulating the differentiation and function of osteoclasts is not clear. Purpose: To explore whether SSD could prevent osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption induced by M-CSF and RANKL, and further evaluate the potential therapeutic properties of SSD in LPS-induced inflammatory bone loss mouse models. Methods: BMMs were cultured in complete medium stimulated by RANKL with different concentrations of SSD. TRAP staining, bone resorption determination, qRT-PCR, immunofluorescence and Western blotting were performed. A mouse model of LPS-induced calvarial bone loss was established and treated with different doses of SSD. The excised calvaria bones were used for TRAP staining, micro-CT scan and histological analysis. Results: SSD inhibited the formation and bone resorption of osteoclasts induced by RANKL in vitro. SSD suppressed LPS-induced inflammatory bone loss in vivo. Conclusion: SSD inhibited osteoclastogenesis and LPS-induced osteolysis in mice both which served as a new potential agent for the treatment of osteoclast-related conditions.

2.
Front Nutr ; 8: 743852, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34805241

RESUMO

Background: The association between α-linolenic acid (ALA) and mortality is inconsistent and has not been summarized systematically. Objective: The purpose was to conduct a meta-analysis that synthesized the results of prospective cohort studies to investigate associations between ALA intake and mortality. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive search on PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases on May 1, 2021, for relevant prospective cohort studies which reported associations of ALA (assessed by dietary surveys and/or ALA concentrations in body tissues) with mortality from all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and other diseases. Multivariable-adjusted relative risks (RRs) were pooled by a random or fixed-effects model. Results: A total of 34 prospective cohort studies, of which 17 reported dietary ALA intake, 14 for ALA biomarkers, and the remaining 3 reported both of intake and biomarkers. The studies included 6,58,634 participants, and deaths were classified into all-cause mortality (56,898), CVD mortality (19,123), and other diseases mortality (19,061). Pooled RRs of ALA intake were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.01, I 2 = 71.2%) for all-cause mortality, 0.90 (95% CI: 0.83, 0.98, I 2 = 22.1%) for CVD mortality, and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.83, 1.06, I 2 = 73.3%) for other diseases mortality. The two-stage random-effects dose-response analysis showed a linear relationship between dietary ALA intake and CVD-mortality and each 0.5% energy increment of ALA intake was associated with a 5% lower risk of CVD-mortality (RR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.90, 1.00). Pooled RRs per SD increment of ALA biomarkers were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.01, I 2 = 27%) for all-cause mortality, 1.00 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.03, I 2 = 0%) for CVD mortality and 0.98 (95% CI: 0.95, 1.01, I 2 = 0%) for other diseases mortality. Conclusions: This meta-analysis summarizing the available prospective cohort studies indicated that ALA intake was associated with reduced risk of mortality, especially CVD mortality. Our findings suggest that ALA consumption may be beneficial for death prevention. Systematic Review Registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO; identifier: CRD42021264532.

3.
J Clin Lab Anal ; : e24131, 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of the hematological parameters in the identification of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in infants less than 3 months. METHODS: A single-center, observational study of infants with CMV infection was conducted retrospectively. Routine blood parameters were analyzed in CMV-infected infants and controls with no differences of birthweight, sex, gestational age at birth, and date of admission. Furthermore, receiver-operating curve was used to assess the predictive value of the hematological parameters for CMV infection. RESULTS: One hundred ninety cases with CMV infection were studied retrospectively. Compared with the control group, there were significant differences in the white blood cell count, neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, platelet count, hemoglobin, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte (PLR), and lymphocyte-to-monocyte (LMR) for the patients with CMV infection (all p < 0.001). The best predicted values for CMV infection based on the area under the curve (AUC) were NLR and PLR with the optimal cut-off value of 0.28 and 65.36. NLR-PLR score of 0, 1, or 2 based on an elevated NLR (>0.28), an elevated PLR (>65.36), or both. NLR-PLR score for CMV infection prediction yielded higher AUC values than NLR or PLR alone (0.760 vs. 0.689, 0.689; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The NLR combined with PLR is potentially useful as a predictor of CMV infection in infants less than 3 months.

4.
Transl Pediatr ; 10(10): 2614-2620, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34765485

RESUMO

Objective: This article summarizes the research progress on the association of vitamin D and food allergy in infants and children. Background: In recent years, food allergy seriously has affected the quality of life of children and adults. Vitamin D is known to be involved in calcium and phosphorus metabolism, and recent research has demonstrated that vitamin D can also affect the immune regulation of food allergy. Methods: The present study summarizes the research progress on the association of vitamin D and food allergy in infants and children. We searched the PubMed database to identify studies on the association of vitamin D and food allergy published between January 2003 and August 2021. Conclusions: Vitamin D in the body through a number of steps into the final formation of biological effects. The implications of postnatal vitamin D levels for food allergy may be even greater. Vitamin D can prevent the intestinal immune system from being exposed to allergens by maintaining the integrity of the mucosal barrier. Many clinical studies believe that vitamin D supplementation can improve infants' and children's food allergy, however, some show negative results or opposite results. A lot of laboratory studies have confirmed that vitamin D is involved in the immune regulation of food allergy. Evidence indicates there may be a nonlinear relationship between vitamin D and food allergy. Further researches need to be launched.

5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(45): 53586-53598, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739202

RESUMO

Highly efficient elimination of petroleum pollution is of great importance for addressing environmental issues and social sustainability. In this study, we demonstrate a novel strategy for efficient elimination of petroleum pollution by selective adsorption of it by an ultralight hydrophobic/lipophilic microorganism-loaded biomass porous foam (BTS-MSFT4@MTMS) followed by a green degradation of adsorbates under mild conditions. The porous structure of biomass porous foam (MSFT) could provide plenty of room for immobilization of Bacillus thuringiensis (BTS), while a simple surface modification of the MSFT load with a BTS strain (BTS-MSFT4) by methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) could change its wettability from hydrophilic to lipophilic, which makes selective adsorption of hydophobic petroleum pollution from water for biodegradation possible. As expected, using a petroleum n-hexadecane solution with a concentration of 3% as a model oily wastewater, the as-prepared BTS-MSFT4@MTMS possesses both a superior selective adsorption of ca. 99% and high degradation activity with a high degradation rate of up to 86.65% within 8 days under the conditions of 37 °C, 120 r min-1, and pH = 7, while the degradation rates for the BTS-MSFT4 and the free BTS strain were measured to be only 81.62 and 65.65%, respectively, under the same conditions. In addition, the results obtained from the study on environment tolerance show that the BTS-MSFT4@MTMS exhibits a strong tolerance under different conditions with various pHs, temperatures, and initial concentrations. Compared with the existing methods for removal of petroleum pollution by direct adsorption of petroleum pollution via superoleophilic porous materials or applying free microorganisms for biodegradation only, which suffers the drawbacks of low selectivity or poor efficiency, our method has great advantages of cost-effectiveness, scalable fabrication, and high efficiency without secondary pollution. Moreover, such a two-in-one strategy by integration of both selective adsorption and biodegradation into biodegradable BTS-MSFT4@MTMS may particularly have great potential for practical application in environmental remediation.

6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6124, 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675210

RESUMO

A variety of organic cages with different geometries have been developed during the last decade, most of them exhibiting a single cavity. In contrast, the number of organic cages featuring a pair of cavities remains scarce. These structures may pave the way towards novel porous materials with emergent properties and functions.We herein report on rational design of a three-dimensional hexaformyl precursor 1, which exhibits two types of conformers, i.e. Conformer-1 and -2, with different cleft positions and sizes. Aided by molecular dynamics simulations, we select two triamino conformation capturers (denoted CC). Small-sized CC-1 selectively capture Conformer-1 by matching its cleft size, while the large-sized CC-2 is able to match and capture both conformers. This strategy allows the formation of three compounds with twin cavities, which we coin diphane. The self-assembly of diphane units results in superstructures with tunable proton conductivity, which reaches up to 1.37×10-5 S cm-1.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34707674

RESUMO

'Purpose. To observe the clinical efficacy and safety of carbon dioxide laser combined with ALA photodynamics in the treatment of condyloma acuminatum. Method. A total of 211 patients with condyloma acuminatum admitted to our hospital from April 2018 to June 2021 were selected as the observation object. They were divided into the intervention group (CO2 laser combined with ALA photodynamic therapy, 125 cases) and conventional group (CO2 laser treatment, 86 cases), and the efficacy and incidence of adverse reactions between the two groups were compared. Result. The total effective rate of the intervention group (96.00%) was significantly higher than that of the conventional group (84.88%) (P < 0.05). The total incidence of adverse reactions in the intervention group (8.00%) was lower than that in the conventional group (32.56%) (P < 0.05). Univariate analysis showed that the patient's smoking history, drinking history, course of disease, wart area, and number of sexual partners were related to the short-term prognosis (P < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the patient's course of disease, the area of the wart body, and the number of sexual partners were independent factors affecting the prognosis of patients with condyloma acuminatum (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Carbon dioxide laser combined with ALA dynamics treatment of condyloma acuminatum significantly improves the clinical efficacy, does not increase the incidence of adverse reactions, and has important clinical therapeutic value. The course of the disease, the area of the wart, and the number of sexual partners are independent factors affecting the prognosis of patients with condyloma acuminatum.

8.
Br J Radiol ; 94(1128): 20210589, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558306

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study was to investigate the feasibility and accuracy of assessment for living renal donors before transplantation by using 3.0 T non-contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (NCE-MRA). METHODS: 30 renal donors were investigated and underwent computed tomography angiography (CTA) and 3.0 T NCE-MRA before nephrectomy. Two radiologists independently assessed arterial and venous anatomy and potential kidney lesions. The image quality score, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), diameters and lengths of renal arteries and veins were compared between CTA and NCE-MRA. Imaging findings were compared with the surgical results served as reference standard. Agreement was assessed using κ test. The Wilcoxon test and paired sample t test were used for statistically significant differences. RESULTS: The results of image quality score for renal arteries and veins were highly consistent between the two radiologists in NCE-MRA (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the scores of renal arterial and venous branches between NCE-MRA and CTA (p > 0.05). The SNR and CNR of renal vessels were higher than CTA (p < 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in the length of renal vessels measured by the two methods (p > 0.05), and the diameter was smaller than that of CTA (p < 0.05). The detection of normal renal arteries and early branches by both examination techniques was consistent with intraoperative findings. Both methods showed good consistency between the anatomical variation of renal vein and the intraoperative diagnosis (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: 3.0 T NCE-MRA can be used for evaluation of main renal arteries and veins with high accuracy for anatomy and variation classification, and can be used for pre-operative vascular evaluation of living donor kidney transplantation. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: 3.0 T NCE-MRA can be used for evaluation of main renal arteries and veins with high accuracy for anatomy and variation classification, and can be used for pre-operative vascular evaluation of living donor kidney transplantation.

9.
Cell Stress Chaperones ; 26(6): 937-944, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495492

RESUMO

Human periodontal ligament fibroblast (HPDLF) is a major component of the resident cells in the periodontal microenvironment, and plays important roles in periodontitis through multiple mechanisms. Although lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been shown to cause endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activate the unfolded protein response (UPR) in HPDLF, the mechanisms governing HPDLF function in periodontitis are unclear. In this study, we tested the ability of unfolded protein response (UPR) to regulate HPDLF in vitro and examined the underlying mechanisms. We found LPS-pretreated HPDLF induced macrophage polarization toward M1 phenotype. UPR activation reduced the inflammatory cytokine production and downregulated the expression of TLR4 in HPDLF. The phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and I-κB was also inhibited by UPR activation. Our findings demonstrate that the connection of LPS, UPR, and HPDLF may represent a new concrete theory of innate immunity regulation in periodontal diseases, and suggest that targeting of UPR in HPDLF may be developed as a potent therapy for periodontitis.

10.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 727692, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489917

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus has increasingly attracted global attention as a major opportunistic human pathogen owing to the emergence of biofilms (BFs) and persisters that are known to increase its antibiotic resistance. However, there are still no effective antimicrobial agents in clinical settings. This study investigated the antimicrobial activity of penfluridol (PF), a long-acting antipsychotic drug, against S. aureus and its clinical isolates via drug repurposing. PF exhibited strong bactericidal activity against S. aureus, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 4-8 and 16-32 µg/ml, respectively. PF could significantly inhibit biofilm formation and eradicate 24 h preformed biofilms of S. aureus in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, PF could effectively kill methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) persister cells and demonstrated considerable efficacy in a mouse model of subcutaneous abscess, skin wound infection, and acute peritonitis caused by MRSA. Notably, PF exerted almost no hemolysis activity on human erythrocytes, with limited cytotoxicity and low tendency to cause resistance. Additionally, PF induced bacterial membrane permeability and ATP release and further caused membrane disruption, which may be the underlying antibacterial mechanism of PF. In summary, our findings suggest that PF has the potential to serve as a novel antimicrobial agent against S. aureus biofilm- or persister-related infections.

11.
Drug Deliv ; 28(1): 1972-1981, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34565260

RESUMO

Crotamiton (CRT) is a commonly approved drug prescribed for the scabies treatment in many countries across the globe. However, poor aqueous solubility and low bioavailability, and side effects restrict its use. To avoid such issues, an appropriate carrier system is necessary which can address the aforementioned challenges for attaining enhanced biopharmaceutical attributes. The current study intends to provide a detailed account on the development and evaluation of CRT-loaded microemulsion (ME) hydrogel formulation containing tea tree oil (TTO) for improved drug delivery for scabies treatment in a safe and effective manner. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were constructed with TTO as the oily phase, and Cremophor®EL was used as the surfactant in a mass ratio 2:1 with co-surfactants (mixture of phospholipid 90G and Transcutol®P), and aqueous solution as the external phase. The optimized drug-loaded ME formulation was evaluated for skin penetration, retention, compliance, and dermatokinetics. The nonirritant behavior of the formulation was revealed by skin histopathology, which showed no changes in normal skin histology. In comparison to the conventional product, dermatokinetic experiments revealed that CRT has greater penetration and distribution in the epidermis of the mice skin. The findings imply that the proposed lipid-based ME hydrogel can aid in the resolution of CRT issues by providing a better and safer delivery option to epidermis and deeper epidermis in substantial quantities.

12.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 688772, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34589063

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen causing hospital-acquired infections. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), biofilms, and persisters are highly tolerant to traditional antibiotics and make it difficult to treat. Therefore, new antimicrobial agents are urgently needed to treat hard-to-eradicate diseases caused by this bacterium. In this study, candesartan cilexetil (CC), an angiotensin hypertension drug, had strong antimicrobial activity against S. aureus with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of 8-16 µg/ml and 16-32 µg/ml. CC exhibited limited cytotoxicity and low potential to induce drug resistance. In addition, it showed a synergistic antibacterial effect when combined with gentamicin and tobramycin. The effective concentrations to inhibit MRSA biofilm formation were 16-64 µg/ml, and intractable persisters were killed at 4-8 × MIC. Through the analysis of its mechanism of action, it was evident that the membrane permeability was disrupted as well as the cell structure was damaged. Furthermore, we demonstrated that CC had antibacterial effects in vivo in MRSA-infected murine skin abscess models. In conclusion, these results imply that CC might be a potential antibacterial agent for the treatment of S. aureus-associated infections.

13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(38): 46142-46150, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520160

RESUMO

Metal-polymer interface plays a crucial role in controlling the dielectric performance in all flexible electronics. Ideally, the formation of the Schottky barrier due to the large band offset of the electron affinity of the polymer over the work function of the electrode should sufficiently impede the charge injection. Arguably, however, such an injection barrier has hardly been indisputably verified in polymer-metal junctions due to the ever-existing surface states, which dramatically compromise the barrier thus leading to undesired high electrical conduction. Here, we demonstrate experimentally a clear negative correlation between the breakdown strength and the density of surface states in polymer dielectrics. The existence of surface states reduces the effective barrier height for charge injection, as further revealed by density functional theory calculations and photoinjection current measurements. Based on these findings, we present a surface engineering method to enhance the breakdown strength with the application of nanocoatings on polymer films to eliminate surface states. The density of surface states is reduced by 2 orders of magnitude when the polymer is coated with a layer of two-dimensional hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets, leading to about 100% enhancement of breakdown strength. This work reveals the critical role played by surface states on electrical breakdown and provides a versatile surface engineering strategy to curtail surface states, broadly applicable for all polymer dielectrics.

14.
Mycopathologia ; 186(6): 893-895, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455552

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report a case of keratomycosis caused by a very rare pathogen, Myrothecium verrucaria. METHODS: This is a case report. A 53-year-old man complaint of left eye redness, irritation, intermittent pain after ashes entered his left eye. The patient was examined by slit lamp, anterior segment OCT and in vivo confocal microscopy. The HRT III-RCM image showed massive interlocking white thin lines in the cornea stroma. Corneal scrapings were collected for pathogen culture and PCR test. M. verrucaria was isolated and identified. RESULTS: Hourly topical natamycin (5%) and voriconazole (10 mg/ml) was given as well as intravenous fluconazole (200 mg per day). Treatment was continued with oral itraconazole, 200 mg/day, topical natamycin (5%), 4 times/day, and pranoprofen, 4 times/day. The therapy was tapered off over one and half a month. The cornea lesion healed with scar formation two months later. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first case report of M. verrucaria keratomycosis in China. We are the first to show the characteristic of M. verrucaria on cornea with In vivo confocal microscopy. A combination treatment of tropical natamycin, voriconazole and systemic fluconazole was effective in the treatment of M. verrucaria.


Assuntos
Infecções Oculares Fúngicas , Ceratite , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Oculares Fúngicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Oculares Fúngicas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hypocreales , Ceratite/diagnóstico , Ceratite/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Natamicina , Voriconazol
15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(45): 53416-53424, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436852

RESUMO

Flexible polymer dielectrics tolerant to electric field and temperature extremes are urgently needed for a spectrum of electrical and electronic applications. Given the complexity of the dielectric breakdown mechanism and the vast chemical space of polymers, the discovery of suitable candidates is nontrivial. We have laid the foundation for a systematic search of the polymer chemical space, which starts with "gold-standard" experimental measurements and data on the temperature-dependent breakdown strength (Ebd) for a benchmark set of commercial dielectric polymer films. Phenomenological guidelines are derived from this data set on easily accessible properties (or "proxies") that are correlated with Ebd. Screening criteria based on these proxy properties (e.g., band gap, charge injection barrier, and cohesive energy density) and other necessary characteristics (e.g., a high glass transition temperature to maintain the thermal stability and a high dielectric constant for high energy density) were then setup. These criteria, along with machine learning models of these properties, were used to screen polymers candidates from a candidate list of more than 13 000 previously synthesized polymers, followed by experimental validation of some of the screened candidates. These efforts have led to the creation of a consistent and high-quality data set of temperature-dependent Ebd, and the identification of screening criteria, chemical design rules, and a list of optimal polymer candidates for high-temperature and high-energy-density capacitor applications, thus demonstrating the power of an integrated and informatics-based philosophy for rational materials design.

16.
Langmuir ; 37(33): 10191-10199, 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370488

RESUMO

Desalination by solar steam generation (SSG) has emerged as one of the most efficient approaches to address the issue of global water shortage. In this work, novel graphene oxide (GO)-based solar steam generators (GO-SSGs) with aligned channels were prepared by directional freezing and simple carbonization of a hydrogel composed of GO and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). Benefitting from their excellent light absorption (light absorption efficiency exceeds 94%), better thermal insulation (thermal conductivity, 0.259 W/(m K)), and suitable porous structure, which facilitates rapid water transportation, the GO-SSGs show superior SSG performance with a high solar energy conversion efficiency of up to 92% achieved under an irradiation of 1.0 kW/m2. Interestingly, uniquely aligned channels endow them with good salt-rejection performance; the solar energy conversion efficiency of GO-SSGs in 20 wt % NaCl, KCl, and MgCl2 brine can reach more than 85%. To improve their antifouling performance, a chemically hydrophilic and oleophobic modification was conducted, making it possible to run SSG even in oily wastewater; for instance, a solar energy conversion efficiency of 84% was obtained in an aqueous solution containing 10 wt % n-hexadecane. Compared with the existing photothermal materials, these materials show advantages of simple manufacture, high SSG efficiency, superior salt tolerance, and antifouling performance, which make them promising candidates as a kind of new high-performance photothermal materials for desalination even in oily wastewater, thus further expanding the scope of their practical SSG application.

17.
Oncol Lett ; 22(4): 699, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34457054

RESUMO

[This retracts the article DOI: 10.3892/ol.2018.8374.].

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403010

RESUMO

Children exposed to peer victimization are at increased risk for psychopathology. However, the physiological mechanisms linking peer victimization to child psychopathology and the potential gender differences in these links remain inadequately understood. The present study examined whether cortisol reactivity to acute stress mediated the associations between relational and physical victimization and internalizing and externalizing problems and whether these associations differed between boys and girls. A sample of 150 Chinese children (aged 9-13 years; Mage = 10.69 years; 51% boys) reported experiences of relational and physical victimization and participated in a standardized laboratory psychosocial stress task, during which six salivary cortisol samples were collected. Parents or primary caregivers reported their children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Overall, neither physical nor relational victimization was associated with cortisol reactivity. However, when examined separately by gender, relational victimization was associated with blunted cortisol reactivity for boys but not for girls. Further, among boys but not girls, relational victimization was indirectly associated with internalizing and externalizing problems via blunted cortisol reactivity. Our findings suggest that blunted cortisol reactivity may serve as a physiological pathway linking peer victimization to psychopathology for boys but not for girls.

19.
Exp Ther Med ; 22(3): 972, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335914

RESUMO

Intrauterine infection is an important risk factor for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). BPD is characterized by arrested lung alveolarization and impaired pulmonary vascularization. The Notch4 signaling pathway is a key regulator of vascular remodeling and angiogenesis. Therefore, the presents study investigated the expression of Notch4, delta-like canonical Notch ligand 4 (Dll4) and related factors in an in vivo rat model and in rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) in vitro, to study the mechanisms by which intrauterine infection affects rat lung development. A rat model of intrauterine infection was established by endocervical inoculation with Escherichia scoli on embryonic day 15. The date of birth was counted as postnatal day 0 (P0). Then, the lung tissues were collected from pups at days P3-P14. The expression of Notch4, Dll4 and related factors was measured by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR and western blotting. In addition, the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT was used to examine the effect of Notch4 signaling on PMVECs. Intrauterine E. coli infection impaired normal lung development, as indicated by decreased microvessel density, fewer alveoli, fewer secondary septa, and larger alveoli compared with the control group. Furthermore, Notch4, Dll4 and NF-κB levels were significantly increased in the E. coli-infected group at P3 compared with the control group. Similarly, the mRNA expression levels of fetal liver kinase 1 (Flk-1, a VEGF receptor) were significantly increased in the E. coli-infected group at P3 and P7. In PMVECs, the inhibition of Notch4 signaling contributed to decreases in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of VEGF and its receptors. Furthermore, the inhibition of Notch4/Dll4 signaling accelerated cell proliferation and decreased the apoptosis rate of LPS-induced PMVECs. LPS-induced NF-κB expression in PMVECs was also attenuated by the Notch4/Dll4 inhibitor. In conclusion, intrauterine E. coli infection impaired normal lung development, possibly through Notch4/Dll4 signaling and effects on VEGF and its receptors.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34394380

RESUMO

Aim: Based on the bibliometric method, the toxicity of aconite is analyzed and evaluated. Methods: Studies on the toxicity of aconite were retrieved from CNKI, CQVIP, Chinese Biomedical Literature Service System, and PubMed, ranging from January 1985 to November 2020. All those studies were formed into the Database of Literature of Toxicity of Aconite (DLTA). Studies on the toxicity of aconite were retrieved from CNKI, CQVIP, SinoMed, and PubMed, respectively. Collecting relevant information in DLTA, we analyzed the hotspots, factors and mechanism of aconite toxicity, and attenuation methods. Results: A total of 445 studies on the toxicity of aconite have been collected. "Compatibility attenuation" and "Processing attenuation" have been the hotspots of aconite toxicity in recent years. Many studies support that the main toxic reactions of aconite are heart damage, liver toxicity, nephrotoxicity, and neurotoxicity. The toxic effect of aconite is related to the effect on the central nervous system. Exciting the vagus nerve reduces the autonomy of the sinus node and damages myocardial cells. The decoction time, dosage, and administration of aconite are the main factors of the toxicity of aconite. There are few studies about the effect of the origin of aconite and the specifications of the medicinal materials on toxicity. Therefore, it is impossible to analyze its relevance. At present, the commonly used methods to reduce the toxicity of aconite mainly include three methods: drug compatibility, processing, and decoction. The most common compatibility with aconite medicines includes licorice, dried ginger, ginseng, and ephedra. Black sliced aconite, steamed slices, and fried slices are less toxic than other processed products. Aconite decoction for more than 60 minutes can basically reach the safe range, and more than 2 hours of decoction may cause the loss of active ingredients. Conclusions: The research on the mechanisms of aconite dosage-efficacy-toxicity, compatibility, processing, liver toxicity, and nephrotoxicity is still not comprehensive and in-depth. Researchers should perfect toxicity studies of aconite, remove the constraints that affect its clinical application, and promote the clinical use of aconite safely and reasonably.

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