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1.
Fetal Pediatr Pathol ; : 1-10, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to investigate whether maternal SARS-CoV-2 status affects placental pathology. Methods: A retrospective case-control study was conducted by reviewing charts and slides of placentas delivered between April 1 to July 24, 2020. Clinical history of "COVID-19" was searched in Pathology Database (CoPath). Controls were matched with SARS-CoV-2-negative women with singleton deliveries in the 3rd-trimester. Pathological features were extracted from placental pathology reports. Results: Twenty-one 3rd trimester placentas from SARS-CoV-2-positive women were identified and compared to 20 placentas from SARS-CoV-2-negative women. There were no significant differences in individual or group gross or microscopic pathological features. Within the SARS-CoV-2+ group, there are no differences between symptomatic and asymptomatic women. Conclusion: Placentas from SARS-CoV-2-positive women do not demonstrate a specific pathological pattern. Pregnancy complicated with COVID-19 during the 3rd trimester does not have a demonstrable effect on placental structure and pathology.

2.
J Mass Spectrom ; : e4650, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043550

RESUMO

A fully automated method for identification and quantification of five polar pesticides in groundwater by isotope dilution-online solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry was developed. After one step of filtration, an aliquot of a 7.5-ml water sample was automatedly preconcentrated and purified on a turbulent Cyclone SPE column. The analytes were eluted in backflush mode, then separated on an analytical column and acquired by full MS/dd-MS2 scan in negative and positive ions mode. The major parameters for sample loading, cleanup, and elution were optimized in detail. Preconcentration and ionization efficiency were highly improved by using 0.1% acid solution in the mobile phase. The method provided good linearity of calibration coefficients (R2 > 0.995), sensitive method limits of detection (0.5-10.0 ng/L), accurate mass spectra (within 5 ppm error), satisfactory matrix spiking recoveries (98.4% to 109%), and high precision (intraday/interday relative standard deviations 1.57-8.90%). The method was successfully applied to analyze large batch groundwater of National Groundwater Monitoring Project and suspect screening of potential pesticides in groundwater. The study provided a practical alternative for a simple, robust, sensitive, and accurate identification and qualification of five polar pesticides in groundwater.

3.
Theranostics ; 10(24): 10874-10891, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33042259

RESUMO

Rationale: Men and postmenopausal women are more prone to developing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/steatohepatitis (NAFLD/NASH) than premenopausal women. However, the pathological links and underlying mechanisms of this disparity are still elusive. The sex-difference in hepatic very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) assembly and secretion may contribute to NAFLD development. Estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRα) is a key regulator of several metabolic processes. We hypothesized that ERRα plays a role contributing to the sex-difference in hepatic VLDL assembly and secretion. Methods: VLDL secretion and essential genes governing said process were assessed in male and female mice. Liver-specific ERRα-deficient (ERRαLKO) mice were generated to assess the rate of hepatic VLDL secretion and alteration in target gene expression. Overexpression of either microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (Mttp) or phospholipase A2 G12B (Pla2g12b) by adenovirus was performed to test if the fatty liver phenotype in male ERRαLKO mice was due to defects in hepatic VLDL secretion. Female ERRαLKO mice were put on a diet high in saturated fat, fructose and cholesterol (HFHC) to promote NASH development. Wild type female mice were either ovariectomized or treated with tamoxifen to induce a state of estrogen deficiency or disruption in estrogen signaling. Adenovirus was used to overexpress ERRα in these mice to test if ERRα was sufficient to rescue the suppressed VLDL secretion due to estrogen dysfunction. Finally, wild type male mice on a high-fat diet (HFD) were treated with an ERRα inverse agonist to assess if suppressing ERRα activity pharmacologically would lead to fatty liver development. Results: ERRα is an indispensable mediator modulating hepatic triglyceride-rich very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-TG) assembly and secretion through coordinately controlling target genes apolipoprotein B (Apob), Mttp and Pla2g12b in a sex-different manner. Hepatic VLDL-TG secretion is blunted in ERRαLKO mice, leading to hepatosteatosis which exacerbates endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation paving ways for NASH development. Importantly, ERRα acts downstream of estrogen/ERα signaling in contributing to the sex-difference in hepatic VLDL secretion effecting hepatic lipid homeostasis. Conclusions: Our results highlight ERRα as a key mediator which contributes to the sex disparity in NAFLD development, suggesting that selectively restoring ERRα activity in the liver may be a novel strategy for treating NAFLD/NASH.

4.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e924325, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Ultrasound (US) is the preferred imaging method for cryptorchidism, but most guidelines indicate that its value is questionable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical value of ultrasonic mobility and testicular atrophy index (TAI) based on three­dimensional US (3DUS) in preoperative and postoperative assessment of the undescended testis. MATERIAL AND METHODS Data from 158 children with unilateral extraperitoneal cryptorchidism were collected and their diagnoses were surgically confirmed. They were divided into different age groups and into 2 ultrasonic mobility groups: the mobile group (MG) and the restricted group (RG). Differences in sonographic characteristics between different groups were compared. Three-dimensional ultrasound performed with virtual organ computer-aided analysis (VOCAL) was used to determined preoperative and postoperative TAI and the reliability of TAI was analyzed. RESULTS Measurement of testicular volume with the VOCAL method was significantly more reliable than that done with the two-dimensional Lambert method. In all age groups, preoperative testicular volumes were smaller than that in the contralateral scrotal testis and postoperatively, they increased steadily. Both preoperative and postoperative TAI were higher in the RG than in the MG. In the MG, postoperative TAI decreased significantly in all age groups. In the RG, in contrast, effective volume growth was only achieved in patients who had undergone surgery before they reached age 1 year. CONCLUSIONS TAI values determined with 3DUS using the VOCAL technique objectively reflect recovery of testicular volume following surgery for undescended testicle. Ultrasonic mobility evaluation is beneficial for clinical management of the condition.

5.
Clin Transl Sci ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048433

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the expression of IL-35 and the lymphatic vessel density (LVD) and microvessel density (MVD) in the pathological tissues from patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to analyze their correlation with other common clinical prognostic factors, as well as patients' overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). We analyzed the pathological characteristics of 130 patients with NSCLC and determined the IL-35 expression, MVD, and LVD changes in the pathological tissues by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that IL-35 expression was significantly correlated with tumor differentiation, lymph node metastasis, T staging, LVD, and MVD (P < 0.05) but was not associated with age, sex, smoking, and other factors. Univariate analysis of risk models showed that age, lymph node metastasis, T stage, and high IL-35 expression, LVD, and MVD were significantly associated with NSCLC prognosis (P < 0.05), while gender, smoking, and high differentiation were not correlated with prognosis. Multivariate analysis of the proportional risk model showed that the IL-35 expression, lymph node metastasis, high LVD, and high MVD were significantly correlated with NSCLC prognosis (P < 0.05). In conclusion, IL-35, MVD, and LVD may be independent prognostic markers. In addition, IL-35 might represent a promising clinical drug target for the treatment of NSCLC.

6.
Eur J Radiol ; 132: 109341, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069987

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze the correlation between enhancement patterns of small hepatic carcinomas (HCCs; ≤ 30 mm) on contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and the clinicopathologic characteristics. METHODS: The retrospective study included 346 inpatients (288 males and 58 females) with 372 pathologically confirmed small HCCs between January 2017 and December 2018. All patients underwent CEUS examination before pathological examination. Statistical analysis was used to determine the correlation between enhancement patterns of small HCCs on CEUS and clinicopathologic characteristics including serum alpha-feto-protein level, protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) level, primary or recurrent HCC condition, tumor number, tumor differentiation, tumor size, liver background and microvascular invasion (MVI). RESULTS: Three hundred forty-seven out of 372 (93.3 %) HCCs manifested arterial phase hyper-enhancement (APHE). The arterial enhancement patterns were correlated with the tumor differentiation (odds ratio = 10.336, P = 0.000). Moderately- or poorly-differentiated HCCs were more likely to display APHE than well-differentiated HCCs (96.2 % vs 58.6 %, P < 0.001). Two hundred ninety-five of 372 (79.3 %) HCCs showed washout in the portal venous/late phase. Washout was correlated with serum PIVKA-II level, tumor size, tumor differentiation, and MVI on univariate analysis (P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis revealed that only tumor size was significantly associated with washout of small HCCs (odds ratio = 2.335, P = 0.006). Large HCCs (20-30 mm) displayed a higher proportion of washout compared with that of HCCs ≤ 20 mm. CONCLUSIONS: Enhancement patterns of small HCCs on CEUS were significantly correlated with tumor size and tumor differentiation among all clinicopathologic characteristics.

7.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; : 1010539520963629, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-873820

RESUMO

The aim of this article is to assess the effectiveness of 3 measures of COVID-19 (coronavirus disease) containment for securing health care workers' (HCWs) safety and health at 5 medical university-affiliated hospitals in Taiwan. Three measures were to enforce the reporting of HCWs with unknown fever, acute respiratory illness, and other symptoms; to conduct ongoing surveillance to obtain early warning of potential contagion exposure; and to perform epidemiological investigation and outbreak management. A 17-week surveillance data were collected, 374 (6.17%) HCWs with unknown fever or acute respiratory infection symptoms detected by online body temperature surveillance system were reported, there were no cases of nosocomial infection of COVID-19 among HCWs. Via contact tracing and reporting system, 133 (2.19%) HCWs reported footprints in different epidemic events, but no HCWs were infected. No onward transmission to HCWs occurred after containment measures were formulated. Integrated measures of surveillance, managing epidemic transmission chain, and encouraging individual responsibility have been effective approaches among HCWs in the ongoing COVID-19 epidemic. Despite the absence of ongoing local transmission, vigilance and compliance must be maintained to prevent spread of health care-associated infections in all areas and in social mingling among HCWs outside hospitals. These 3 methodical measures secured HCWs' health and safety successfully and preserved health care delivery continuously.

8.
Fetal Pediatr Pathol ; : 1-10, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-844231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to investigate whether maternal SARS-CoV-2 status affects placental pathology. Methods: A retrospective case-control study was conducted by reviewing charts and slides of placentas delivered between April 1 to July 24, 2020. Clinical history of "COVID-19" was searched in Pathology Database (CoPath). Controls were matched with SARS-CoV-2-negative women with singleton deliveries in the 3rd-trimester. Pathological features were extracted from placental pathology reports. Results: Twenty-one 3rd trimester placentas from SARS-CoV-2-positive women were identified and compared to 20 placentas from SARS-CoV-2-negative women. There were no significant differences in individual or group gross or microscopic pathological features. Within the SARS-CoV-2+ group, there are no differences between symptomatic and asymptomatic women. Conclusion: Placentas from SARS-CoV-2-positive women do not demonstrate a specific pathological pattern. Pregnancy complicated with COVID-19 during the 3rd trimester does not have a demonstrable effect on placental structure and pathology.

9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 206: 111393, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010597

RESUMO

Human were given a lot of opportunities to ingest TiO2 NPs in the environment. Children have low, sensitive intestinal tolerance, and they could be exposed to higher levels of TiO2 NPs than adults. Few studies have been conducted on the interaction between TiO2 NPs and juvenile intestine phase models. Thus, in this work, weaning rats were orally exposed to TiO2 NPs for 7 and 14 days. Results indicate that Ti accumulated in the intestine, liver, and feces. Inflammatory infiltration damage was observed in the colonic epithelial tissue, and gut microbiota fluctuated with a decreased abundance of Lactobacilli in feces. Oral supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) lessened TiO2 NPs-induced colonic inflammatory injury, which might due to downregulation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB). Meanwhile, LGG maintained normal intestinal microbiome homeostasis, thereby improving TiO2 NPs-induced colon injury in juvenile rats. Moreover, fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) experiment indicated possible TiO2 NPs-induced intestinal microbiota disorder led to colonic inflammation. Our works suggested the urgent need for additional studies on the risk safety assessment, mechanism, and prevention of juvenile health damage from exposure to TiO2 NPs.

10.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 171: 112676, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049564

RESUMO

Herein, a facile thermometer-like model of electrophoresis titration (ET) biosensor was proposed as an alternative tool for miRNA assay via moving reaction boundary (MRB) chip. For proof-of-concept demonstration, miRNA-122 and catalyzed hairpin assembly (CHA) were chosen as the model analyte and amplification, respectively. In the developed ET system, miRNA triggered the CHA with two hairpin probes (H1, H2) to yield H1-H2 duplexes with negative charges. Under an electric field, the duplexes moved into ET channel, and neutralized the acidic TAE buffer creating an MRB indicated by SYBR Green I (SGI). The model revealed that the MRB distance was as a function of logarithmic miRNA-122 content, indicating a facile sensing model. The relevant experiments were conducted and systemically validated the model of miRNA ET. Under the optimized conditions, the linear range of ET sensor was from 20 fM to 1 nM and the limit of detection (LOD) was 10 fM, showing a more than 100-fold sensitive increase in contrast to the one with a single CHA amplification. The mechanism of sensitive increase was well unveiled by the designed experiments. In addition, the ET biosensor had good selectivity, stability (less than 5% for intra-day and inter-day) and recovery (96%-110%), and was successfully applied for the assay of miRNA-122 and miRNA let-7a in real bio-fluids of serum and cancer cell lysate. Evidently, the proposed biosensor might be used as an alternative assay tool after nucleic acid amplification due to its high simplicity, sensitivity, specificity, linearity, stability and recovery.

11.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; : 1010539520963629, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063525

RESUMO

The aim of this article is to assess the effectiveness of 3 measures of COVID-19 (coronavirus disease) containment for securing health care workers' (HCWs) safety and health at 5 medical university-affiliated hospitals in Taiwan. Three measures were to enforce the reporting of HCWs with unknown fever, acute respiratory illness, and other symptoms; to conduct ongoing surveillance to obtain early warning of potential contagion exposure; and to perform epidemiological investigation and outbreak management. A 17-week surveillance data were collected, 374 (6.17%) HCWs with unknown fever or acute respiratory infection symptoms detected by online body temperature surveillance system were reported, there were no cases of nosocomial infection of COVID-19 among HCWs. Via contact tracing and reporting system, 133 (2.19%) HCWs reported footprints in different epidemic events, but no HCWs were infected. No onward transmission to HCWs occurred after containment measures were formulated. Integrated measures of surveillance, managing epidemic transmission chain, and encouraging individual responsibility have been effective approaches among HCWs in the ongoing COVID-19 epidemic. Despite the absence of ongoing local transmission, vigilance and compliance must be maintained to prevent spread of health care-associated infections in all areas and in social mingling among HCWs outside hospitals. These 3 methodical measures secured HCWs' health and safety successfully and preserved health care delivery continuously.

12.
Eur Radiol ; 2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068187

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate carotid stiffening in participants without conventional cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) by using ultrafast pulse wave velocity (ufPWV). METHODS: The present study enrolled 517 participants without conventional CVRFs (CVRF-Free total population). Subjects in this population were defined as current non-smokers with untreated blood pressure < 140/90 mmHg, fasting blood glucose (FBG) < 7.0 mmol/L, total cholesterol (TC) < 6.2 mmol/L, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol < 4.1 mmol/L, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥ 1.0 mmol/L. Participants in the subgroup with optimal CVRFs (CVRF-Optimal subgroup; n = 188) were defined as having blood pressure < 120/80 mmHg, TC < 5.2 mmol/L, and FBG < 5.6 mmol/L. Clinical interviews, physical examinations, serum draw, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), and ufPWV were evaluated. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals and ordinal logistic regression models were used. RESULTS: Carotid stiffening was present in 46.2-54.5% of CVRF-Free subjects. Age, male sex, and body mass index (BMI) were independently associated with carotid stiffening in both the CVRF-Free total population and CVRF-Optimal subgroup (OR for age = 1.10-1.11, OR for male sex = 2.65-7.19, OR for BMI = 1.34-1.62; p < 0.05). Carotid stiffening was associated with TC only in the CVRF-Free total population (OR for TC = 1.84; p = 0.034). CONCLUSIONS: Many CVRF-Free individuals have carotid stiffening. ufPWV for atherosclerotic stiffening aids the assessment of early atherogenesis and may further clarify the true status of healthy adults without CVRFs. KEY POINTS: • CVRF-Optimal individuals have a lower carotid stiffness than CVRF-Free populations. • ufPWV is a quantitative predictor for the early assessment of AS. • Absent major CVRFs cannot be considered low risk for carotid stiffening and atherosclerosis.

13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(41): e22568, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031305

RESUMO

The effect of intraoperative blood transfusion on the immune function and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been fully investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of intraoperative autologous blood transfusion and allogeneic blood transfusion on immune function and prognosis in surgically treated HCC patients. One hundred fourteen primary hepatic carcinoma patients who would undergo selective operations were divided into two groups, 35 patients in the experimental group received intraoperative autologous blood transfusion and 79 patients in the control group received allogeneic blood transfusion. The amount of serum T lymphocyte subsets, natural killer (NK) cells and immunoglobulin before and after operation, as well as the recurrence-free survival (RFS) were compared. Results shown that, there was no significant difference in the level of immunocytes and immunoglobulin between the two groups before treatment (P > .05). At 1 day after surgery, there were significant differences in T lymphocyte, NK cells and immunoglobulin levels before and after transfusion. CD3+, CD4+, CD4+/CD8+, and NK cells in autologous transfusion group were significantly higher than those in allogeneic transfusion group (P < .05); the level of IgG, IgM, and IgA in allogeneic transfusion group were significantly lower than those before operation (P < .05), the level of IgG, IgM, and IgA in autologous transfusion group did not significantly fluctuate, and significantly higher than those of allogeneic transfusion group (P < .05). At 5 days after surgery, all indexes of autologous transfusion group recovered to the preoperative level, the levels of CD3+, CD4+, CD4+/CD8+, NK cells, IgG, IgM, and IgA were significantly higher than those of allogeneic transfusion group (P < .05). The follow-up results showed that the RFS of autologous transfusion group was significantly higher than that of allogeneic transfusion group (P < .05). In conclusion, compared with allogeneic blood transfusion, intraoperative autologous blood transfusion possessed less impact on immune function, it may even improve immune function and RFS in HCC patients after surgery. Therefore, HCC patients should be recommended to receive autologous blood transfusion instead of allogeneic blood transfusion when they need blood transfusion during the perioperative period.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/imunologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Transfusão de Sangue Autóloga , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia
14.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 982, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046035

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 5-10% of patients are diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) at the initial diagnosis. This study aimed to develop a nomogram to predict the overall survival (OS) of these patients. METHODS: de novo MBC patients diagnosed in 2010-2016 were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. They were randomly divided into a training and a validation cohort with a ratio of 2:1. The best subsets of covariates were identified to develop a nomogram predicting OS based on the smallest Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) value in the multivariate Cox models. The discrimination and calibration of the nomogram were evaluated using the Concordance index, the area under the time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and calibration curves. RESULTS: In this study, we included 7986 patients with de novo MBC. The median follow-up time was 36 months (range: 0-83 months). Five thousand three-hundred twenty four patients were allocated into the training cohort while 2662 were allocated into the validation cohort. In the training cohort, age at diagnosis, race, marital status, differentiation grade, subtype, T stage, bone metastasis, brain metastasis, liver metastasis, lung metastasis, surgery and chemotherapy were selected to create the nomogram estimating the 1-, 3- and 5- year OS based on the smallest AIC value in the multivariate Cox models. The nomogram achieved a Concordance index of 0.723 (95% CI, 0.713-0.733) in the training cohort and 0.719 (95% CI, 0.705-0.734) in the validation cohort. AUC values of the nomogram indicated good specificity and sensitivity in the training and validation cohort. Calibration curves showed a favorable consistency between the predicted and actual survival probabilities. CONCLUSION: The developed nomogram reliably predicted OS in patients with de novo MBC and presented a favorable discrimination ability. While further validation is needed, this may be a useful tool in clinical practice.

15.
Food Chem ; : 128362, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077283

RESUMO

This work investigated the relationship between structure, rheological properties and 3D printability of starch. For this purpose, the structural evolution of various starch gels at different concentrations and printing temperatures was systematically studied. The mechanical strength (G', τy) and extrudability (τf) of CS and RS gels were used to determine its 3D printability. Furthermore, G', τy and τf were closely related to the structure of starch and starch gel network. Ascribing to compact and stable gel network, CS samples with 20% concentration at 70-75 °C printing temperature and RS samples with 15-20% concentration at 75-80 °C printing temperature displayed preferable printing values (G', τy and τf), indicating the suitability for HE-3DP. RS samples exhibited higher mechanical strength than CS samples and were more suitable to print owing to the formation of new crystal structure. Overall, this work provided important information for HE-3DP based foods with good printability.

16.
Respirology ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020986

RESUMO

Work-related asthma (WRA) is one of the most common occupational respiratory conditions, and includes asthma specifically caused by occupational exposures (OA) and asthma that is worsened by conditions at work (WEA). WRA should be considered in all adults with asthma, but especially those with new-onset or difficult to control asthma. Improvement in asthma symptoms when away from work is suggestive of WRA. Clinical history alone is insufficient to diagnose WRA; therefore, objective investigations are required to confirm the presence of asthma and the association of asthma with work activities. Management of WRA requires pharmacotherapy similar to that of non-WRA, however, also needs to take into account control of the causative workplace exposure. Ongoing exposure will likely lead to decline in lung function and worsening asthma control. WRA is a preventable condition but this does rely on increased awareness of WRA and thorough identification and control of all potential occupational respiratory hazards.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034423

RESUMO

An estimate of one third of preventable medication errors occurred annually due to patients' misunderstanding of use instructions. To safeguard consumers' over-the-counter (OTC) medicine use and to develop future initiatives, this study evaluated the use, comprehensibility and clarity of the information labels on OTC packages from consumers' perspectives in Taiwan. This cross-sectional study was conducted at 29 community pharmacies; 50 pharmacy clerkship students helped participant enrolment from June to September 2017. Participants (n = 470) were 20 years old or above, Mandarin speaking, and with specific OTC purchases. A face-to-face survey was administered to investigate the degree to which participants read the package labels and their comprehension of correct medicine use. An 11-item survey was used to measure participants' specific OTC purchases (3 items), the use (2 items), comprehensibility (1 item) and clarity (2 items) of OTC package labels, in addition to the sociodemographic information (3 items). Participants were also solicited to provide opinions regarding package label redesign. Descriptive statistics and logistic regressions were applied for analyses. Findings show that most (84.0%) participants read instruction labels before use, with indications (79.4%), drug names (64.5%) and dosage and administration (59.8%) being the top reads. Only 30.0% of the participants fully understood how to take the medicines correctly. Younger (OR = 1.033, p < .001) and female participants (OR = 1.965, p = .014) with a higher level of education (OR = 1.940, p = .034) tended to read package label information prior to purchase or use. Younger participants (OR = 1.030, p < .001) and those who read OTC medicine labels before use (OR = 2.317, p = .004) were more likely to correctly understand medicine use. The findings indicate that older, male adults with a lower level of education should be targeted to ensure their correct understanding of OTC labels. Pharmacists should recite pertinent label information and, concomitantly, ensure consumers' understanding when providing medicine counselling.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035679

RESUMO

Myocardin (MYOCD) plays an important role in cardiovascular disease. However, its underlying impact on atherosclerosis remains to be elucidated. ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), a key membrane-associated lipid transporter which maintains intracellular lipid homeostasis, has a protective function in atherosclerosis progress. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether and how the effect of MYOCD on atherosclerosis is associated with ABCA1 in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). We found both MYOCD and ABCA1 expression were dramatically decreased in atherosclerotic patient aortas compared to control. MYOCD knockdown inhibited ABCA1 expression in human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (HAVSMCs), leading to reduced cholesterol efflux and increased intracellular cholesterol contents. MYOCD overexpression exerted the opposite effect. Mechanistically, MYOCD regulates ABCA1 expression in an SRF-dependent manner. Consistently, apolipoprotein E-deficient mice treated with MYOCD shRNA developed more plaques in the aortic sinus, which is associated with reduced ABCA1 expression, increased cholesterol retention in the aorta, and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the plasma. Our data suggest that MYOCD deficiency exacerbates atherosclerosis by downregulating ABCA1 dependent cholesterol efflux from VSMCs, thereby providing a novel strategy for the therapeutic treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

19.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068485

RESUMO

Brassica napus (B. napus) was originally formed ~7,500 years ago by interspecific hybridization between B. rape and B. oleracea (Chalhoub et al., 2014), which supplies approximately 13%-16% of the vegetable oil globally. B. napus serves as an excellent model for polyploid genomics and evolutionary research in plants. Brassica database (BRAD) has long been used for rapeseed genomic research, which provides genome browser and syntenic relationship for multiple Brassicaceae genomes (Wang et al., 2015).

20.
Cell Chem Biol ; 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007216

RESUMO

Here, we report a method to regulate cellular protein levels by introducing a ubiquitin variant between a destabilizing domain (DD) and the regulated protein. When produced in the absence of a stabilizing ligand the DD dominates and the entire fusion protein is processively degraded by the proteasome. In the presence of the stabilizing ligand the fusion protein is metabolically stable and becomes a substrate for abundant ubiquitin-specific proteases, liberating a native, or a near-native protein-of-interest. This technique is thus particularly useful for the study of proteins whose free N terminus is required for proper function. In addition, removal of the DD in the presence of stabilizing ligand leads to higher expression levels of regulated protein when cells experience transient exposure to a stabilizing ligand, such as in a living animal receiving a single dose of a pharmacological agent as the stabilizing ligand.

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