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1.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 23(1): 3, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36597053

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The present study compared the expression of activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (ARC/Arg3.1) in the lateral geniculate body between form deprivation amblyopia kittens and normal kittens to examine the significance of ARC/Arg3.1 in the lateral geniculate body in the pathogenesis of amblyopia. METHODS: Twenty kittens were randomly divided into an experimental group (n = 10) and a control group (n = 10). Black opaque covering cloth was used to cover the right eye of kittens in the experimental group. Pattern visual evoked potentials (PVEP) were detected weekly in all kittens. The expression of the ARC/Arg3.1 gene was detected by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, and apoptosis of lateral geniculate body cells was detected by TUNEL. RESULTS: PVEP detection showed that at the age of 5 and 7 weeks, the latency of P100 in the right eye of the experimental group was higher than that of the other three groups (P < 0.05), and the amplitude of P100 was lower than that of the other three groups (P < 0.05). The expression of ARC/Arg3.1 protein (P < 0.05) and mRNA (P < 0.05) in the lateral geniculate body of the experimental group was significantly lower than that of the control group. The level of neuronal apoptosis in the experimental group was higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05). The expression of the ARC/Arg3.1 gene was negatively correlated with the apoptosis level of lateral geniculate body neurons. CONCLUSIONS: The expression of ARC/Arg3.1 is associated with monocular form deprivation amblyopia and apoptosis of lateral geniculate body cells.


Assuntos
Ambliopia , Animais , Gatos , Ambliopia/genética , Potenciais Evocados Visuais , Olho , Corpos Geniculados/metabolismo , Corpos Geniculados/patologia , Imuno-Histoquímica
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679534

RESUMO

Head-worn displays (HWDs) as timely condition monitoring are increasingly used in aviation. However, interface design characteristics that mainly affect HWD use have not been fully investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of several important interface design characteristics (i.e., the distance between calibration lines and the layouts of vertical and horizontal scale belts) on task performance and user preference between different conditions of display, i.e., HWD or head-up display (HUD). Thirty participants joined an experiment in which they performed flight tasks. In the experiment, the calibration lines' distance was set to three different levels (7, 9 and 11 mrad), and the scale belt layouts included horizontal and vertical scale belt layouts. The scale belts were set as follows: the original vertical scale belt width was set as L, and the horizontal scale belt height as H. The three layouts of the vertical calibration scale belt used were 3/4H, H and 3H/2. Three layouts of horizontal calibration scale belts were selected as 3L/4, L and 3L/2. The results indicated that participants did better with the HWD compared to the HUD. Both layouts of vertical and horizontal scale belts yielded significant effects on the users' task performance and preference. Users showed the best task performance while the vertical calibration scale belts were set as H and horizontal calibration scale belts were set as L, and users generally preferred interface design characteristics that could yield an optimal performance. These findings could facilitate the optimal design of usable head-worn-display technology.


Assuntos
Aviação , Óculos Inteligentes , Humanos , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Interface Usuário-Computador , Cabeça
3.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(1)2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36680015

RESUMO

China is considering to offer COVID-19 vaccination for children aged 6-35 months. This study investigated the changes in COVID-19 vaccine acceptability and associated factors among parents with children aged 6-35 months in 2020 and 2021. Two rounds of cross-sectional online surveys were conducted among adult factory workers in Shenzhen, China. A subset of 208 (first round) and 229 (second round) parents with at least one child aged 6-35 months was included in the study. Parental acceptability of COVID-19 vaccination increased significantly from 66.8% in the first round to 79.5% in the second round (p = 0.01). Positive attitudes, perceived subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control were associated with higher parental acceptability in both rounds of surveys (p values ranged from <0.001 to 0.003). A negative association of negative attitudes with parental acceptability was observed in the second round (p = 0.02). No significant associations of exposure to information related to COVID-19 vaccination on social media with parental acceptability was found in either round of survey. Expanding the existing COVID-19 vaccination programs to cover children aged 6-35 months is necessary in China. Future programs should focus on modifying perceptions among parents to promote COVID-19 vaccination for children in this age group.

4.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 8(1): 46, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36717539

RESUMO

Meplazumab, a humanized CD147 antibody, has shown favourable safety and efficacy in our previous clinical studies. In DEFLECT (NCT04586153), 167 patients with severe COVID-19 were enroled and randomized to receive three dosages of meplazumab and a placebo. Meplazumab at 0.12 mg/kg, compared to the placebo group, showed clinical benefits in significantly reducing mortality by 83.6% (2.4% vs. 14.6%, p = 0.0150), increasing the proportion of patients alive and discharged without supplemental oxygen (82.9% vs. 70.7%, p = 0.0337) and increasing the proportion of patients who achieved sustained clinical improvement (41.5% vs. 31.7%). The response rate in the 0.2 mg/kg group was relatively increased by 16.0% compared with the placebo group (53.7% vs. 46.3%). Meplazumab also reduced the viral loads and multiple cytokine levels. Compare with the placebo group, the 0.3 mg/kg significantly increased the virus negative rate by 40.6% (p = 0.0363) and reduced IL-8 level (p = 0.0460); the 0.2 mg/kg increased the negative conversion rate by 36.9%, and reduced IL-4 (p = 0.0365) and IL-8 levels (p = 0.0484). In this study, the adverse events occurred at a comparable rate across the four groups, with no unexpected safety findings observed. In conclusion, meplazumab promoted COVID-19 convalescence and reduced mortality, viral load, and cytokine levels in severe COVID-19 population with good safety profile.

5.
Biomater Sci ; 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36594408

RESUMO

Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease caused by bacterial infection. Excessive immune response and high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) further lead to the irreversible destruction of surrounding tissues. Developing new antimicrobial materials that regulate the immune system to resist inflammation can effectively treat periodontal inflammation. A nanoplatform integrating Ag+, photothermal therapy (PTT), and procyanidins (PC) for precision antibacterial and synergistic immunotherapy for periodontitis was proposed. This work loaded PC into AuAg nanoparticles, and the resulting nanocomposite was named AuAg-PC. PTT can effectively remove pathogenic bacteria, but high temperatures can cause tissue damage. Ag+ contributes to the preparation of a nanoparticle branched structure that improves the photothermal efficiency and helps PTT achieve an excellent antibacterial effect and avoid periodontal tissue damage. PC regulates host immunity by eliminating intracellular ROS, inhibiting inflammatory factors, and regulating macrophage polarisation in periodontal disease sites. It enhances the host's resistance to bacterial inflammation. AuAg-PC exerted an excellent anti-inflammatory effect and promoted tissue repair in animal periodontal inflammation models. Hence, AuAg-PC significantly combats periodontal pathogens and shows great application potential in the photothermal-assisted immunotherapy of periodontitis. This design provided a new controllable and efficient treatment platform for controlling persistent inflammation infection and regulating immunity.

6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36657022

RESUMO

Urban regions, which "inhale" O2 from the air and "exhale" CO2 and atmospheric pollutants, including harmful gases and fine particles, are the largest sinks of atmospheric O2, yet long-term O2 measurements in urban regions are currently lacking. In this study, we report continuous measurements of atmospheric O2 in downtown Lanzhou, an industrial metropolis in northwestern China. We found declines in atmospheric O2 associated with deteriorated air quality and robust anticorrelations between O2 and gaseous oxides. By combining O2 and pollutants measurements with a Lagrangian atmospheric transport model, we quantitatively break down "urban respiration" (ΔO2URB) into human respiration (ΔO2RES) and fossil fuel combustion (ΔO2FF). We found increased ΔO2FF contribution (from 66.92% to 72.50%) and decreased ΔO2RES contribution (from 33.08 to 27.50%) as O2 declines and pollutants accumulate. Further attribution of ΔO2FF reveals intracity transport of atmospheric pollutants from industrial sectors and suggests transportation sectors as the major O2 sink in downtown Lanzhou. The varying relationships between O2 and pollutants under different conditions unfold the dynamics of urban respiration and provide insights into the O2 and energy consumption, pollutant emission, and intracity atmospheric transport processes.

7.
Insects ; 14(1)2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36661988

RESUMO

Tomicus minor (Hartig) and Tomicus yunnanensis Kirkendall and Faccoli are two sympatric species that infest Pinus yunnanensis (Franchet) in southwest China, contributing to growth losses. Accurate sampling plans are needed to make informed control decisions for these species. We investigated three pine forests within experimental sites in Yuxi, Yunnan province, China from 2016 to 2018. The spatial distribution patterns of two pine shoot beetles during the shoot-feeding phase were determined using Taylor's power law. The optimum sample sizes and stop lines for precision levels of 0.25 and 0.10 were calculated. The model was validated using an additional 15 and 17 independent field datasets ranging in density from 0.06 to 1.90 beetles per tree. T. minor and T. yunnanensis adults showed aggregated spatial distributions. For T. minor, sample sizes of 41 and 259 trees were adequate for a D of 0.25 and 0.10, respectively, while for T. yunnanensis, a mean density of one individual per tree required sample sizes of 33 plants (D = 0.25) and 208 plants (D = 0.10). The software simulations of this sampling plan showed precision levels close to the desired levels. At a fixed-precision level of 0.25, sampling is easily achievable. This sampling program is useful for the integrated pest management (IPM) of two sympatric Tomicus species.

8.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 12(1)2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36671068

RESUMO

Dietary flavones 6,3´,4´-trihydroxyflavone (6,3´,4´-HOFL) and 7,3´,4´-trihydroxyflavone (7,3´,4´-HOFL) showed preliminary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in a two-dimensional (2D) cell culture model. However, their action mechanisms remain unclear, and the anti-inflammatory activities have not been studied in a reliable three-dimensional (3D) cell model. Therefore, in the current study, the antioxidant potency was examined by their scavenging ability of cellular reactive oxygen species. Anti-inflammatory activities were examined via their inhibitory effects on inflammatory mediators in vitro on 2D and 3D macrophage models, and their mechanisms were determined through transcriptome. In the 3D macrophages, two flavones were less bioactive than they were in 2D macrophages, but they both significantly suppressed the overexpression of proinflammatory mediators in two cell models. The divergent position of the hydroxyl group on the A ring resulted in activity differences. Compared to 6,3´,4´-HOFL, 7,3´,4´-HOFL showed lower activity on NO, IL-1ß suppression, and c-Src binding (IC50: 12.0 and 20.9 µM) but higher ROS-scavenging capacity (IC50: 3.20 and 2.71 µM) and less cytotoxicity. In addition to the IL-17 and TNF pathways of 6,3´,4´-HOFL, 7,3´,4´-HOFL also exerted anti-inflammatory activity through JAK-STAT, as indicated by the RNA-sequencing results. Two flavones showed prominent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities on 2D and 3D models.

9.
Cogn Neurodyn ; 17(1): 293-299, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36704638

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate whether affective video can elicit ERPs related to emotional processing. Compared with neutral video clips, violent video clips elicited delayed but amplitude-similar N1 component. The most conspicuous finding was enhanced EPN and LPP components for violent than neutral video clips. These data indicate the possibility of using affective video as stimulus to elicit ERPs and provide new evidence for processing affective stimuli, using real-life video clips with better ecological validity.

10.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 14(1)2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677205

RESUMO

Cell lysis is a key step for studying the structure and function of proteins in cells and an important intermediate step in drug screening, cancer diagnosis, and genome analysis. The current cell lysis methods still suffer from limitations, such as the need for large instruments, a long and time-consuming process, a large sample volume, chemical reagent contamination, and their unsuitability for the small amount of bacteria lysis required for point-of-care testing (POCT) devices. Therefore, a fast, chemical-free, portable, and non-invasive device needs to be developed. In the present study, we designed an integrated microfluidic chip to achieve E. coli lysis by applying an alternating current (AC) electric field and investigated the effects of voltage, frequency, and flow rate on the lysis. The results showed that the lysis efficiency of the bacteria was increased with a higher voltage, lower frequency, and lower flow rate. When the voltage was at 10 Vp-p, the lysis efficiency was close to 100%. The study provided a simple, rapid, reagent-free, and high-efficiency cleavage method for biology and biomedical applications involving bacteria lysis.

11.
Oral Dis ; 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36630586

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The prognostic value of the variables were evaluated with 418 postoperative oral cancer patients with oral cancer in southwest China between January 2013 and December 2020.Nomogram was developed based on the study and its predictive performance and clinical utility were evaluated. RESULTS: The univariate analysis showed gender,preoperative Fibrinogen (Fib), preoperative platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and preoperative Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), flap repair of defect, functional neck dissection (FND), tumor differentiation, TNM stage, lymph node metastasis, the maximum tumor diameter, and postoperative radiotherapy had a significant influence on the survival of patients with oral cancer in southwest China (P< 0.05).The multivariate analysis showed preoperative PLR value, FND, and tumor differentiation had significant influence on the prediction of survival (P<0.05). However, smoking and drinking are not prognostic risk factors for oral cancer. The discriminant analysis showed 66.3% of the patients could be predicted correctly for postoperative survival, while both C-index and DCA showed this study may be taken as a reference for predicting the postoperative survival of patients with oral cancer. CONCLUSION: Preoperative PLR, FND and tumor differentiation are independent prognostic factors for patients with oral cancer in southwest China. The results of this study have been visualized by nomogram and DCA.

12.
Biomater Sci ; 2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36633451

RESUMO

Correction for 'Highly efficient photothermal branched Au-Ag nanoparticles containing procyanidins for synergistic antibacterial and anti-inflammatory immunotherapy' by Hanchi Wang et al., Biomater. Sci., 2023, https://doi.org/10.1039/d2bm01212j.

13.
Cancer Res ; 2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36634207

RESUMO

Sex is known to be an important factor in the incidence, progression, and outcome of cancer. A better understand of the underlying mechanisms could help improve cancer prevention and treatment. Here, we demonstrated a crucial role of antitumor immunity in the sex differences in cancer. Consistent with observations in human cancers, male mice showed accelerated tumor progression compared to females, but these differences were not observed in immunodeficient mice. Androgen signaling suppressed T cell immunity against cancer in males. Mechanistically, androgen-activated androgen receptor (AR) upregulated expression of USP18, which inhibited TAK1 phosphorylation and the subsequent activation of NF-κB in anti-tumor T cells. Reduction of testosterone synthesis by surgical castration or using the small molecular inhibitor abiraterone significantly enhanced the anti-tumor activity of T cells in male mice and improved the efficacy of anti-PD-1 immunotherapy. Together, this study revealed a novel mechanism contributing to sex differences in cancer. These results indicate that inhibition of androgen signaling is a promising approach to improve the efficacy of immunotherapy in males.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36634256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mobile health apps (mHealth apps) are rapidly emerging technologies in China due to tight medical needs over the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic while continuing essential services for chronic diseases. However, there have been no large-scale, systematic efforts to evaluate relevant apps. OBJECTIVE: We aim to provide a landscape of mHealth apps in China by describing and comparing digital health concerns before and after the COVID-19 outbreak, including mHealth apps data flow and user experience, and analyze the impact of the COVID-19 on mHealth apps. METHODS: We conducted a semi-longitudinal survey of 1593 mHealth apps studying app data flow to clarify usage changes and influencing factors, which were selected mHealth apps in app markets, web pages from the Baidu search engine, the inventory of the 2018 top 100 hospitals with Internet hospitals and online shopping sites with the apps connect to smart devices. For user experience, we recruited residents from a community in southeastern China from October to November 2019 (before the outbreak) and from June to August 2020 (after the outbreak) comparing population attention. We also examined associations between app characteristics, functions, and outcomes at specific quantiles of distribution in download changes using quantile regression models. RESULTS: Rehabilitation of medical support was the top-ranked functionality, with median downloads of 1.44 million in pre-pandemic and 2.74 million per app in post-pandemic. Four functions related to maternal and child health were among the top ten in post-pandemic: pregnancy preparation (ranked second; fold change 4.13), women's health (fifth; fold change 5.16), pregnancy (sixth; fold change 5.78), and parenting (tenth; fold change 4.03). Quantile regression models showed that rehabilitation (P75, P90), pregnancy preparation (P90), bodybuilding (P50, P90), and vaccination (P75) were positively associated with the increase in downloads after the outbreak. In user experience survey, the attention given to health information (pre-pandemic: 249/375, 66.4%; post-pandemic: 146/178, 82.0%, P=0.006) steadily increased after the outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: MHealth apps are an effective healthcare approach gaining in popularity among the Chinese population following the COVID-19 outbreak. This research provides the direction of subsequent mHealth app development and promotion in the post-epidemic era, supporting medical model reformation in China as a reference. which may provide new avenues for designing and evaluating indirect public health interventions such as health education and health promotion.

15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 15(2): 2602-2616, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36622638

RESUMO

To improve the efficiency of radiation therapy (RT) for breast cancer, a designable multifunctional core-shell nanocomposite of FeP@Pt is constructed using Fe(III)-polydopamine (denoted as FeP) as the core and platinum particles (Pt) as the shell. The hybrid structure is further covered with hyaluronic acid (HA) to give the final nanoplatform of FeP@Pt@HA (denoted as FPH). FPH exhibits good biological stability, prolongs blood circulation time, and is simultaneously endowed with tumor-targeting ability. With CD44-mediated endocytosis of HA, FPH can be internalized by cancer cells and activated by the tumor microenvironment (TME). The redox reaction between Fe3+ in FPH and endogenous glutathione (GSH) or/and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) initiates ferroptosis therapy by promoting GSH exhaustion and •OH generation. Moreover, FPH has excellent photothermal conversion efficiency and can absorb near-infrared laser energy to promote the above catalytic reaction as well as to achieve photothermal therapy (PTT). Ferroptosis therapy and PTT are further accompanied by the catalase activity of Pt nanoshells to accelerate O2 production and the high X-ray attenuation coefficient of Pt for enhanced radiotherapy (RT). Apart from the therapeutic modalities, FPH exhibits dual-modal contrast enhancement in infrared (IR) thermal imaging and computed tomography (CT) imaging, offering potential in imaging-guided cancer therapy. In this article, the nanoplatform can remodel the TME through the production of O2, GSH- and H2O2-depletion, coenhanced PTT, ferroptosis, and RT. This multimodal nanoplatform is anticipated to shed light on the design of TME-activatable materials to enhance the synergism of treatment results and enable the establishment of efficient nanomedicine.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Nanopartículas , Neoplasias , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Microambiente Tumoral , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Compostos Férricos/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Nanopartículas/química
16.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 38(1): 2155639, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629436

RESUMO

Monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs) represent a major class of active ingredients from the plants of the genus Gelsemium. Gelsemium MIAs with diverse chemical structures can be divided into six categories: gelsedine-, gelsemine-, humantenine-, koumine-, sarpagine- and yohimbane-type. Additionally, gelsemium MIAs exert a wide range of bioactivities, including anti-tumour, immunosuppression, anti-anxiety, analgesia, and so on. Owing to their fascinating structures and potent pharmaceutical properties, these gelsemium MIAs arouse significant organic chemists' interest to design state-of-the-art synthetic strategies for their total synthesis. In this review, we comprehensively summarised recently reported novel gelsemium MIAs, potential pharmacological activities of some active molecules, and total synthetic strategies covering the period from 2013 to 2022. It is expected that this study may open the window to timely illuminate and guide further study and development of gelsemium MIAs and their derivatives in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Gelsemium , Alcaloides de Triptamina e Secologanina , Alcaloides de Triptamina e Secologanina/farmacologia , Alcaloides de Triptamina e Secologanina/química , Gelsemium/química , Alcaloides Indólicos/farmacologia , Alcaloides Indólicos/química , Extratos Vegetais , Dor
17.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 21(1): 18, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36650517

RESUMO

The occurrence of osteoarthritis (OA) is highly correlated with the reduction of joint lubrication performance, in which persistent excessive inflammation and irreversible destruction of cartilage dominate the mechanism. The inadequate response to monotherapy methods, suboptimal efficacy caused by undesirable bioavailability, short retention, and lack of stimulus-responsiveness, are few unresolved issues. Herein, we report a pH-responsive metal-organic framework (MOF), namely, MIL-101-NH2, for the co-delivery of anti-inflammatory drug curcumin (CCM) and small interfering RNA (siRNA) for hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-2α). CCM and siRNA were loaded via encapsulation and surface coordination ability of MIL-101-NH2. Our vitro tests showed that MIL-101-NH2 protected siRNA from nuclease degradation by lysosomal escape. The pH-responsive MIL-101-NH2 gradually collapsed in an acidic OA microenvironment to release the CCM payloads to down-regulate the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and to release the siRNA payloads to cleave the target HIF-2α mRNA for gene-silencing therapy, ultimately exhibiting the synergetic therapeutic efficacy by silencing HIF-2α genes accompanied by inhibiting the inflammation response and cartilage degeneration of OA. The hybrid material reported herein exhibited promising potential performance for OA therapy as supported by both in vitro and in vivo studies and may offer an efficacious therapeutic strategy for OA utilizing MOFs as host materials.


Assuntos
Curcumina , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Osteoartrite , Humanos , Curcumina/farmacologia , Condrócitos/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoartrite/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
18.
Mol Biol Rep ; 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36626064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-intensity Interval Training (HIIT) is a time-efficient form of exercise and has gained popularity in recent years. However, at molecular level, the understanding about the effects of HIIT is not comprehensive, and even less is elucidated about HIIT of different training duration cycles, although different durations always lead to different post-training consequences. METHOD: In this study, by training SD rats using HIIT protocols lasting for different training duration cycles, we investigated the adaptive response of intramuscular triglyceride abundance as well as mitochondrial and lipid metabolic changes after HIIT training (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks). We selected 72 h after the last session of training as the time point of sacrifice. RESULTS: The suppressed activation of the cAMP-PKA pathway indicates that skeletal muscle was in the recovery phase at this time point. Intramuscular triglyceride abundance was significantly elevated after 2, 4, and 10 weeks of HIIT. However, the lipid metabolism-related proteins inconsistently changed in a chaotic trend (see Table 1). The expression levels of PGC1-α and COX IV decreased after 2 and 4 weeks of training and raised after 6 and 8 weeks of training. The expression level of citrate synthase (CS) decreased after 2, 4, 8, and 10 weeks of training, and showed an upward trend after 6 weeks of training. While the activity of CS decreased after 2 and 8 weeks of training and showed an upward trend after 6 weeks of HIIT. CONCLUSION: Given the abovementioned changing trends, we propose two speculations: (A) the damaged mitochondria oxidation capacity might be one of the causes of IMTG accumulation observed after 2 and 4 weeks of HIIT. This phase might be similar to the condition of type 2 diabetes. (B) after 6-week HIIT, mitochondria function and biogenesis might be improved and the IMTG contents declined to baseline. This might be explained as: mitochondrial enhancement increased the capacity of lipid oxidation and then offset the increase in IMTG achieved during the first 4 weeks. For HIIT Rat Modelling, if the aim is to observe HIIT-induced positive effects, caution should be exercised when considering 2 and 4 weeks of training under our HIIT frame. Also, implementing six-week training is at least effective for mitochondrial enhancement when using similar HIIT frame of this study.

19.
ACS Nano ; 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36606598

RESUMO

In the electrocatalytic nitrogen reduction reaction (NRR), nitrogen (N2) is chemically inert, it is difficult to break the triple bond, and the subsequent protonation step is very challenging. Suitable catalysts with high selectivity and high activity are needed to promote the electrocatalytic NRR. We screen a large number of clusters composed of three metal atoms embedded into a two-dimensional metal nitride, W2N3, with a N vacancy, and calculate the reaction energetics. The VNiCu cluster has the best catalytic activity among all the catalysts proposed so far. The Fe3 and Fe2Co clusters are excellent catalysts as well. In all cases, spin polarization is needed to observe the catalytic effect. We establish the optimal NRR path and confirm that it remains unchanged in the presence of a solvent. We find three groups of descriptors that can well predict the materials' properties and exhibit linear relationships with the NRR limiting potential.

20.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36598463

RESUMO

Cancer nanomedicine combined with immunotherapy has emerged as a promising strategy for the treatment of cancer. However, precise regulation of the activation of antitumor immunity in targeting tissues for safe and effective cancer immunotherapy remains challenging. Herein, we report a tumor acidic microenvironment-responsive promodulator iron oxide nanoparticle (termed as FGR) with pH-activated action for photothermal-enhanced chemodynamic immunotherapy of cancer. FGR is formed via surface-modifying iron oxide nanoparticles with a dextran-conjugated Toll-like receptor agonist (R848) containing an acid-labile bond. In an acidic tumor microenvironment, the acid-responsive bonds are hydrolyzed to trigger the specific release of R848 to promote the maturation of dendritic cells. In addition, iron oxide nanoparticles within FGR exert photothermal and chemodynamic effects under near-infrared laser irradiation to directly kill tumor cells and induce immunogenic cell death. The synergistic effect of the released immunogenic factors and the acid-activated TLR7/8 pathway stimulates the formation of strong antitumor immunity, resulting in increased infiltration of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells into tumor tissues. As a result, FGR achieves acid-responsive on-demand release and activation of modulators in tumor sites and mediates photothermal-enhanced chemodynamic immunotherapy to inhibit the growth and metastasis of melanoma. Therefore, this work proposes a general strategy for designing prodrug nanomedicines to accurately regulate cancer immunotherapy.

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