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1.
J Thorac Dis ; 16(2): 935-947, 2024 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38505025

RESUMO

Background: Pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (PEH) is a rare vascular tumour, and its early diagnosis remains challenging. This study aims to comprehensively analyse the imaging features of PEH and develop a model for predicting PEH. Methods: Retrospective and pooled analyses of imaging findings were performed in PEH patients at our center (n=25) and in published cases (n=71), respectively. Relevant computed tomography (CT) images were extracted and used to build a deep learning model for PEH identification and differentiation from other diseases. Results: In this study, bilateral multiple nodules/masses (n=19) appeared to be more common with most nodules less than 2 cm. In addition to the common types and features, the pattern of mixed type (n=4) and isolated nodules (n=4), punctate calcifications (5/25) and lymph node enlargement were also observed (10/25). The presence of pleural effusion is associated with a poor prognosis in PEH. The deep learning model, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.71 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69-0.72], has a differentiation accuracy of 100% and 74% for the training and test sets respectively. Conclusions: This study confirmed the heterogeneity of the imaging findings in PEH and showed several previously undescribed types and features. The current deep learning model based on CT has potential for clinical application and needs to be further explored in the future.

2.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res ; 16(2): 191-201, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38528386

RESUMO

Acid inhibitors have been considered in treating gastroesophageal reflux-related cough (GERC). Compared to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), potassium-competitive acid blockers (P-CABs) have more potent and durable effects on anti-acid secretion. However, whether vonoprazan and esomeprazole have different therapeutic effects on GERC remains unknown. Patients diagnosed with GERC were enrolled in our study and randomly treated with vonoprazan (20 mg, once daily, P-CAB) or esomeprazole (20 mg, twice daily, PPI) for two months. A prokinetic agent was also administered. Patients were followed up once a month. Cough severity visual analogue scale (VAS) was measured as the primary outcome, while cough symptom score (CSS) and scores for cough-related quality-of-life or reflux-related symptoms were the secondary endpoints. A total of 50 patients completed the study, with 25 patients in each group. P-CAB and PPI groups showed similar decreases in cough severity VAS and CSS scores after the 2-month treatment (all P < 0.001). For quality-of-life, the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) score increased significantly from baseline in both groups, but the P-CAB group had greater improvement and a higher LCQ score in month 2 (all P ≤ 0.05). For reflux-related symptoms, the Hull Airway Reflux Questionnaire (HARQ) score declined substantially over time in the P-CAB group, while the reflux symptom index (RSI) score decreased in both groups. The P-CAB group tended to have a lower HARQ (P = 0.051) and RSI (P = 0.069) scores in month 2. In conclusion, vonoprazan may be comparable to esomeprazole in cough symptom relief in GERC during the 2-month treatment period, but possibly provides better gains on classic reflux symptoms and quality-of-life. The long-term efficacy of P-CABs on GERC may be worth further exploration. Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry Identifier: ChiCTR2200067089.

3.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 10: e47453, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cough is a common symptom during and after COVID-19 infection; however, few studies have described the cough profiles of COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, severity, and associated risk factors of severe and persistent cough in individuals with COVID-19 during the latest wave of the Omicron variant in China. METHODS: In this nationwide cross-sectional study, we collected information of the characteristics of cough from individuals with infection of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant using an online questionnaire sent between December 31, 2022, and January 11, 2023. RESULTS: There were 11,718 (n=7978, 68.1% female) nonhospitalized responders, with a median age of 37 (IQR 30-47) years who responded at a median of 16 (IQR 12-20) days from infection onset to the time of the survey. Cough was the most common symptom, occurring in 91.7% of participants, followed by fever, fatigue, and nasal congestion (68.8%-87.4%). The median cough visual analog scale (VAS) score was 70 (IQR 50-80) mm. Being female (odds ratio [OR] 1.31, 95% CI 1.20-1.43), having a COVID-19 vaccination history (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.37-2.12), current smoking (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.41-0.58), chronic cough (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.69-2.45), coronary heart disease (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.17-2.52), asthma (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.02-1.46), and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.01-1.45) were independent factors for severe cough (VAS>70, 37.4%). Among all respondents, 35.0% indicated having a productive cough, which was associated with risk factors of being female (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.31-1.57), having asthma (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.52-2.22), chronic cough (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.19-1.74), and GERD (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.01-1.47). Persistent cough (>3 weeks) occurred in 13.0% of individuals, which was associated with the risk factors of having diabetes (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.30-3.85), asthma (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.11-2.62), and chronic cough (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.32-2.94). CONCLUSIONS: Cough is the most common symptom in nonhospitalized individuals with Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant infection. Being female, having asthma, chronic cough, GERD, coronary heart disease, diabetes, and a COVID-19 vaccination history emerged as independent factors associated with severe cough, productive cough, and persistent cough.


Assuntos
Asma , COVID-19 , Doença das Coronárias , Diabetes Mellitus , Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Transversais , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Tosse/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , China/epidemiologia , Asma/complicações , Asma/epidemiologia
4.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1870(3): 167040, 2024 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38281711

RESUMO

Asthma is quite heterogenous and can be categorized as eosinophilic, mixed granulocytic (presence of both eosinophils and neutrophils in the airways) and neutrophilic. Clinically, mixed granulocytic asthma (MGA) often tends to be severe and requires large doses of corticosteroids. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is one of the epithelium-derived alarmins that contributes to type 2 inflammation and asthma. This study was aimed to investigate the role of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) in modulation of airway epithelial HMGB1 production in MGA. Induced sputum and bronchial biopsy specimens were obtained from healthy subjects and asthma patients. BALB/c mice, the airway epithelial cell line BEAS-2B, or primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) were immunized with allergens. Intracellular and extracellular HMGB1 were both detected. The role of GLUT1 was assessed by using a pharmacological antagonist BAY876. MGA patients have a significant higher sputum HMGB1 level than the health and subjects with other inflammatory phenotypes. Nuclear-to-cytoplasmic translocation of HMGB1 was also observed in the bronchial epithelia. Allergen exposure markedly induced GLUT1 expression in murine lungs and cultured epithelial cells. Pharmacological antagonism of GLUT1 with BAY876 dramatically decreased airway hyperresponsiveness, neutrophil and eosinophil accumulation, as well as type 2 inflammation in murine models of MGA. Besides, the allergen-induced up-regulation of HMGB1 was also partly recovered by BAY876, accompanied by inhibited secretion into the airway lumen. In vitro, treatment with BAY876 relieved the allergen-induced over-expression and secretion of HMGB1 in airway epithelia. Taken together, our data indicated that GLUT1 mediates bronchial epithelial HMGB1 release in MGA.


Assuntos
Asma , Proteína HMGB1 , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/genética , Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Asma/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Inflamação , Alérgenos
5.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 143, 2024 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38168066

RESUMO

Extracellular matrix (ECM) assembly/disassembly is a critical regulator for airway epithelial development and remodeling. Airway organoid is widely used in respiratory research, yet there is limited study to indicate the roles and mechanisms of ECM organization in epithelial growth and differentiation by using in vitro organoid system. Moreover, most of current Matrigel-based airway organoids are in basal-out orientation where accessing the apical surface is challenging. We present a human apical-out airway organoid using a biochemically defined hybrid hydrogel system. During human nasal epithelial progenitor cells (hNEPCs) differentiation, the gel gradually degrade, leading to the organoid apical surfaces facing outward. The expression and activity of ECM-degrading enzymes, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP7, MMP9, MMP10 and MMP13) increases during organoid differentiation, where inhibition of MMPs significantly suppresses the normal ciliation, resulting in increased goblet cell proportion. Moreover, a decrease of MMPs is found in goblet cell hyperplastic epithelium in inflammatory mucosa. This system reveals essential roles of epithelial-derived MMPs on epithelial cell fate determination, and provides an applicable platform enabling further study for ECM in regulating airway development in health and diseases.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais , Organoides , Humanos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Organoides/metabolismo , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Células Caliciformes/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo
6.
Chest ; 165(1): e11-e17, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38199739

RESUMO

CASE PRESENTATION: A 39-year-old man who did not smoke was admitted to the hospital with recurrent cough for 1 year, accompanied by sputum expectoration (with a small amount of white phlegm), acid regurgitation, and belching. Nasal symptoms or other cough-related contributing factors were denied. The patient reported that his cough mainly occurred at nighttime and was aggravated in the supine position. Vomiting could occur when the cough was violent. He denied fever, dysphonia, chest tightness, wheezing, chest pain and hemoptysis, abdominal pain, and bloating. The patient had initially presented to the local hospital and underwent a chest CT scan. The chest CT scan showed slight and scattered patchy infiltration in bilateral lung fields and without other significant pulmonary lesions. Anti-infective treatment was administered but was not effective for ameliorating the cough symptoms. He then received an inhaled corticosteroid, antihistamines, antileukotriene agents, or proton pump inhibitors for 6 months. However, all these treatments failed to alleviate the patient's cough. He had a history of hypertension and hyperlipidemia for > 10 years and was treated with valsartan (an angiotensin II receptor blocker) and atorvastatin. In the past year, the patient had lost 10 kg of weight, and his current BMI was 27.72 kg/m2.


Assuntos
Eructação , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Tosse/diagnóstico , Tosse/etiologia , Vômito , Hemoptise
7.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 45(1): e14-e22, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38151737

RESUMO

Background: Dupilumab has been shown to be effective in clinical trials for moderate-to-severe uncontrolled asthma. However, the efficacy of dupilumab in the real world and the prediction of treatment response have not been well studied in patients with asthma. Objective: To investigate the efficacy of dupilumab and explore predictors of super-responders in a Chinese retrospective cohort. Methods: From January 2021 through December 2022, the patients with uncontrolled asthma who were treated with dupilumab for 4 months were included. Symptom control, type 2 inflammatory biomarkers, and lung function were collected at baseline and follow-up for efficacy assessment. Super-responders were defined as exacerbation-free, off maintenance of oral corticosteroids (mOCS), and with a score of the five-item Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ-5) of <0.5. The uni- and multivariable logistic regressions were used to construct predictive models for super-responders based on baseline features. Results: A total of 53 patients were included. After 4 months treatment, the median (interquartile range [IQR]) ACQ-5 score decreased from 1.8 (1.6-2.4) to 0.4 (0.2-0.8) (p < 0.001), the median (IQR) number of exacerbations, from 0.0 (0.0-1.0) to 0.0 (0.0-0.0) (p = 0.005). The median (IQR) dose of mOCS (prednisone equivalent) decreased from 15.0 mg/day (8.8-22.5 mg/day) to 2.5 mg/day (0.0-10.0 mg/day) (p = 0.008) in nine patients who were receiving mOCS. All efficacy assessment parameters, including sputum eosinophil were significantly improved, while blood eosinophil count did not decline (530 cells/mm³ [300-815 cells/mm³] versus 560 cells/mm³ [220-938 cells/mm³], p = 0.710). After taking dupilumab, 25 of 53 patients (47.2%) achieved a super-response. The age of onset < 42 years (odds ratio [OR] 7.471 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.286-43.394) and the baseline fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) of 25-50 ppb (OR 35.038 [95% CI, 3.104-395.553]) predicted super-responders, which showed a C-index of 0.822 (95% CI, 0.697-0.947). Conclusion: Dupilumab significantly improved symptom control, type 2 inflammatory markers, and lung function in Chinese patients with uncontrolled asthma. Airway eosinophils, rather than blood eosinophils, can be a reliable indicator of therapeutic efficacy. The early-onset asthma as well as the medium-high level of baseline FeNO contributed to the prediction of super-responders.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos , Asma , Humanos , Adulto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Asma/diagnóstico , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , China , Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico
8.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 959: 176078, 2023 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37805133

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The anti-tussive effect of gabapentin and its underlying neuromodulatory mechanism were investigated via a modified guinea pig model of gastroesophageal reflux-related cough (GERC). METHODS: Intra-esophageal perfusion with hydrochloric acid (HCl) was performed every other day 12 times to establish the GERC model. High-dose gabapentin (48 mg/kg), low-dose gabapentin (8 mg/kg), or saline was orally administered for 2 weeks after modeling. Cough sensitivity, airway inflammation, lung and esophagus histology, levels of substance P (SP), and neurokinin-1 (NK1)-receptors were monitored. RESULTS: Repeated intra-esophageal acid perfusion aggravated the cough sensitivity in guinea pigs in a time-dependent manner. The number of cough events was significantly increased after 12 times HCl perfusion, and the hypersensitivity period was maintained for 2 weeks. The SP levels in BALF, trachea, lung, distal esophagus, and vagal ganglia were increased in guinea pigs receiving HCl perfusion. The intensity of cough hypersensitivity in the GERC model was significantly correlated with increased SP expression in the airways. Both high and low doses of gabapentin administration could reduce cough hypersensitivity exposed to HCl perfusion, attenuate airway inflammatory damage, and inhibit neurogenic inflammation by reducing SP expression from the airway and vagal ganglia. CONCLUSIONS: Gabapentin can desensitize the cough sensitivity in the GERC model of guinea pig. The anti-tussive effect is associated with the alleviated peripheral neurogenic inflammation as reflected in the decreased level of SP.


Assuntos
Tosse , Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Cobaias , Animais , Tosse/tratamento farmacológico , Tosse/metabolismo , Inflamação Neurogênica/complicações , Inflamação Neurogênica/metabolismo , Gabapentina/farmacologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/metabolismo , Ácido Clorídrico/metabolismo , Substância P/metabolismo , Receptores da Neurocinina-1/metabolismo , Perfusão
9.
Gut Pathog ; 15(1): 49, 2023 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37880761

RESUMO

Citrobacter koseri (C. koseri) is a Gram-negative, motile, non-spore-forming facultative anaerobic bacillus belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. C. koseri typically utilizes citrate as the sole carbon source and constitutes part of the normal gastrointestinal flora in humans and animals. As an opportunistic pathogen, C. koseri infections are mainly observed in neonates, elderly individuals, and immunocompromised hosts. C. koseri has been one of the main etiological agents of neonatal meningitis and cerebral abscess. In recent years, an increasing number of cases have been reported in adults with severe infections caused by C. koseri. Here, we report for the first time a clinical case of concurrent C. koseri intra-abdominal infection in a patient with severe asthma and provide a brief review of the relevant literature. With this report, we hope to increase awareness and alertness among clinicians to the possibility of concurrent infection of gut commensal bacteria in asthmatic patients requiring long-term oral corticosteroid administration.

10.
EClinicalMedicine ; 62: 102100, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37538538

RESUMO

Background: Refractory chronic cough (RCC) has a significant impact on patient's health-related quality of life and represents a challenge in clinical management. However, the optimal treatment for RCC remains controversial. This study aimed to investigate and compare the efficacy and safety of the current pharmacological therapeutic options for RCC. Methods: A systematic review was performed by searching PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Ovid databases from January 1, 2008 to March 1, 2023. All randomised control trials (RCTs) reporting outcomes of efficacy or/and safety were included in the Bayesian network meta-analysis. Here, we compared the effects on Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and objective cough frequency of patients with RCC. Besides, we also compared the incidence of adverse events (AEs) for analysis of safety. PROSPERO registration: CRD42022345940. Findings: 19 eligible RCTs included 3326 patients and 7 medication categories: P2X3 antagonist, GABA modulator, Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) modulator, NK-1 agonist, opioid analgesic, macrolide, and sodium cromoglicate. Compared with placebo, mean difference (MD) of LCQ and 24 h cough frequency for P2X3 antagonist relief were 1.637 (95% CI: 0.887-2.387) and -11.042 (P = 0.035). Compared with placebo, effect sizes (MD for LCQ and cough severity VAS) for GABA modulator were 1.347 (P = 0.003) and -7.843 (P = 0.003). In the network meta-analysis, gefapixant is the most effective treatment for patients with RCC (The Surface Under the Cumulative Ranking Curves (SUCRA) is 0.711 in LCQ, 0.983 in 24 h cough frequency, and 0.786 in cough severity VAS). Lesogaberan had better efficacy than placebo (SUCRA: 0.632 vs. 0.472) in 24 h cough frequency. Eliapixant and lesogaberan had better efficacy than placebo in cough severity VAS. However, TRP modulator had worse efficacy than placebo. In the meta-analysis of AEs, the present study found P2X3 antagonist had a significant correlation to AEs (RR: 1.129, 95% CI: 1.012-1.259), especially taste-related AEs (RR: 6.216, P < 0.05). Interpretation: In this network meta-analysis, P2X3 antagonist showing advantages in terms of efficacy is currently the most promising medication for treatment of RCC. GABA modulator also showed potential efficacy for RCC but with AEs of the central system. Nevertheless, the role of TRP modulator needed to be revisited. Further research is needed to determine the potential beneficiary population for optimizing the pharmacological management of chronic cough. Funding: National Natural Science Foundation of China (81870079), Guangdong Science and Technology Project (2021A050520012), Incubation Program of National Science Foundation for Distinguished Young Scholars (GMU2020-207).

11.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 152(5): 1153-1166.e12, 2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37437744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune regulation in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) with a neutrophilic endotype remains unclear. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are tissue-resident innate T lymphocytes that respond quickly to pathogens and promote chronic mucosal inflammation. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the roles of MAIT cells in neutrophilic CRSwNP. METHODS: Nasal tissues were obtained from 113 patients with CRSwNP and 29 control subjects. Peripheral and tissue MAIT cells and their subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry. Polyp-derived MAIT cells were analyzed by RNA sequencing to study their effects on neutrophils. RESULTS: Endotypes of CRSwNP were classified as paucigranulocytic (n = 21), eosinophilic (n = 29), neutrophilic (n = 39), and mixed granulocytic (n = 24). Frequencies of MAIT cells were significantly higher in neutrophilic (3.62%) and mixed granulocytic (3.60%) polyps than in control mucosa (1.78%). MAIT cell percentages positively correlated with local neutrophil counts. MAIT cells were more enriched in tissues than in matched PBMCs. The frequencies of MAIT1 subset or IFN-γ+ MAIT cells were comparable among control tissues and CRSwNP subtypes. The proportions of MAIT17 subset or IL-17A+ MAIT cells were significantly increased in neutrophilic or mixed granulocytic polyps compared with controls. RNA sequencing revealed type 17 and pro-neutrophil profiles in neutrophilic polyp-derived MAIT cells. In patients with neutrophilic CRSwNP, the proportions of MAIT and MAIT17 cells were positively correlated with local proinflammatory cytokines and symptom severity. In vitro experiments demonstrated that neutrophilic polyp-derived MAIT cells promoted neutrophil migration, survival, and activation. CONCLUSIONS: MAIT cells from neutrophilic CRSwNP demonstrate type 17 functional properties and promote neutrophil infiltration in nasal mucosa.


Assuntos
Células T Invariantes Associadas à Mucosa , Pólipos Nasais , Rinite , Sinusite , Humanos , Inflamação/complicações , Citocinas , Doença Crônica
12.
J Thorac Dis ; 15(5): 2559-2570, 2023 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37324067

RESUMO

Background: Asthma is a public health problem worldwide. However, only a few studies have reported the epidemiology of asthma in various age groups in East Asia. The present study aimed to analyze and predict trends in the incidence of asthma in East Asia through the Global Burden of Disease 2019 (GBD 2019) study and provide information for prevention and control strategies. Methods: The estimates of incidence, deaths, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), and risk factors of asthma in China, South Korea, Japan, and the world from 1990-2019 were retrieved from the GBD 2019 study. The age-standardized rates (ASRs) and the average annual percentage changes (AAPCs) assessed the incidence, deaths, and DALYs of asthma, and the projection was assessed by applying the age-period-cohort model. Results: The burden of asthma in South Korea and Japan was slightly higher than in China and slightly lower than that worldwide. The age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) of asthma in China decreased slightly from 394.58/100,000 in 1990 to 355.33/100,000 in 2019 (with an AAPC of -0.59), while the age-standardized death rate (ASDR) and the age-standardized DALY rate (ASDALR) decreased significantly (with a AAPCs of -5.22 and -2.89, respectively), which were lower than those in South Korea and Japan. Moreover, males in China, South Korea, and Japan were significantly more affected by tobacco and environmental/occupational factors than females, while the proportion of metabolic factors in females was higher than that in males. The prediction for the burden of asthma in the three East Asian countries continued to decline or stabilize until 2030, especially in China and Japan. Conclusions: Although the overall asthma burden has a downward trend according to GBD 2019, it is still heavy in East Asia, especially South Korea. In addition, increased concern and control measures are needed for the disease burden in elderly patients.

13.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 152(3): 622-632, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37178731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cough-variant asthma (CVA) may respond differently to antiasthmatic treatment. There are limited data on the heterogeneity of CVA. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to classify patients with CVA using cluster analysis based on clinicophysiologic parameters and to unveil the underlying molecular pathways of these phenotypes with transcriptomic data of sputum cells. METHODS: We applied k-mean clustering to 342 newly physician-diagnosed patients with CVA from a prospective multicenter observational cohort using 10 prespecified baseline clinical and pathophysiologic variables. The clusters were compared according to clinical features, treatment response, and sputum transcriptomic data. RESULTS: Three stable CVA clusters were identified. Cluster 1 (n = 176) was characterized by female predominance, late onset, normal lung function, and a low proportion of complete resolution of cough (60.8%) after antiasthmatic treatment. Patients in cluster 2 (n = 105) presented with young, nocturnal cough, atopy, high type 2 inflammation, and a high proportion of complete resolution of cough (73.3%) with a highly upregulated coexpression gene network that related to type 2 immunity. Patients in cluster 3 (n = 61) had high body mass index, long disease duration, family history of asthma, low lung function, and low proportion of complete resolution of cough (54.1%). TH17 immunity and type 2 immunity coexpression gene networks were both upregulated in clusters 1 and 3. CONCLUSION: Three clusters of CVA were identified with different clinical, pathophysiologic, and transcriptomic features and responses to antiasthmatics treatment, which may improve our understanding of pathogenesis and help clinicians develop individualized cough treatment in asthma.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos , Asma , Feminino , Masculino , Humanos , Tosse , Estudos Prospectivos , Fenótipo , Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico
14.
J Thorac Dis ; 15(4): 1716-1725, 2023 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37197491

RESUMO

Background: Sanfeng Tongqiao Diwan has shown the potential to alleviate acute, recurrent, and chronic rhinitis in adults based on available studies. However, the evidence for its application in upper airway cough syndrome (UACS) is unclear. The purpose of this study was thus to investigate the efficacy and safety of Sanfeng Tongqiao Diwan in the treatment of UACS. Methods: This was a single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. A total of 60 patients who satisfied the inclusion criteria were randomly divided into experimental and placebo groups in a 1:1 ratio. The experimental group was given Sanfeng Tongqiao Diwan, and the placebo group was given a simulant for 14 consecutive days. The follow-up period was 15 days. The primary outcome was the total effective rate. The secondary outcomes included clinical efficacy, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) of related symptoms, and Leicester Cough Questionnaire in Mandarin-Chinese (LCQ-MC) scores before and after the treatment. Additionally, the safety was also evaluated. Results: The total effective rate in the experimental group was 86.6% (26/30), which was significantly higher than the 7.1% (2/28) in the placebo group (difference 79.6; 95% CI: 57.0 to 89.1; P<0.001). Nasal congestion, runny nose, cough, postnasal drip, and overall symptoms in the experimental group were significantly lower than those in the placebo group after treatment (3.7±1.5 vs. 5.0±1.1, 3.6±1.3 vs. 5.9±1.1, 3.8±1.2 vs. 6.8±1.3, 3.5±1.4 vs. 6.1±1.5, 3.8±2.0 vs. 7.3±1.4, respectively; all P values <0.001). After treatment, the LCQ-MC score in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the placebo group (all P values <0.001). The blood eosinophil count in the placebo group was significantly higher after treatment than before treatment (P=0.037). No abnormalities were found in liver or renal indicators during the treatment period in the 2 groups, and no adverse reactions occurred. Conclusions: Sanfeng Tongqiao Diwan improved the symptoms and living quality of patients with UACS and showed acceptable safety. The results of this trial represent rigorous clinical evidence for the application of Sanfeng Tongqiao Diwan and further support a new option in UACS treatment. Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR2300069302.

15.
Lung ; 201(2): 189-199, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36971839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is a common respiratory disease caused by genetic and environmental factors, but the contribution of insulin use to the risk of asthma remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the association between insulin use and asthma in a large population-based cohort, and further explore their causal relationship by Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis. METHODS: An epidemiological study including 85,887 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2018 was performed to evaluate the association between insulin use and asthma. Based on the inverse-variance weighted approach, MR analysis were conducted to estimate the causal effect of insulin use on asthma from the UKB and FinnGen datasets, respectively. RESULTS: In the NHANES cohort, we found that insulin use was associated with an increased risk of asthma [odd ratio (OR) 1.38; 95% CI 1.16-1.64; p < 0.001]. For the MR analysis, we found a causal relationship between insulin use and a higher risk of asthma in both Finn (OR 1.10; p < 0.001) and UK Biobank cohorts (OR 1.18; p < 0.001). Meanwhile, there was no causal association between diabetes and asthma. After multivariable adjustment for diabetes in UKB cohort, the insulin use remained significantly associated with an increased risk of asthma (OR 1.17, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: An association between insulin use and an increased risk of asthma was found via the real-world data from the NHANES. In addition, the current study identified a causal effect and provided a genetic evidence of insulin use and asthma. More studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the association between insulin use and asthma.


Assuntos
Asma , Insulinas , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/genética , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
16.
Heliyon ; 9(2): e12299, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36755583

RESUMO

There are few data regarding adult protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB). This study aimed to delineate the clinical features of PBB and evaluate their potential diagnostic value in adults. We recruited 55 adult patients with PBB and selected randomly 220 patients with non-PBB as control. A diagnosis of PBB was considered if patients had a cough lasting ≥3 weeks, no abnormalities of chest computed tomography, positive bacterial culture in sputum and/or response well to oral moxifloxacin for 1-4 weeks. The clinical manifestations and laboratory investigations were compared between PBB patients and non-PBB patients. Of the 55 patients with PBB, approximately three-fifths (34, 61.8%) were females with a median age of 46.0 years, which were similar to that of patients with non-PBB. We observed a shorter cough duration in PBB than non-PBB (median 3.0 versus 24.0 months, p < 0.001). Compared to non-PBB patients, PBB patients had higher incidences of productive cough, yellow phlegm and a sensation of mucus in the throat (SMIT) (all p < 0.001). Sputum neutrophils and lymphocytes were markedly elevated in PBB patients than non-PBB patients (both p = 0.004). Bacterial pathogens were detected in eight (28.6%) of 28 cases with PBB. The multivariate analyses showed yellow phlegm, productive cough, SMIT, increased sputum lymphocytes (≥2.3%) and cough duration ≤8.5 months with moderate sensitivity (50.9-81.8%) and moderate-high specificity (60.5-94.4%) for determining PBB. In summary, adults with PBB are characterized by productive cough, yellow phlegm, SMIT and neutrophilic airway inflammation. These cough features and increased sputum lymphocytes may be useful to indicate PBB.

17.
Clin Rev Allergy Immunol ; 64(1): 17-32, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35031959

RESUMO

The current COVID-19 global pandemic poses immense challenges to global health, largely due to the difficulty to detect infection in the early stages of the disease, as well as the current lack of effective antiviral therapy. Research and understanding of the human immune system can provide important theoretical and technical support for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19, the clinical implementations of which include immunoassays and immunotherapy, which play a crucial role in the fight against the pandemic. This review consolidates the current scientific evidence for immunoassay, which includes multiple methods of detecting antigen and antibody against SARS-CoV-2. We compared the characteristics, advantages and disadvantages, and clinical applications of these three detection techniques. In addition to detecting viral infections, knowledge on the body's immunity against the virus is desirable; thus, the immunotherapy-based neutralizing antibody (nAb) detection methods were discussed. We also gave a brief introduction to the new immunoassay technology such as biosensing. This was followed by an in-depth and extensive review on a variety of immunotherapy methods. It includes convalescent plasma therapy, neutralizing antibody-based treatments targeting different regions of SARS-CoV-2, immunotherapy targeted on the host cell including inhibiting the host cell receptor and cytokine storm, as well as cocktail antibodies, cross-neutralizing antibodies, and immunotherapy based on cross-reactivity between viral epitopes and autoepitopes and autoantibody. Despite the development of various immunological testing methods and antibody therapies, the current global situation of COVID-19 is still tense. We need more efficient detection methods and more reliable antibody therapies. The up-to-date knowledge on therapeutic strategies will likely help clinicians worldwide to protect patients from life-threatening viral infections.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Anticorpos Antivirais , Soroterapia para COVID-19 , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia/métodos , Imunoensaio
18.
Clin Rev Allergy Immunol ; 64(1): 33-65, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35040086

RESUMO

Abnormal immunological indicators associated with disease severity and mortality in patients with COVID-19 have been reported in several observational studies. However, there are marked heterogeneities in patient characteristics and research methodologies in these studies. We aimed to provide an updated synthesis of the association between immune-related indicators and COVID-19 prognosis. We conducted an electronic search of PubMed, Scopus, Ovid, Willey, Web of Science, Cochrane library, and CNKI for studies reporting immunological and/or immune-related parameters, including hematological, inflammatory, coagulation, and biochemical variables, tested on hospital admission of COVID-19 patients with different severities and outcomes. A total of 145 studies were included in the current meta-analysis, with 26 immunological, 11 hematological, 5 inflammatory, 4 coagulation, and 10 biochemical variables reported. Of them, levels of cytokines, including IL-1ß, IL-1Ra, IL-2R, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IgA, IgG, and CD4+ T/CD8+ T cell ratio, WBC, neutrophil, platelet, ESR, CRP, ferritin, SAA, D-dimer, FIB, and LDH were significantly increased in severely ill patients or non-survivors. Moreover, non-severely ill patients or survivors presented significantly higher counts of lymphocytes, monocytes, lymphocyte/monocyte ratio, eosinophils, CD3+ T,CD4+T and CD8+T cells, B cells, and NK cells. The currently updated meta-analysis primarily identified a hypercytokinemia profile with the severity and mortality of COVID-19 containing IL-1ß, IL-1Ra, IL-2R, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, TNF-α, and IFN-γ. Impaired innate and adaptive immune responses, reflected by decreased eosinophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, B cells, NK cells, T cells, and their subtype CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and augmented inflammation, coagulation dysfunction, and nonpulmonary organ injury, were marked features of patients with poor prognosis. Therefore, parameters of immune response dysfunction combined with inflammatory, coagulated, or nonpulmonary organ injury indicators may be more sensitive to predict severe patients and those non-survivors.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Interleucina-10 , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1 , Interleucina-18 , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Interleucina-6 , SARS-CoV-2 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Interleucina-4 , Interleucina-8 , Citocinas , Células Matadoras Naturais
19.
EClinicalMedicine ; 49: 101473, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35663303

RESUMO

Background: The long-term prognosis of COVID-19 survivors remains poorly understood. It is evidenced that the lung is the main damaged organ in COVID-19 survivors, most notably in impairment of pulmonary diffusion function. Hence, we conducted a meta-analysis of the potential risk factors for impaired diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) in convalescent COVID-19 patients. Methods: We performed a systematic search of PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Ovid databases for relevant studies from inception until January 7, 2022, limited to papers involving human subjects. Studies were reviewed for methodological quality. Fix-effects and random-effects models were used to pool results. Heterogeneity was assessed using I2. The publication bias was assessed using the Egger's test. PROSPERO registration: CRD42021265377. Findings: A total of eighteen qualified articles were identified and included in the systematic review, and twelve studies were included in the meta-analysis. Our results showed that female (OR: 4.011; 95% CI: 2.928-5.495), altered chest computerized tomography (CT) (OR: 3.002; 95% CI: 1.319-6.835), age (OR: 1.018; 95% CI: 1.007-1.030), higher D-dimer levels (OR: 1.012; 95% CI: 1.001-1.023) and urea nitrogen (OR: 1.004;95% CI: 1.002-1.007) were identified as risk factors for impaired DLCO. Interpretation: Pulmonary diffusion capacity was the most common impaired lung function in recovered patients with COVID-19. Several risk factors, such as female, altered chest CT, older age, higher D-dimer levels and urea nitrogen are associated with impairment of DLCO. Raising awareness and implementing interventions for possible modifiable risk factors may be valuable for pulmonary rehabilitation. Funding: This work was financially supported by Emergency Key Program of Guangzhou Laboratory (EKPG21-29, EKPG21-31), Incubation Program of National Science Foundation for Distinguished Young Scholars by Guangzhou Medical University (GMU2020-207).

20.
Front Immunol ; 13: 737968, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35432356

RESUMO

Objective: This study aims to explore the potential of in situ airway differentiation of eosinophil progenitors (EoPs) and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) in sputum and peripheral blood from patients with non-asthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis (NAEB), eosinophilic asthma (EA), and healthy controls (HC). Methods: Using flow cytometry, we enumerated sputum and blood HPCs and EoPs in patients with NAEB (n=15), EA (n=15), and HC (n=14) at baseline. Patients with NAEB and EA were then treated for 1 month with budesonide (200 µg, bid) or budesonide and formoterol (200/6 µg, bid), respectively. HPCs and EoPs in both compartments were re-evaluated. Results: At baseline, NAEB and EA both had significantly greater numbers of sputum but not blood HPCs and EoPs (p<0.05) compared to HC. There were no differences between NAEB and EA. After 1 month of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) treatment, NAEB patients showed a significant improvement in cough symptoms, but the attenuation of sputum HPC and EoP levels was not significant. Conclusions: NAEB patients have increased airway levels of HPCs and EoPs. One-month treatment with ICS did not fully suppress the level of EoPs in NAEB. Controlling in situ airway differentiation of EoPs may control airway eosinophilia and provide long-term resolution of symptoms in NAEB.


Assuntos
Asma , Bronquite , Eosinofilia Pulmonar , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Bronquite/diagnóstico , Bronquite/tratamento farmacológico , Budesonida/uso terapêutico , Eosinófilos , Humanos , Eosinofilia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico
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