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1.
Mar Drugs ; 17(11)2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671563

RESUMO

Sepsis, an inflammatory response to infection provoked by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is associated with high mortality, as well as ischemic stroke and new-onset atrial arrhythmia. Severe bacterial infections causing sepsis always result in profound physiological changes, including fever, hypotension, arrhythmia, necrosis of tissue, systemic multi-organ dysfunction and finally death. LPS challenge-induced inflammatory responses during sepsis may increase the likelihood of the arrhythmogenesis. Lemnalol is known to possess potent anti-inflammatory effects. This study examined whether Lemnalol (0.1 µM) could modulate the electrophysiological characteristics and calcium homeostasis of atrial myocytes under the influence of LPS (1µg/mL). Under challenge with LPS, Lemnalol-treated LA myocytes, had a longer AP duration at 20%, 50% and 90% repolarization of the amplitude, compared to the LPS-treated cells. LPS-challenged LA myocytes showed increased late sodium current, Na+-Ca2+ exchanger current, transient outward current, rapid component of delayed rectifier potassium current, tumor necrosis factor-α, NF-κB and increased phosphorylation of ryanodine receptor (RyR), but a lower L-type Ca2+ current than the control LA myocytes. Exposure to Lemnalol reversed the LPS-induced effects. The LPS-treated and control groups of LA myocytes, with or without the existence of Lemnalol. showed no apparent alterations in the sodium current amplitude or Cav1.2 expression. The expression of sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium transport ATPase (SERCA2) was reduced by LPS treatment, while Lemnalol ameliorated the LPS-induced alterations. The phosphorylation of RyR was enhanced by LPS treatment, while Lemnalol attenuated the LPS-induced alterations. In conclusion, Lemnalol modulates LPS-induced alterations of LA calcium homeostasis and blocks the NF-κB pathways, which may contribute to the attenuation of LPS-induced arrhythmogenesis.

2.
Respirology ; 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: ACO is a syndrome with high prevalence. However, a pragmatic diagnostic criterion to differentiate ACO is non-existent. We aimed to establish an effective model for screening ACO. METHODS: A multicentre survey was developed to assess the clinical criteria considered important and applicable by pulmonologists for screening ACO. These experts were asked to take the surveys twice. The expert grading method, analytic hierarchy process and ROC curve were used to establish the model, which was then validated by a cross-sectional study of 1066 patients. The GINA/GOLD document was the gold standard in assessing this model. RESULTS: Increased variability of symptoms, paroxysmal wheezing, dyspnoea, historical diagnosis of COPD or asthma, allergic constitution, exposure to risk factors, the FEV1 /FVC < 70% and a positive BDT were important for screening ACO. According to the weight of each criterion, we confirmed that patients meeting six or more of these eight criteria should be considered to have ACO. We called this Chinese screening model for ACO 'CSMA'. It differentiated patients with ACO with a sensitivity of 83.33%, while the sensitivity of clinician-driven diagnosis had a sensitivity of only 42.73%. CONCLUSION: CSMA is a workable model for screening ACO and provides a simple tool for clinicians to efficiently diagnose ACO.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774608

RESUMO

Both EWSR1 and TFE3 are well-known oncogenes. EWSR1 encodes an RNA-binding protein involved in multiple soft tissue tumors, including Ewing's sarcoma/peripheral neuroectodermal tumor, desmoplastic small round cell tumor, soft tissue clear cell sarcoma (malignant melanoma of soft parts), extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma, and myxoid liposarcomas. TFE3 regulates both Golgi and lysosomal homeostasis and is rearranged in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), alveolar soft part sarcoma, epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, and perivascular epitheloid cell tumors (PEComas). In this report, we found a rare case of RCC with a fusion between 5' EWSR1 and 3' TFE3. The fusion product retained most functional motifs of TFE3. The oncogenic mechanism likely involves TFE3 overexpression through its juxtaposition with the regulatory elements of EWSR1 and its translocation to the nucleus, resulting in the deregulation of Golgi and lysosomal homeostasis. This is a second case of RCC containing EWSR1-TFE3 fusion. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

4.
EMBO J ; : e101928, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777974

RESUMO

The UV-B photoreceptor UVR8 mediates multiple UV-B responses in plants, but the function of UVR8 in regulating root development has not previously been investigated. Here, we show that UV-B light inhibits Arabidopsis lateral root growth in a UVR8-dependent manner. Monomeric UVR8 inhibits auxin responses in a tissue-autonomous manner and thereby regulates lateral root growth. Genome-wide gene expression analysis demonstrated that auxin and UV-B irradiation antagonistically regulate auxin-regulated gene expression. We further show that UVR8 physically interacts with MYB73/MYB77 (MYB DOMAIN PROTEIN 73/77) in a UV-B-dependent manner. UVR8 inhibits lateral root development via regulation of MYB73/MYB77. When activated by UV-B light, UVR8 localizes to the nucleus and inhibits the DNA-binding activities of MYB73/MYB77 and directly represses the transcription of their target auxin-responsive genes. Our results demonstrate that UV-B light and UVR8 are critical for both shoot morphogenesis and root development. The UV-B-dependent interaction of UVR8 and MYB73/MYB77 serves as an important module that integrates light and auxin signaling and represents a new UVR8 signaling mechanism in plants.

5.
Theranostics ; 9(26): 8409-8425, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754405

RESUMO

Introduction: Metastasis and drug resistance contribute substantially to the poor prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. However, the epigenetic regulatory mechanisms by which CRC develops metastatic and drug-resistant characteristics remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the role of miR-302a in the metastasis and molecular-targeted drug resistance of CRC and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Methods: miR-302a expression in CRC cell lines and patient tissue microarrays was analyzed by qPCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The roles of miR-302a in metastasis and cetuximab (CTX) resistance were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. Bioinformatic prediction algorithms and luciferase reporter assays were performed to identify the miR-302a binding regions in the NFIB and CD44 3'-UTRs. A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was performed to examine NFIB occupancy in the ITGA6 promoter region. Immunoblotting was performed to identify the EGFR-mediated pathways altered by miR-302a. Results: miR-302a expression was frequently reduced in CRC cells and tissues, especially in CTX-resistant cells and patient-derived xenografts. The decreased miR-302a levels correlated with poor overall CRC patient survival. miR-302a overexpression inhibited metastasis and restored CTX responsiveness in CRC cells, whereas miR-302a silencing exerted the opposite effects. NFIB and CD44 were identified as novel targets of miR-302a. miR-302a inhibited the metastasis-promoting effect of NFIB that physiologically activates ITGA6 transcription. miR-302a restored CTX responsiveness by suppressing CD44-induced cancer stem cell-like properties and EGFR-mediated MAPK and AKT signaling. These results are consistent with clinical observations indicating that miR-302a expression is inversely correlated with the expression of its targets in CRC specimens. Conclusions: Our findings show that miR-302a acts as a multifaceted regulator of CRC metastasis and CTX resistance by targeting NFIB and CD44, respectively. Our study implicates miR-302a as a candidate prognostic predictor and a therapeutic agent in CRC.

6.
J Gastrointest Surg ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer (GC) treatment is largely determined by tumor stage. Despite improvements in the mode of treatment of various types of advanced disease, staging is still evolving. The role of tumor deposits (TDs) in staging remains debated. The purpose of this research is to investigate the relationship between TDs and prognosis in GC. METHODS: A total of 3098 patients were considered eligible for prognostic analysis (2706 patients in the TDs-negative group and 392 patients in the TDs-positive group). A one-to-one propensity score-matching analysis was performed using a logistic regression mode and the following covariates: age, gender, tumor location, size, differentiation, perineural invasion, lymphovascular invasion, pTNM stage, type of gastrectomy, and the number of lymph nodes retrieved between TDs-negative and TDs-positive group, then 323 patients in each group were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analyses of prognostic factors were conducted accordingly. The predictive ability of different staging system incorporating TDs was evaluated. RESULTS: TDs were present in 14.5% cases and almost all of the patients (99%) suffered from advanced GC. Multivariate analysis showed that pN stage, chemotherapy, and TDs were the independent prognostic factors. The TDs-positive group showed a lower rate of 5-year disease-free survival compared with the TDs-negative group in all patients, stage II, and stage III patients (p = 0.001, 0.029, and 0.003, respectively). The 5-year disease-free survival for patients with TDs and without TDs was 27.6% and 34.4%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our research shows that TDs are closely associated with prognosis in GC. TDs should be incorporated into the TNM staging system, which could then accurately improve the staging reliability and prognostic assessment.

7.
J Hazard Mater ; : 121634, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740315

RESUMO

Anatase TiO2 nanoparticles coated with P and O co-doped g-C3N4 were prepared via a single-step procedure. The resulting POCN/anatase TiO2 demonstrated remarkable performance in the degradation of enrofloxacin (ENFX). The photocatalytic activity of this heterojunction was 28.9 and 3.71 times better than that of the CN and anatase TiO2, respectively. The microtopography of the POCN/anatase TiO2 was revealed in this study. Co-doping with P and O increased the visible light adsorption capacity of the g-C3N4, whereas the anatase TiO2 nanoparticles enhanced the adsorption properties of the ENFX and the separation of the photoinduced carriers of the POCN/anatase TiO2. The O2·- and h+ were the main reactive oxidative species in the photocatalytic degradation of ENFX. The results of the detection of H2O2 and ESR confirmed that POCN/anatase TiO2 was a type Z-scheme photocatalyst. Finally, the ENFX degradation pathways were estimated through the detection of by-products.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given that a wide variation in tumor response rates and survival times suggests heterogeneity among the patients with advanced pancreatic cancer (APC) who underwent second-line (L2) chemotherapy, it is a challenge in clinical practice to identify patients who will receive the most benefit from L2 treatment. METHODS: We selected 183 APC patients who received L2 palliative chemotherapy between 2010 and 2016 from a medical center as the development cohort. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to identify the prognostic factors and construct the nomogram. An independent cohort of 166 patients from three other hospitals was selected for external validation. RESULTS: The nomogram was based on eight independent prognostic factors from the multivariate Cox model: sex, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, reason for first-line (L1) treatment discontinuation, duration of L1 treatment, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, tumor stage, body mass index, and serum CA19-9 levels at the beginning of L2 treatment. The model exhibited good discrimination ability, with a C-index of 0.733 (95% CI, 0.681-0.785) and 0.724 (95% CI, 0.661-0.787) in the development and validation cohorts, respectively. The calibration plots of the development and validation cohorts showed optimal agreement between model prediction and actual observation in predicting survival probability at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years. CONCLUSIONS: This study developed and externally validated a prognostic model that accurately predicts the survival outcome of APC patients prior to L2 palliative chemotherapy, which could assist in clinical decision making, counselling for treatment, and most importantly, prognostic stratification of patients.

9.
Pancreatology ; 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Determining survival outcome in advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (aPDAC) patients receiving second-line (L2) chemotherapy is important for clinical decision-making. The Besançon group from France recently proposed a prognostic nomogram to predict overall survival (OS) for aPDAC patients receiving L2 chemotherapy. The present study aimed to externally validate the performance of the Besançon nomogram in predicting OS in an Asian cohort. METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 349 patients who received L2 chemotherapy for aPDAC between 2010 and 2016 at four institutes in Taiwan. The performance of the Besançon model in this cohort was evaluated with C-index and calibration plots. RESULTS: The median OS time in our patient cohort was 4.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.0-5.0). Using the Besançon nomogram-predicted risk groups, the median OS times in the low, intermediate, and high-risk groups were 6.7 (95% CI, 5.3-8.2), 3.2 (95% CI, 2.4-3.9), and 1.7 months (95% CI, 0.6-2.7), respectively. The C-index of the predicted six- and 12-month survival probabilities for the Besançon nomogram were 0.766 (95% CI, 0.715-0.816) and 0.698 (95% CI, 0.641-0.754), respectively. The calibration plot showed that the observed six-month survival probability was close to the diagonal line, while that for 12-month survival deviated below the diagonal line compared to the survival probability predicted by the Besançon nomogram. CONCLUSIONS: Although the Besançon nomogram tended to over-estimate the 12-month survival probability, our study demonstrated that the nomogram is a reliable and readily applicable model to estimate survival outcomes of aPDAC patients receiving L2 chemotherapy.

10.
Adv Mater ; : e1902757, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682051

RESUMO

Functional materials are the key enabling factor in the development of clean energy technologies. Materials of particular interest, which are reviewed herein, are a class of hydrogenous compound having the general formula of M(XHn )m , where M is usually a metal cation and X can be Al, B, C, N, O, transition metal (TM), or a mixture of them, which sets up an iono-covalent or covalent bonding with H. M(XHn )m is generally termed as a complex hydride by the hydrogen storage community. The rich chemistry between H and B/C/N/O/Al/TM allows complex hydrides of diverse composition and electronic configuration, and thus tunable physical and chemical properties, for applications in hydrogen storage, thermal energy storage, ion conduction in electrochemical devices, and catalysis in fuel processing. The recent progress is reviewed here and strategic approaches for the design and optimization of complex hydrides for the abovementioned applications are highlighted.

11.
Sci Adv ; 5(10): eaax6322, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692785

RESUMO

Metals often exhibit robust catalytic activity and specific selectivity when downsized into subnanoscale clusters and even atomic dispersion owing to the high atom utilization and unique electronic properties. However, loading of atomically dispersed metal on solid supports with high metal contents for practical catalytic applications remains a synthetic bottleneck. Here, we report the use of mesoporous sulfur-doped carbons as supports to achieve high-loading atomically dispersed noble metal catalysts. The high sulfur content and large surface area endow the supports with high-density anchor sites for fixing metal atoms via the strong chemical metal-sulfur interactions. By the sulfur-tethering strategy, we synthesize atomically dispersed Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir, and Pt catalysts with high metal loading up to 10 wt %. The prepared Pt and Ir catalysts show 30- and 20-fold higher activity than the commercial Pt/C and Ir/C catalysts for catalyzing formic acid oxidation and quinoline hydrogenation, respectively.

12.
Histopathology ; 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667857

RESUMO

Polymorphous sweat gland carcinoma (PSGC) is a rare and low-grade malignant cutaneous neoplasm that presents as a slow-growing, skin-colored nodule in middle-aged to older patients with no sex preference.1,2 Histologically, PSGC is a well-circumscribed multinodular neoplasm composed of epithelioid cells arranged in an admixture of growth patterns within the same lesion, including trabecular, solid, pseudopapillary, and cylindromatous (adenoid cystic carcinoma-like), though not all patterns must be present and proportions of the patterns are variable from tumor to tumor.

13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16279, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31700032

RESUMO

Charge density and molecular coverage on the surface of electrode play major roles in the science and technology of surface chemistry and biochemical sensing. However, there has been no easy and direct method to characterize these quantities. By extending the method of Transient Induced Molecular Electronic Signal (TIMES) which we have used to measure molecular interactions, we are able to quantify the amount of charge in the double layers at the solution/electrode interface for different buffer strengths, buffer types, and pH values. Most uniquely, such capabilities can be applied to study surface coverage of immobilized molecules. As an example, we have measured the surface coverage for thiol-modified single-strand deoxyribonucleic acid (ssDNA) as anchored probe and 6-Mercapto-1-hexanol (MCH) as blocking agent on the platinum surface. Through these experiments, we demonstrate that TIMES offers a simple and accurate method to quantify surface charge and coverage of molecules on a metal surface, as an enabling tool for studies of surface properties and surface functionalization for biochemical sensing and reactions.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688303

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The use of nonselective beta blockers in cirrhotic patients experiencing complications is controversial. We aimed to investigate the association between propranolol treatment and outcomes for cirrhotic patients with hepatic encephalopathy. METHODS: Using data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, we identified 4754 cirrhotic patients newly diagnosed with hepatic encephalopathy between 2001 and 2010. Among them, 519 patients received propranolol treatment and the other 519 patients without exposure to propranolol were enrolled into our study, both of which were matched by sex, age, and propensity score. The Kaplan-Meier method and time-dependent-modified Cox proportional hazards models were employed for survival and multivariate-stratified analyses. RESULTS: The median overall survival (OS) was significantly longer in the propranolol-treated cohort than in the untreated cohort (3.46 versus 1.88 years, P < 0.001). A dose-dependent increase in survival was observed (median OS: 4.49, 3.29, and 2.46 years in patients treated with propranolol more than 30 , 20-30 , and less than 20 mg/day, respectively [P < 0.001, P = 0.001, and P = 0.079 versus the untreated group]). In addition to reduce the risk of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.58; P < 0.001), propranolol also diminished the risk of sepsis-related death (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.31; P = 0.006) according to the multivariate analysis. However, the risk of circulatory or hepatic failure was nonsignificantly altered by propranolol treatment. CONCLUSION: Low dose of propranolol treatment was associated with a better OS in cirrhotic patients with hepatic encephalopathy and its effects were dose dependent.

15.
Epigenetics Chromatin ; 12(1): 65, 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) is a major threat to human health worldwide. It is well established that smoking increases the risk of respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases and different forms of cancer, including lung, liver, and colon. CS-triggered inflammation is considered to play a central role in various pathologies by a mechanism that stimulates the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. During this process, epigenetic alterations are known to play important roles in the specificity and duration of gene transcription. MAIN TEXT: Epigenetic alterations include three major modifications: DNA modifications via methylation; various posttranslational modifications of histones, namely, methylation, acetylation, phosphorylation, and ubiquitination; and non-coding RNA sequences. These modifications work in concert to regulate gene transcription in a heritable fashion. The enzymes that regulate these epigenetic modifications can be activated by smoking, which further mediates the expression of multiple inflammatory genes. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the epigenetic alterations triggered by CS and assess how such alterations may affect smoking-mediated inflammatory responses. CONCLUSION: The recognition of the molecular mechanisms of the epigenetic changes in abnormal inflammation is expected to contribute to the understanding of the pathophysiology of CS-related diseases such that novel epigenetic therapies may be identified in the near future.

16.
Behav Res Methods ; 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676968

RESUMO

In experiments on behavioral adaptation, hundreds or even thousands of trials per subject are often required in order to accurately recover the many psychometric functions that characterize adaptation's time course. More efficient methods for measuring perceptual changes over time would be beneficial to such efforts. In this article, we propose two methods to adaptively select the optimal stimuli sequentially in an experiment on adaptation: These are the minimum entropy (ME) method and the match probability (MP) method. The ME method minimizes the uncertainty about the joint posterior distribution of the function parameters at each trial and is mathematically equivalent to Zhao, Lesmes, and Lu's (2019) method, which efficiently measures time courses of perceptual change by maximizing information gain. The MP method selects the next stimulus that makes the value of the psychometric function closest to .5-that is, where the probability of choosing either one of the two options for each stimulus is closest to .5. We extended Zhao et al.'s (2019) work by evaluating the ME method in a new domain (contrast adaptation) with two simulation studies that compared it to MP and two other methods (i.e., traditional staircase and random methods), and also explored the optimal block length. ME outperformed the other three methods in general, and using fewer longer blocks generally produced better parameter recovery than using more shorter blocks.

17.
Arch Virol ; 2019 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734749

RESUMO

Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) has spread globally and emerged as an urgent public health threat. Bacteriophages are considered an effective weapon against multidrug-resistant pathogens. In this study, we report a novel lytic phage, kpssk3, which is able to lyse CRKP and degrade exopolysaccharide (EPS). The morphological characteristics of kpssk3 observed by transmission electron microscopy, including a polyhedral head and a short tail, indicate that it belongs to the family Podoviridae. A one-step growth curve revealed that kpssk3 has a latent period of 10 min and a burst size of 200 plaque-forming units (pfu) per cell. kpssk3 was able to lyse 25 out of 27 (92.59%) clinically isolated CRKP strains, and it also exhibited high stability to changes in temperature and pH. kpssk3 has a linear dsDNA genome of 40,539 bp with 52.80% G+C content and 42 putative open reading frames (ORFs). No antibiotic resistance genes, virulence factors, or integrases were identified in the genome. Based on bioinformatic analysis, the tail fiber protein of phage kpssk3 was speculated to possess depolymerase activity towards EPS. By comparative genomics and phylogenetic analysis, it was determined that kpssk3 is a new T7-like virus and belongs to the subfamily Autographivirinae. The characterization and genomic analysis of kpssk3 will promote our understanding of phage biology and diversity and provide a potential strategy for controlling CRKP infection.

18.
J Pathol ; 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595974

RESUMO

Poor chemotherapy response remains a major treatment challenge for high-grade serous ovarian cancer. Cancer stem cells are the major contributors to relapse and treatment failure as they can survive conventional therapy. Our objectives were to characterise stemness features in primary patient derived cell lines, correlate stemness markers with clinical outcome, and test the response of our cells to both conventional and exploratory drugs. Tissue and ascites samples, treatment-naïve and/or after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, were prospectively collected. Primary cancer cells, cultured under conditions favouring either adherent or spheroid growth, were tested for stemness markers; the same markers were analysed in tissue and correlated with chemotherapy response and survival. Drug sensitivity and resistance testing was performed with 306 oncology compounds. Spheroid growth-condition HGSC cells showed increased stemness marker expression (including ALDH1A1) as compared to adherent growth-condition cells, and increased resistance to platinum and taxane. A set of eight stemness markers separated treatment-naïve tumours into two clusters and identified a distinct subgroup of HGSC with enriched stemness features. Expression of ALDH1A1, but not most other stemness markers, was increased after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and its expression in treatment-naïve tumours correlated with chemoresistance and reduced survival. In DSRT, five compounds, including two PI3K-mTOR inhibitors, demonstrated significant activity in both cell culture conditions. Thirteen compounds, including EGFR, PI3K-mTOR and aurora kinase inhibitors, were more toxic to spheroid cells than adherent cells. Our results identify stemness markers in HGSC that are associated with a decreased response to conventional chemotherapy and reduced survival if expressed by treatment-naïve tumours. EGFR, mTOR-PI3K and aurora kinase inhibitors are candidates for targeting this cell population.

19.
DNA Cell Biol ; 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613654

RESUMO

The plasma levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and its receptors (CXCR1 and CXCR2) play a significant role in the development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), but it is not clear how these proteins are involved in wasp sting patients developing SIRS. To study potential genetic factors predisposing to the risk of SIRS caused by wasp sting injury, we determined the plasma levels of IL-8 and its receptors among SIRS patients with wasp sting injury and investigated the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms of these genes with SIRS. A total of 225 patients were divided into the SIRS group (n = 62) and non-SIRS group (control, n = 163), and we associated polymorphisms in IL-8 [rs4073 (-251T>A), rs2227532 (-845C>T), rs2227307 (+396G>T), rs2227306 (+781T>C), CXCR1 rs2234671 (+860C>G), CXCR2 [rs2230054 (+811T>C), rs57929613 (+1235C>T), and rs60626131 (+1440A>G)] with SIRS with a linear additive model. In terms of protein expression, the IL-8, CXCR1, and CXCR2 plasma levels were significantly higher in the SIRS group than in the control group (p < 0.001). Significantly higher frequencies were observed for the IL-8 - 251T allele (AT+TT), CXCR2 + 811T allele (CT+TT), and +1235C allele (TC+CC) in the SIRS group, when compared with the control group, with odds ratio (OR) = 3.971 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.618-9.734), p = 0.003; OR = 4.223 (95% CI, 1.863-9.571), p = 0.001; and OR = 4.012 (95% CI, 1.773-9.079), p = 0.001; respectively. In addition, SIRS is more likely to occur in males, patients with number of wasp stings ≥10 stings, and stings in the limbs. The current study suggests that the IL-8 - 251T allele (AT+TT) and IL-8 receptor CXCR2 + 811C allele (CT+TT) and +1235T allele (TC+CC) could be risk factors among SIRS patients with wasp sting injury.

20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 185: 109722, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577991

RESUMO

Methylmercury (MeHg) is a toxicant that mainly originates from in situ microbial methylation of inorganic mercury (Hg) in the environment and poses a severe health risk to the public. However, the characteristics of the Hg-methylating microbial community and its relationship with MeHg production in various environments remain to be understood. In the present study, Hg-methylating microbial communities and genes (hgcAB cluster) in the sediments of the Pearl River (PR), Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and South China Sea (SCS) were investigated at a large spatial scale using high-throughput sequencing-based approaches. The results showed that sulfur-reducing bacteria (SRB) and iron-reducing bacteria (IRB) were consistently the dominant microbial strains responsible for the methylation of inorganic Hg in all three regions investigated. The abundance and diversity of Hg-methylating communities and genes were both found to be higher in the PR sediments compared to that in the PRE and SCS sediments, and in good agreement with the spatial distribution of MeHg. Furthermore, a significant correlation was observed between the MeHg concentration and the abundance of both hgcA and hgcB genes in the sediments of the PR, PRE and SCS regions. Overall, the present study suggested that there was the presence of a close link between MeHg and Hg-methylating communities or genes in the ambient aquatic environment, which could be used to reflect the potential of in situ MeHg production.

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