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1.
BMC Med Imaging ; 24(1): 78, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the feasibility of Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging (DKI) in assessing renal interstitial fibrosis induced by hyperuricemia. METHODS: A hyperuricemia rat model was established, and the rats were randomly split into the hyperuricemia (HUA), allopurinol (AP), and AP + empagliflozin (AP + EM) groups (n = 19 per group). Also, the normal rats were selected as controls (CON, n = 19). DKI was performed before treatment (baseline) and on days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 days after treatment. The DKI indicators, including mean kurtosis (MK), fractional anisotropy (FA), and mean diffusivity (MD) of the cortex (CO), outer stripe of the outer medulla (OS), and inner stripe of the outer medulla (IS) were acquired. Additionally, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, Masson trichrome staining, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) immunostaining were used to reveal renal histopathological changes at baseline, 1, 5, and 9 days after treatment. RESULTS: The HUA, AP, and AP + EM group MKOS and MKIS values gradually increased during this study. The HUA group exhibited the highest MK value in outer medulla. Except for the CON group, all the groups showed a decreasing trend in the FA and MD values of outer medulla. The HUA group exhibited the lowest FA and MD values. The MKOS and MKIS values were positively correlated with Masson's trichrome staining results (r = 0.687, P < 0.001 and r = 0.604, P = 0.001, respectively). The MDOS and FAIS were negatively correlated with Masson's trichrome staining (r = -626, P < 0.0014 and r = -0.468, P = 0.01, respectively). CONCLUSION: DKI may be a non-invasive method for monitoring renal interstitial fibrosis induced by hyperuricemia.


Assuntos
Hiperuricemia , Ratos , Animais , Hiperuricemia/diagnóstico por imagem , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Fibrose
2.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 321, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556880

RESUMO

Congenital infection caused by vertical transmission of microsporidia N. bombycis can result in severe economic losses in the silkworm-rearing industry. Whole-transcriptome analyses have revealed non-coding RNAs and their regulatory networks in N. bombycis infected embryos and larvae. However, transcriptomic changes in the microsporidia proliferation and host responses in congenitally infected embryos and larvae remains unclear. Here, we simultaneously compared the transcriptomes of N. bombycis and its host B. mori embryos of 5-day and larvae of 1-, 5- and 10-day during congenital infection. For the transcriptome of N. bombycis, a comparison of parasite expression patterns between congenital-infected embryos and larva showed most genes related to parasite central carbon metabolism were down-regulated in larvae during infection, whereas the majority of genes involved in parasite proliferation and growth were up-regulated. Interestingly, a large number of distinct or shared differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were revealed by the Venn diagram and heat map, many of them were connected to infection related factors such as Ricin B lectin, spore wall protein, polar tube protein, and polysaccharide deacetylase. For the transcriptome of B. mori infected with N. bombycis, beyond numerous DEGs related to DNA replication and repair, mRNA surveillance pathway, RNA transport, protein biosynthesis, and proteolysis, with the progression of infection, a large number of DEGs related to immune and infection pathways, including phagocytosis, apoptosis, TNF, Toll-like receptor, NF-kappa B, Fc epsilon RI, and some diseases, were successively identified. In contrast, most genes associated with the insulin signaling pathway, 2-oxacarboxylic acid metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, and lipid metabolisms were up-regulated in larvae compared to those in embryos. Furthermore, dozens of distinct and three shared DEGs that were involved in the epigenetic regulations, such as polycomb, histone-lysine-specific demethylases, and histone-lysine-N-methyltransferases, were identified via the Venn diagram and heat maps. Notably, many DEGs of host and parasite associated with lipid-related metabolisms were verified by RT-qPCR. Taken together, simultaneous transcriptomic analyses of both host and parasite genes lead to a better understanding of changes in the microsporidia proliferation and host responses in embryos and larvae in N. bombycis congenital infection.


Assuntos
Bombyx , Nosema , Animais , Transcriptoma , Larva/genética , Larva/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Lisina/metabolismo , Nosema/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Proliferação de Células , Lipídeos , Bombyx/genética
3.
JACS Au ; 4(3): 866-876, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38559720

RESUMO

Nucleosome, the building block of chromatin, plays pivotal roles in all DNA-related processes. While cryogenic-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) has significantly advanced our understanding of nucleosome structures, the emerging field of single-molecule force spectroscopy is illuminating their dynamic properties. This technique is crucial for revealing how nucleosome behavior is influenced by chaperones, remodelers, histone variants, and post-translational modifications, particularly in their folding and unfolding mechanisms under tension. Such insights are vital for deciphering the complex interplay in nucleosome assembly and structural regulation, highlighting the nucleosome's versatility in response to DNA activities. In this Perspective, we aim to consolidate the latest advancements in nucleosome dynamics, with a special focus on the revelations brought forth by single-molecule manipulation. Our objective is to highlight the insights gained from studying nucleosome dynamics through this innovative approach, emphasizing the transformative impact of single-molecule manipulation techniques in the field of chromatin research.

4.
Plant J ; 2024 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581688

RESUMO

Moving from sole cropping to intercropping is a transformative change in agriculture, contributing to yield. Soybeans adapt to light conditions in intercropping by adjusting the onset of reproduction and the inflorescence architecture to optimize reproductive success. Maize-soybean strip intercropping (MS), maize-soybean relay strip intercropping (IS), and sole soybean (SS) systems are typical soybean planting systems with significant differences in light environments during growth periods. To elucidate the effect of changes in the light environment on soybean flowering processes and provide a theoretical basis for selecting suitable varieties in various planting systems to improve yields, field experiments combining planting systems (IS, MS, and SS) and soybean varieties (GQ8, GX7, ND25, and NN996) were conducted in 2021 and 2022. Results showed that growth recovery in the IS resulted in a balance in the expression of TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) and FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) in the meristematic tissues of soybeans, which promoted the formation of new branches or flowers. IS prolonged the flowering time (2-7 days) and increased the number of forming flowers compared with SS (93.0 and 169%) and MS (67.3 and 103.3%) at the later soybean flowering stage. The higher carbon and nitrogen content in the middle and bottom canopies of soybean contributed to decreased flower abscission by 26.7 and 30.2%, respectively, compared with SS. Canopy light environment recovery promoted branch and flower formation and transformation of flowers into pods with lower flower-pod abscission, which contributed to elevating soybean yields in late-maturing and multibranching varieties (ND25) in IS.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573052

RESUMO

Inorganic lead-free perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) with broadband self-trapped exciton (STEs) emission and low toxicity have shown enormous application prospects in the field of display and lighting. However, white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) based on a single-component material with high photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) remain challenging. Here, we demonstrate a novel codoping strategy by introducing Sb3+/Mn2+ ions to achieve the tuneable dual emission in lead-free perovskite Cs3InCl6 NCs. The PLQY increases to 59.64% after doping with Sb3+. The codoped Cs3InCl6 NCs exhibit efficient white light emission due to the energy transfer channel from STEs to Mn2+ ions with PLQY of 51.38%. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been used to verify deeply the effects of Sb3+/Mn2+ doping. WLEDs based on Sb3+/Mn2+-codoped Cs3InCl6 NCs are explored with color rendering index of 85.5 and color coordinate of (0.398, 0.445), which have been successfully applied as photodetector lighting sources. This work provides a new perspective for designing novel lead-free perovskites to achieve single-component WLEDs.

6.
Discov Oncol ; 15(1): 97, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) plays a crucial role in directing folate species towards nucleotide synthesis or DNA methylation. The MTHFR polymorphisms C677T and A1298C have been linked to cancer susceptibility, but the evidence supporting this association has been equivocal. To investigate the individual and joint associations between MTHFR C677T, A1298C, and digestive system cancer in a Chinese hypertensive population, we conducted a population-based case-control study involving 751 digestive system cancer cases and one-to-one matched controls from the China H-type Hypertension Registry Study (CHHRS). METHODS: We utilized the conditional logistic regression model to evaluate multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of digestive system cancer. RESULTS: The analysis revealed a significantly lower risk of digestive system cancer in individuals with the CT genotype (adjusted OR: 0.71; 95% CI 0.52, 0.97; P = 0.034) and TT genotype (adjusted OR: 0.57; 95% CI 0.40, 0.82; P = 0.003; P for trend = 0.003) compared to those with the 677CC genotype. Although A1298C did not show a measurable association with digestive system cancer risk, further stratification of 677CT genotype carriers by A1298C homozygotes (AA) and heterozygotes (AC) revealed a distinct trend within these subgroups. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate a potential protective effect against digestive system cancer associated with the T allele of MTHFR C677T. Moreover, we observed that the presence of different combinations of MTHFR polymorphisms may contribute to varying susceptibilities to digestive system cancer.

7.
MedComm (2020) ; 5(3): e512, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38469549

RESUMO

Therapeutic antibodies (Abs) improve the clinical outcome of cancer patients. However, on-target off-tumor toxicity limits Ab-based therapeutics. Cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147) is a tumor-associated membrane antigen overexpressed in cancer cells. Ab-based drugs targeting CD147 have achieved inadequate clinical benefits for liver cancer due to side effects. Here, by using glycoengineering and hypoxia-activation strategies, we developed a conditional Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC)-enhanced humanized anti-CD147 Ab, HcHAb18-azo-PEG5000 (HAP18). Afucosylated ADCC-enhanced HcHAb18 Ab was produced by a fed-batch cell culture system. Azobenzene (Azo)-linked PEG5000 conjugation endowed HAP18 Ab with features of hypoxia-responsive delivery and selective targeting. HAP18 Ab potently inhibits the migration, invasion, and matrix metalloproteinase secretion, triggers the cytotoxicity and apoptosis of cancer cells, and induces ADCC, complement-dependent cytotoxicity, and Ab-dependent cellular phagocytosis under hypoxia. In xenograft mouse models, HAP18 Ab selectively targets hypoxic liver cancer tissues but not normal organs or tissues, and has potent tumor-inhibiting effects. HAP18 Ab caused negligible side effects and exhibited superior pharmacokinetics compared to those of parent HcHAb18 Ab. The hypoxia-activated ADCC-enhanced humanized HAP18 Ab safely confers therapeutic efficacy against liver cancer with improved selectivity. This study highlights that hypoxia activation is a promising strategy for improving the tumor targeting potential of anti-CD147 Ab drugs.

8.
Reprod Sci ; 2024 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38453771

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the regulation of amniotic fibroblast (AFC) function by vitamin K-dependent protein Z (PROZ) during preterm birth (PTB) and its potential role in adverse pregnancy outcomes. Proteomic samples were collected from amniotic fluid in the second trimester, and AFC were isolated from the amniotic membrane and cultured in vitro. The expression of extracellular and intracellular PROZ in AFC was modulated, and their biological properties and functions were evaluated. Clinical analysis revealed a significant upregulation of PROZ expression in amniotic fluid from preterm pregnant women. In vitro experiments demonstrated that PROZ stimulated AFC migration, enhanced their proliferative capacity, and reduced collagen secretion. Overexpression of PROZ further enhanced cell migration and proliferation, while knockdown of PROZ had the opposite effect. PROZ plays a crucial role in promoting the proliferation and migration of amniotic membrane fibroblasts. Increased PROZ expression in amniotic fluid is associated with the occurrence of PTB. These findings shed light on the potential involvement of PROZ in adverse pregnancy outcomes and provide a basis for further research on its regulatory mechanisms during PTB.

9.
J Physiol Biochem ; 2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38468074

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most aggressive and dismal cancers globally. Emerging evidence has established that mTOR and Hippo pathways are oncogenic drivers of HCC. However, the prognostic value of these pathways in HCC remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to develop a gene signature utilizing the mTOR/Hippo genes for HCC prognostication. A multiple stage strategy was employed to screen, and a 12-gene signature based on mTOR/Hippo pathways was constructed to predict the prognosis of HCC patients. The risk scores calculated by the signature were inversely correlated with patient prognosis. Validation of the signature in independent cohort confirmed its predictive power. Further analysis revealed molecular differences between high and low-risk groups at genomic, transcriptomic, and protein-interactive levels. Moreover, immune infiltration analysis revealed an immunosuppressive state in the high-risk group. Finally, the gene signature could predict the sensitivity to current chemotherapeutic drugs. This study demonstrated that combinatorial mTOR/Hippo gene signature was a robust and independent prognostic tool for survival prediction of HCC. Our findings not only provide novel insights for the molecular understandings of mTOR/Hippo pathways in HCC, but also have important clinical implications for guiding therapeutic strategies.

10.
Plants (Basel) ; 13(5)2024 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38475452

RESUMO

Panax ginseng as a traditional medicinal plant with a long history of medicinal use. Ginsenoside Ro is the only oleanane-type ginsenoside in ginseng, and has various pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, detoxification, and antithrombotic activities. UDP-dependent glycosyltransferase (UGT) plays a key role in the synthesis of ginsenoside, and the excavation of UGT genes involved in the biosynthesis of ginsenoside Ro has great significance in enriching ginsenoside genetic resources and further revealing the synthesis mechanism of ginsenoside. In this work, ginsenoside-Ro-synthesis-related genes were mined using the P. ginseng reference-free transcriptome database. Fourteen hub transcripts were identified by differential expression analysis and weighted gene co-expression network analysis. Phylogenetic and synteny block analyses of PgUGAT252645, a UGT transcript among the hub transcripts, showed that PgUGAT252645 belonged to the UGT73 subfamily and was relatively conserved in ginseng plants. Functional analysis showed that PgUGAT252645 encodes a glucuronosyltransferase that catalyzes the glucuronide modification of the C3 position of oleanolic acid using uridine diphosphate glucuronide as the substrate. Furthermore, the mutation at 622 bp of its open reading frame resulted in amino acid substitutions that may significantly affect the catalytic activity of the enzyme, and, as a consequence, affect the biosynthesis of ginsenoside Ro. Results of the in vitro enzyme activity assay of the heterologous expression product in E. coli of PgUGAT252645 verified the above analyses. The function of PgUGAT252645 was further verified by the result that its overexpression in ginseng adventitious roots significantly increased the content of ginsenoside Ro. The present work identified a new UGT gene involved in the biosynthesis of ginsenoside Ro, which not only enriches the functional genes in the ginsenoside synthesis pathway, but also provides the technical basis and theoretical basis for the in-depth excavation of ginsenoside-synthesis-related genes.

11.
Plants (Basel) ; 13(5)2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38475515

RESUMO

The choice of tea utensils used for brewing significantly impacts the sensory and chemical attributes of tea. In order to assess the influence of various tea sets on the flavor and chemical composition of different tea varieties, a combination of sensory evaluation and high-performance liquid chromatography was employed. The results showed that the content of amino acids in the tea liquid brewed with tin tea utensils was relatively higher, which could exhibit freshness in taste, thus suitable for brewing green tea and white tea. The content of polyphenols, soluble carbohydrates, and water extract in the tea liquid brewed with a porcelain tea set was relatively higher; the sweetness and thickness of the tea liquid were increased, so it was more beneficial to brew black tea. The purple sand tea set was suitable for brewing oolong tea and dark tea, and could endow their respective quality characteristics. Ultimately, these research findings provide a scientific basis for the selection of tea utensils tailored to different types of tea.

12.
Int J Biol Sci ; 20(5): 1634-1651, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38481819

RESUMO

Background: Hypoxia induces hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) malignancies; yet it also offers treatment opportunities, exemplified by developing hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAPs). Although HAP TH-302 combined with therapeutic antibody (Ab) has synergistic effects, the clinical benefits are limited by the on-target off-tumor toxicity of Ab. Here, we sought to develop a hypoxia-activated anti-M2 splice isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2) Ab combined with TH-302 for potentiated targeting therapy. Methods: Codon-optimized and hypoxia-activation strategies were used to develop H103 Ab-azo-PEG5k (HAP103) Ab. Hypoxia-activated HAP103 Ab was characterized, and hypoxia-dependent antitumor and immune activities were evaluated. Selective imaging and targeting therapy with HAP103 Ab were assessed in HCC-xenografted mouse models. Targeting selectivity, systemic toxicity, and synergistic therapeutic efficacy of HAP103 Ab with TH-302 were evaluated. Results: Human full-length H103 Ab was produced in a large-scale bioreactor. Azobenzene (azo)-linked PEG5k conjugation endowed HAP103 Ab with hypoxia-activated targeting features. Conditional HAP103 Ab effectively inhibited HCC cell growth, enhanced apoptosis, and induced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) functions. Analysis of HCC-xenografted mouse models showed that HAP103 Ab selectively targeted hypoxic HCC tissues and induced potent tumor-inhibitory activity either alone or in combination with TH-302. Besides the synergistic effects, HAP103 Ab had negligible side effects when compared to parent H103 Ab. Conclusion: The hypoxia-activated anti-PKM2 Ab safely confers a strong inhibitory effect on HCC with improved selectivity. This provides a promising strategy to overcome the on-target off-tumor toxicity of Ab therapeutics; and highlights an advanced approach to precisely kill HCC in combination with HAP TH-302.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Nitroimidazóis , Mostardas de Fosforamida , Pró-Fármacos , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Pró-Fármacos/uso terapêutico , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia , Hipóxia Celular/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Hipóxia
13.
Heliyon ; 10(5): e26798, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38486758

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence highlighted the important roles of platelets in the prognosis and progression of various tumors. Nevertheless, the role of platelet-related genes (PRGs) in HCC remains limited. In this work, 92 differentially expressed PRGs were described in HCC using TCGA and ICGC databases. Then, based on the different expressions of PRGs, we explored two subtypes and developed the PRGs prognostic signature in HCC. The PRGs signature was an independent prognosis factor associated with immune cell infiltration in HCC. Furthermore, two external validation sets verified the expression and prognosis of the PRGs signature gene in HCC. Finally, scRNA-seq analysis demonstrated that the signature genes (CENPE and KIF2C) were mainly expressed in cycling T cells and prolif-TAMs. Enrichment analysis showed that CENPE and KIF2C regulated the cell cycle and p53 pathways in these cells. In conclusion, this study builds the PRGs-related risk signature of HCC and reveals the potential mechanism by which these signature genes regulate the immune microenvironment in HCC.

15.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0300510, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38507418

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The mechanism of cervical ripening in late pregnancy is still unclear. The vaginal microbiome has been reported to correlate with the preterm birth and short cervix in pregnant women. However, the associations between the cervical maturity and the vaginal microbiome are still poorly understood. We aim to analyze the cervicovaginal microflora in women with ripe cervix and in those who are unripe when delivering at term. METHODS: Cervicovaginal swabs were collected between 40 and 41 weeks of gestation from the following 2 different groups of patients: ripe group (n = 25) and unripe group (n = 25). Samples were tested using 16S ribosomal RNA gene high-throughput sequencing and analyzed by bioinformatics platform. RESULTS: This study highlights the relationship between cervical maturity during late pregnancy and the composition of the cervicovaginal microflora. Both α- and ß-diversity analyses demonstrated significant differences between women with a ripe cervix and those with an unripe cervix. Notably, the Lactobacillus profile was found to be closely linked to cervical maturity. There was a significant difference in the vaginal community state type, with CST IV being more prevalent in women with an unripe cervix. Furthermore, the association between CST IV and the unripe cervix group, as indicated by the odds ratio of 8.6, underscores its relevance in evaluating cervical maturity, when compared to other Lactobacillus-dominant community state types. Additionally, several bacterial taxa, particularly Lactobacillus, exhibited differential relative abundances between the two groups. CONCLUSION: This study provided significant evidence regarding the relationship between the vaginal microbiome and cervical maturity, highlighting the differential diversity, community state types, and specific bacterial taxa, such as Lactobacillus, that are associated with cervical maturation status. These findings contributed to our understanding of the dynamics of the cervicovaginal microflora during late pregnancy and its implications for cervical health.


Assuntos
Colo do Útero , Nascimento Prematuro , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Colo do Útero/microbiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Vagina/microbiologia , Lactobacillus/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
16.
J Cell Mol Med ; 28(7): e18205, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38506089

RESUMO

Retinoic acid (RA), a vitamin A derivative, is an effective cell differentiating factor which plays critical roles in neuronal differentiation induction and the production of neurotransmitters in neurons. However, the specific changes in phosphorylation levels and downstream signalling pathways associated with RA remain unclear. This study employed qualitative and quantitative phosphoproteomics approaches based on mass spectrometry to investigate the phosphorylation changes induced by RA in C17.2 neural stem cells (NSCs). Dimethyl labelling, in conjunction with TiO2 phosphopeptide enrichment, was utilized to profile the phosphoproteome of self-renewing and RA-induced differentiated cells in C17.2 NSCs. The results of our study revealed that, qualitatively, 230 and 14 phosphoproteins were exclusively identified in the self-renewal and RA-induced groups respectively. Quantitatively, we successfully identified and quantified 177 unique phosphoproteins, among which 70 exhibited differential phosphorylation levels. Analysis of conserved phosphorylation motifs demonstrated enrichment of motifs corresponding to cyclin-dependent kinase and MAPK in the RA-induced group. Additionally, through a comprehensive literature and database survey, we found that the differentially expressed proteins were associated with the Wnt/ß-catenin and Hippo signalling pathways. This work sheds light on the changes in phosphorylation levels induced by RA in C17.2 NSCs, thereby expanding our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying RA-induced neuronal differentiation.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Neurais , Tretinoína , Tretinoína/farmacologia , Tretinoína/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo
17.
Heliyon ; 10(6): e27281, 2024 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38509946

RESUMO

The growing demand for renewable energy systems is driven by climate change concerns, government support, technological advancements, economic viability, and energy security. These factors combine to create a strong momentum towards a clean and sustainable energy future. Governments, governments, and individuals are increasingly aware of the environmental impacts of traditional energy sources and adopting renewable energy solutions. Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems (HRES) are developed as an effective way of meeting the energy demands in remote locations. The complexity of the system components and the fluctuation of renewable energy sources make it difficult to design an economical and effective HRES. In this study, the Improved Aquila Optimization (IAO) approach has been suggested as a powerful tool to optimize the HRES design. The study addresses the implementation of the IAO approach in the design of HRES and emphasizes its advantages over other optimization techniques. Through extensive simulations and analyses, our findings demonstrate the superior performance of the IAO algorithm in improving the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of HRES. The optimization process using IAO resulted in a significant reduction in overall system costs, achieving an estimated Net Present Cost (NPC) of $201,973. It translates to a cost reduction of 25% compared to conventional optimization techniques. Furthermore, our analysis reveals that the IAO approach enhances the utilization of renewable energy sources, leading to a 15% increase in overall energy generation efficiency. These results highlight the effectiveness of the IAO approach in addressing the challenges associated with designing HRES. By significantly reducing costs and improving efficiency, it facilitates the adoption of sustainable energy systems in remote areas. The outcomes of this study emphasize the importance of utilizing advanced optimization techniques, such as IAO, to ensure the economic viability and environmental sustainability of HRES.

18.
Small Methods ; : e2301772, 2024 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38513234

RESUMO

Efficient electromagnetic waves (EMWs) absorbing materials play a vital role in the electronic era. In traditional research on microwave absorbing (MA) materials, the synergistic modulation of material dispersion and structural dispersion of EMWs by incorporating multi-scale effects has frequently been overlooked, resulting in an untapped absorption potential. In this study, the material dispersion customization method based on biomass carbon is determined by quantitative analysis. The study carries out thermodynamic modulation of carbon skeleton, micro-nano porous engineering, and phosphorus atom donor doping in turn. The dielectric properties are improved step by step. In terms of structural dispersion design, inspired by the theory of antenna reciprocity, a Vivaldi antenna-like absorber is innovatively proposed. With the effective combination of material dispersion and structural dispersion engineering by 3D printing technology, the ultra-wideband absorption of 36.8 GHz and the angular stability of close to 60 ° under dual polarization are successfully realized. The work breaks the deadlock of mutual constraints between wave impedance and attenuation rate through the dispersion modulation methods on multiple scales, unlocking the potential for designing next-generation broadband wide-angle absorbers.

19.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 26(13): 9867-9870, 2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38477345

RESUMO

The generation and stabilization of gamma radiation-induced hydrogen atoms in gibbsite (Al(OH)3) nanoplates is directly related to the nature of residual ions from synthetic precursors used, whether nitrates or chlorides. The concentration of hydrogen atoms trapped in the interstitial layers of gibbsite is lower and decays faster in comparison to boehmite (AlOOH), which could affect the management of these materials in radioactive waste.

20.
Materials (Basel) ; 17(6)2024 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38541403

RESUMO

The low mechanical strength of a low-calcium fly ash (FA)-red mud (RM) geopolymer severely limits its application. Steel slag (SS) and Ca(OH)2 can provide calcium and alkali for the hydration process of a low-calcium FA-based geopolymer. In this study, SS was used to replace part of the RM, and Ca(OH)2 was introduced. The effects of SS and Ca(OH)2 on the properties of the FA-RM geopolymer were investigated. The experimental results show that SS promoted the matrix to generate more C(N)-A-S-H and C-S-H gels and optimized the pore structure, thereby improving the mechanical properties of the FA-based geopolymer. The addition of 4 wt.% Ca(OH)2 increased the hydration products of the FA-based geopolymer, the microstructure was denser, and the mechanical properties were significantly improved. The 28 d compressive strength of the FA-based ternary composite geopolymer prepared by replacing part of the RM with SS and adding Ca(OH)2 reached 30.6 MPa, which provided an experimental basis for the resource utilization of various bulk solid wastes.

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