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1.
Arch Acad Emerg Med ; 12(1): e31, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38721446

RESUMO

Introduction: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) constitutes a life-threatening condition, and identifying the ruptured aneurysm is essential for further therapy. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of hypo-attenuating berry sign (HBS) observed on computed tomography (CT) scan in distinguishing ruptured aneurysms. Methods: In this diagnostic accuracy study, patients who had SAH and underwent non-enhanced brain CT scan were recruited. The HBS was defined as a hypo-attenuating area with an identifiable border in the blood-filled hyper-dense subarachnoid space. The screening performance characteristics of HBS in identifying ruptured aneurysms were calculated considering the digital subtraction angiography (DSA) as the gold standard. Results: A total of 129 aneurysms in 131 patients were analyzed. The overall sensitivity and specificity of HBS in the diagnosis of aneurysms were determined to be 78.7% (95%CI: 73.1% - 83.4%) and 70.7% (95%CI: 54.3% - 83.4%), respectively. Notably, the sensitivity increased to 90.9% (95%CI: 84.3% - 95.0%) for aneurysms larger than 5mm. The level of inter-observer agreement for assessing the presence of HBS was found to be substantial (kappa=0.734). The diagnostic accuracy of HBS in individuals exhibited enhanced specificity, sensitivity, and reliability when evaluating patients with a solitary aneurysm or assessing ruptured aneurysms. The multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed a statistically significant relationship between aneurysm size and the presence of HBS (odds ratios of 1.667 (95%CI: 1.238 - 2.244; p < 0.001) and 1.696 (95%CI: 1.231 - 2.335; p = 0.001) for reader 1 and reader 2, respectively). Conclusions: The HBS can serve as a simple and easy-to-use indicator for identifying a ruptured aneurysm and estimating its size in SAH patients.  .

2.
J Phys Chem A ; 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728109

RESUMO

The cyclization reactions of keto-hydroperoxide (KHP) radicals leading to the formation of keto cyclic ethers and OH radicals play an important role in low temperature combustion for hydrocarbon fuels or oxygenated hydrocarbon fuels. However, due to the lack of kinetic data of cyclization reactions of KHP radicals, researchers often derive high-pressure-limit rate constants of cyclization reactions of KHP radicals from analogous cyclization reactions of hydroperoxyl alkyl radicals during construction of the combustion mechanism. This study aims to systematically investigate the kinetics of cyclization reactions of KHP radicals involving short-to-large-sized radicals. The studied reactions are divided into 7 reaction classes, according to the size of the cyclic transition state, the conjugative effect (whether KHP radicals are resonance-stabilized or not), and the position of the carbonyl group (whether the carbonyl group is inside or outside of the reaction center). The isodesmic reaction method, in conjunction with transition state theory, is utilized for each reaction class to compute the energy barriers and high-pressure-limit rate constants at the DFT level. The study revealed that energy barriers calculated at the DFT level with correction by the isodesmic reaction method are close to the results from the benchmark CCSD(T) method. To develop more accurate rate rules, these reaction classes are further divided into subclasses based on the relative site of the OOH group with the carbonyl group, the type of carbon atoms where the OOH group is located, and the type of carbon atoms where the radical site is located. For each subclass, high-pressure-limit rate rules are derived by averaging the rate constants of reactions in the subclass, and it is found that the maximum absolute deviation of the energy barrier and the ratio of the largest rate constant to the smallest rate constant among reactions in each subclass are within chemical accuracy limits, indicating acceptable use of the developed rate rules. A comparison of the rate constants for cyclization reactions of KHP radicals with the values of analogous cyclization reactions of hydroperoxyalkyl radicals as provided in reported mechanisms is made. Additionally, a comparison is drawn between our developed rate rules for subclasses of the cyclization reactions of KHP radicals and the rate rules for analogous subclasses of cyclization reactions of hydroperoxyl alkyl radicals. These comparisons demonstrate significant differences and highlight the necessity for improved rate rules for cyclization reactions of KHP radicals to enhance the automatically generated combustion mechanisms for hydrocarbon and oxygenated hydrocarbon fuels.

3.
Front Oncol ; 14: 1365032, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741779

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a new type of endogenous non-coding RNA formed by a covalent closed loop. CircRNAs are characterized by specificity, universality, conservation, and stability. They are abundant in eukaryotic cells and have biological regulatory roles at various transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. The upregulation of circPRKCI has been observed in a variety of tumors and is directly related to the clinicopathological characteristics of tumors and prognosis. More importantly, circPRKCI can participate in the tumorigenesis, progression, recurrence, and metastasis of various tumors through many functional mechanisms, including the activation of signaling pathways, such as the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway, and sponging of many microRNAs (miRNAs). This review summarizes the progress achieved in understanding the biological functions of circRNA PRKCI in various tumors. The goal is to inform the discovery of more functional mechanisms and new anticancer molecular targets.

4.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38742283

RESUMO

Boron-incorporated nanosized HB-SUZ-4 showcased a noteworthy 24% boost in dimethyl ether carbonylation, with an elevation in methyl acetate selectivity from 91.8% to 96.0%. The improved performance is attributed to shortened diffusion lengths along the 8-member ring channels, decreased Brønsted acidity in the 10-member ring channels, and Lewis acid sites stabilizing CO.

5.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 150(5): 238, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38713256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumor growth is closely linked to the activities of various cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME), particularly immune cells. During tumor progression, circulating monocytes and macrophages are recruited, altering the TME and accelerating growth. These macrophages adjust their functions in response to signals from tumor and stromal cells. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), similar to M2 macrophages, are key regulators in the TME. METHODS: We review the origins, characteristics, and functions of TAMs within the TME. This analysis includes the mechanisms through which TAMs facilitate immune evasion and promote tumor metastasis. Additionally, we explore potential therapeutic strategies that target TAMs. RESULTS: TAMs are instrumental in mediating tumor immune evasion and malignant behaviors. They release cytokines that inhibit effector immune cells and attract additional immunosuppressive cells to the TME. TAMs primarily target effector T cells, inducing exhaustion directly, influencing activity indirectly through cellular interactions, or suppressing through immune checkpoints. Additionally, TAMs are directly involved in tumor proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Developing innovative tumor-targeted therapies and immunotherapeutic strategies is currently a promising focus in oncology. Given the pivotal role of TAMs in immune evasion, several therapeutic approaches have been devised to target them. These include leveraging epigenetics, metabolic reprogramming, and cellular engineering to repolarize TAMs, inhibiting their recruitment and activity, and using TAMs as drug delivery vehicles. Although some of these strategies remain distant from clinical application, we believe that future therapies targeting TAMs will offer significant benefits to cancer patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Evasão Tumoral , Microambiente Tumoral , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor , Humanos , Evasão Tumoral/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/imunologia , Animais , Imunoterapia/métodos
6.
Clin Chim Acta ; 560: 119718, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718852

RESUMO

Bladder cancer (BC) is ranked as the ninth most common malignancy worldwide, with approximately 570,000 new cases reported annually and over 200,000 deaths. Cystoscopy remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of BC, however, its invasiveness, cost, and discomfort have driven the demand for the development of non-invasive, cost-effective alternatives. Nuclear matrix protein 22 (NMP22) is a promising non-invasive diagnostic tool, having received FDA approval. Traditional methods for detecting NMP22 require a laboratory environment equipped with specialized equipment and trained personnel, thus, the development of NMP22 detection devices holds substantial potential for application. In this review, we evaluate the NMP22 sensors developed over the past decade, including electrochemical, colorimetric, and fluorescence biosensors. These sensors have enhanced detection sensitivity and overcome the limitations of existing diagnostic methods. However, many emerging devices exhibit deficiencies that limit their potential clinical use, therefore, we propose how sensor design can be optimized to enhance the likelihood of clinical translation and discuss the future applications of NMP22 as a legacy biomarker, providing insights for the design of new sensors.

7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 132(16): 165002, 2024 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701476

RESUMO

We report the experimental measurement of millijoule terahertz (THz) radiation emitted in the backward direction from laser wakefields driven by a femtosecond laser pulse of few joules interacting with a gas target. By utilizing frequency-resolved energy measurement, it is found that the THz spectrum exhibits two peaks located at about 4.5 and 9.0 THz, respectively. In particular, the high frequency component emerges when the drive laser energy exceeds 1.26 J, at which electron acceleration in the forward direction is detected simultaneously. Theoretical analysis and particle-in-cell simulations indicate that the THz radiation is generated via mode conversion from the laser wakefields excited in plasma with an up-ramp profile, where radiations both at the local electron plasma frequency and its harmonics are produced. Such intense THz sources may find many applications in ultrafast science, e.g., manipulating the transient states of matter.

8.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 24(1): 207, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38711043

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To understand the ocular biometric parameters characteristics and refractive errors in 3-to 6-year-old preschool children in Chengdu, China, and to investigate the prevalence of refractive errors. METHOD: A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Chengdu from 2020 to2022 with a total of 666 kindergartens. All children were measured by non-cycloplegic autorefraction and uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) and ocular biometric parameters. Finally, univariate linear regression models were used to analyze the relationship between ocular biometric parameters and refraction. RESULTS: A total of 108,578 preschool children aged 3-6 underwent examinations, revealing a myopia prevalence of 6.1%. The mean axial length (AL), keratometry (K), corneal radius (CR), axial length/corneal radius (AL/CR) Ratio, central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness (LT), and vitreous chamber depth (VCD) were 22.35 ± 0.69 mm, 43.35 ± 1.58 D, 7.80 ± 0.28 mm, 2.87 ± 0.08, 533.31 ± 32.51 µm, 2.70 ± 0.28 mm, 3.91 ± 0.27 mm, and 15.20 ± 0.68 mm, respectively. With increasing age, AL, CR, AL/CR ratio, CCT, ACD, LT, and VCD also increased. Regardless of age, males consistently exhibited longer AL, flatter corneal curvature, shallower ACD, thicker CCT, thinner LT, and longer VCD compared to females. AL, K, CR, LT, and VCD all showed significant linear relationships with SE (all P < 0.001) in univariate linear regression analysis after adjusting for gender and age. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of myopia among preschool children aged 3-6 in Chengdu is relatively low. Ocular biometric parameters affecting refractive errors include AL, K, CR, LT, and VCD. The preschool period serves as a critical phase for myopia prevention and control.


Assuntos
Biometria , Refração Ocular , Acuidade Visual , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , China/epidemiologia , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Prevalência , Comprimento Axial do Olho , Córnea/patologia , Córnea/anatomia & histologia , Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , Erros de Refração/fisiopatologia , Câmara Anterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Câmara Anterior/patologia , Miopia/epidemiologia , Miopia/fisiopatologia
9.
Mikrochim Acta ; 191(6): 298, 2024 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709403

RESUMO

As a real-time fluid biopsy method, the detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) provides important information for the early diagnosis, precise treatment, and prognosis of cancer. However, the low density of CTCs in the peripheral blood hampers their capture and detection with high sensitivity and selectivity using currently available methods. Hence, we designed a sandwich-type electrochemical aptasensor that utilizes holothurian-shaped AuPd nanoparticles (AuPd HSs), tetrahedral DNA nanostructures (TDNs), and CuPdPt nanowire networks (NWs) interwoven with a graphdiyne (GDY) sheet for ultrasensitive non-destructive detection of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. CuPdPt NW-GDY effectively enhanced the electron transfer rate and coupled with the loaded TDNs. The TDNs could capture MCF-7 cells with precision and firmness, and the resulting composite complex was combined with AuPd HSs to form a sandwich-type structure. This novel aptasensor showed a linear range between 10 and 106 cells mL-1 and an ultralow detection limit of 7 cells mL-1. The specificity, stability, and repeatability of the measurements were successfully verified. Moreover, we used benzonase nuclease to achieve non-destructive recovery of cells for further clinical studies. According to the results, our aptasensor was more sensitive measuring the number of CTCs than other approaches because of the employment of TDNs, CuPdPt NW-GDY, and AuPd HSs. We designed a reliable sensor system for the detection of CTCs in the peripheral blood, which could serve as a new approach for cancer diagnosis at an early stage.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos , Técnicas Biossensoriais , DNA , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Ouro , Limite de Detecção , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes , Paládio , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patologia , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Ouro/química , DNA/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Paládio/química
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38721685

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a hepatotropic non-cytopathic virus characterized by liver-specific gene expression. HBV infection highjacks bile acid metabolism, notably impairing bile acid uptake via sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP), which is a functional receptor for HBV entry. Concurrently, HBV infection induces changes in bile acid synthesis and the size of the bile acid pool. Conversely, bile acid facilitates HBV replication and expression through the signaling molecule farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a nuclear receptor activated by bile acid. However, in HepaRG cells and primary hepatocytes, FXR agonists suppress HBV RNA expression and the synthesis and secretion of DNA. In the gut, the size and composition of the bile acid pool significantly influence the gut microbiota. In turn, the gut microbiota impacts bile acid metabolism and innate immunity, potentially promoting HBV clearance. Thus, the bile acid-gut microbiota axis represents a complex and evolving relationship in the context of HBV infection. This review explores the interplay between bile acid and gut microbiota in HBV infection and discusses the development of HBV entry inhibitors targeting NTCP.

11.
Plant Commun ; : 100939, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725245

RESUMO

Plant jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile) is a major defense signal against insect feeding, but whether or how insect salivary effectors suppress JA-Ile synthesis and thus facilitate viral transmission in plant phloem remains elusive. Insect carboxylesterases (CarEs) are the third major family of detoxification enzymes. Here, we identify a new leafhopper CarE10 that specifically expressed in salivary glands and is secreted into rice phloem as the saliva component. Leafhopper CarE10 directly binds and promotes rice Jasmonate resistant 1 (JAR1) degradation by the proteasome system. Moreover, the direct association of CarE10 with JAR1 obviously impairs JAR1 enzyme activity for JA conversion to JA-Ile in in-vitro JA-Ile synthesis system. A devastating rice reovirus activates and promotes co-secretion of virions and CarE10 by virus-induced vesicles into saliva-stored salivary cavities of leafhopper vectors and ultimately into rice phloem to establish initial infection. Furthermore, virus-mediated increase of CarE10 secretion or overexpression of CarE10 in transgenic rice plants causes the reduced levels of JAR1 and thus suppresses JA-Ile synthesis, thereby promoting host attractiveness to insect vectors and facilitating initial viral transmission. Our findings provide insights into how insect salivary protein CarE10 suppresses host JA-Ile synthesis to benefit initial virus transmission in rice phloem.

12.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 14(9)2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38727403

RESUMO

With the rapid development of anion exchange membrane technology and the availability of high-performance non-noble metal cathode catalysts in alkaline media, the commercialization of anion exchange membrane fuel cells has become feasible. Currently, anode materials for alkaline anion-exchange membrane fuel cells still rely on platinum-based catalysts, posing a challenge to the development of efficient low-Pt or Pt-free catalysts. Low-cost ruthenium-based anodes are being considered as alternatives to platinum. However, they still suffer from stability issues and strong oxophilicity. Here, we employ a metal-organic framework compound as a template to construct three-dimensional porous ruthenium-tungsten-zinc nanocages via solvothermal and high-temperature pyrolysis methods. The experimental results demonstrate that this porous ruthenium-tungsten-zinc nanocage with an electrochemical surface area of 116 m2 g-1 exhibits excellent catalytic activity for hydrogen oxidation reaction in alkali, with a kinetic density 1.82 times and a mass activity 8.18 times higher than that of commercial Pt/C, and a good catalytic stability, showing no obvious degradation of the current density after continuous operation for 10,000 s. These findings suggest that the developed catalyst holds promise for use in alkaline anion-exchange membrane fuel cells.

13.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 12: 1286035, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38689760

RESUMO

Platelet-rich fibrin, a classical autologous-derived bioactive material, consists of a fibrin scaffold and its internal loading of growth factors, platelets, and leukocytes, with the gradual degradation of the fibrin scaffold and the slow release of physiological doses of growth factors. PRF promotes vascular regeneration, promotes the proliferation and migration of osteoblast-related cells such as mesenchymal cells, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts while having certain immunomodulatory and anti-bacterial effects. PRF has excellent osteogenic potential and has been widely used in the field of bone tissue engineering and dentistry. However, there are still some limitations of PRF, and the improvement of its biological properties is one of the most important issues to be solved. Therefore, it is often combined with bone tissue engineering scaffolds to enhance its mechanical properties and delay its degradation. In this paper, we present a systematic review of the development of platelet-rich derivatives, the structure and biological properties of PRF, osteogenic mechanisms, applications, and optimization to broaden their clinical applications and provide guidance for their clinical translation.

14.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 259: 116386, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38749285

RESUMO

Faced with the increasing prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD), portable monitoring of CKD-related biomarkers such as potassium ion (K+), creatinine (Cre), and lactic acid (Lac) levels in sweat has shown tremendous potential for early diagnosis. However, a rapidly manufacturable portable device integrating multiple CKD-related biomarker sensors for ease of sweat testing use has yet to be reported. Here, a portable electrochemical sensor integrated with multifunctional laser-induced graphene (LIG) circuits and laser-printed nanomaterials based working electrodes fabricated by fully automatic laser manufacturing is proposed for non-invasive human kidney function monitoring. The sensor comprises a two-electrode LIG circuit for K+ sensing, a three-electrode LIG circuit with a Kelvin compensating connection for Cre and Lac sensing, and a printed circuit board based portable electrochemical workstation. The working electrodes containing Cu and Cu2O nanoparticles fabricated by two-step laser printing show good sensitivity and selectivity toward Cre and Lac sensing. The sensor circuits are fabricated by generating a hydrophilic-hydrophobic interface on a patterned LIG through laser. This sensor recruited rapid laser manufacturing and integrated with multifunctional LIG circuits and laser-printed nanomaterials based working electrodes, which is a potential kidney function monitoring solution for healthy people and kidney disease patients.

15.
Front Chem ; 12: 1384301, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38562527

RESUMO

Introduction: Cancer, a significant global health concern, necessitates innovative treatments. The pivotal role of chronic inflammation in cancer development underscores the urgency for novel therapeutic strategies. Benzothiazole derivatives exhibit promise due to their distinctive structures and broad spectrum of biological effects. This study aims to explore new anti-tumor small molecule drugs that simultaneously anti-inflammatory and anticancer based on the advantages of benzothiazole frameworks. Methods: The compounds were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer (LC-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for structure as well as purity and other related physicochemical properties. The effects of the compounds on the proliferation of human epidermoid carcinoma cell line (A431) and human non-small cell lung cancer cell lines (A549, H1299) were evaluated by MTT method. The effect of compounds on the expression levels of inflammatory factors IL-6 and TNF-α in mouse monocyte macrophages (RAW264.7) was assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The effect of compounds on apoptosis and cell cycle of A431 and A549 cells was evaluated by flow cytometry. The effect of compounds on A431 and A549 cell migration was evaluated by scratch wound healing assay. The effect of compounds on protein expression levels in A431 and A549 cells was assessed by Western Blot assay. The physicochemical parameters, pharmacokinetic properties, toxicity and drug similarity of the active compound were predicted using Swiss ADME and admetSAR web servers. Results: Twenty-five novel benzothiazole compounds were designed and synthesized, with their structures confirmed through spectrogram verification. The active compound 6-chloro-N-(4-nitrobenzyl) benzo[d] thiazol-2-amine (compound B7) was screened through a series of bioactivity assessments, which significantly inhibited the proliferation of A431, A549 and H1299 cancer cells, decreased the activity of IL-6 and TNF-α, and hindered cell migration. In addition, at concentrations of 1, 2, and 4 µM, B7 exhibited apoptosis-promoting and cell cycle-arresting effects similar to those of the lead compound 7-chloro-N-(2, 6-dichlorophenyl) benzo[d] thiazole-2-amine (compound 4i). Western blot analysis confirmed that B7 inhibited both AKT and ERK signaling pathways in A431 and A549 cells. The prediction results of ADMET indicated that B7 had good drug properties. Discussion: This study has innovatively developed a series of benzothiazole derivatives, with a focus on compound B7 due to its notable dual anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. B7 stands out for its ability to significantly reduce cancer cell proliferation in A431, A549, and H1299 cell lines and lower the levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α. These results position B7B7 as a promising candidate for dual-action cancer therapy. The study's mechanistic exploration, highlighting B7's simultaneous inhibition of the AKT and ERK pathways, offers a novel strategy for addressing both the survival mechanisms of tumor cells and the inflammatory milieu facilitating cancer progression.

16.
Chem Sci ; 15(14): 5256-5267, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577366

RESUMO

Cell membrane glycoproteins are generally highly fucosylated and sialylated, and post-translational modifications play important roles in the proteins' functions of signaling, binding and cellular processing. For these reasons, methods for measuring sialic acid-mediated protein-protein interactions have been developed. However, determining the role of fucose in these interactions has been limited by technological barriers that have thus far hindered the ability to characterize and observe fucose-mediated protein-protein interactions. Herein, we describe a method to metabolically label mammalian cells with modified fucose, which incorporates a bioorthogonal group into cell membrane glycoproteins thereby enabling the characterization of cell-surface fucose interactome. Copper-catalyzed click chemistry was used to conjugate a proximity labeling probe, azido-FeBABE. Following the addition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), the fucose-azido-FeBABE catalyzed the formation of hydroxyl radicals, which in turn oxidized the amino acids in the proximity of the labeled fucose residue. The oxidized peptides were identified using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Variations in degree of protein oxidation were obtained with different H2O2 reaction times yielding the acquisition of spatial information of the fucose-interacting proteins. In addition, specific glycoprotein-protein interactions were constructed for Galectin-3 (LEG3) and Galectin-3-binding protein (LG3BP) illustrating the further utility of the method. This method identifies new fucose binding partners thereby enhancing our understanding of the cell glycocalyx.

17.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557732

RESUMO

Lowe syndrome, a rare X-linked multisystem disorder presenting with major abnormalities in the eyes, kidneys, and central nervous system, is caused by mutations in OCRL gene (NG_008638.1). Encoding an inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase, OCRL catalyzes the hydrolysis of PI(4,5)P2 into PI4P. There are no effective targeted treatments for Lowe syndrome. Here, we demonstrate a novel gene therapy for Lowe syndrome in patient fibroblasts using an adenine base editor (ABE) that can efficiently correct pathogenic point mutations. We show that ABE8e-NG-based correction of a disease-causing mutation in a Lowe patient-derived fibroblast line containing R844X mutation in OCRL gene, restores OCRL expression at mRNA and protein levels. It also restores cellular abnormalities that are hallmarks of OCRL dysfunction, including defects in ciliogenesis, microtubule anchoring, α-actinin distribution, and F-actin network. The study indicates that ABE-mediated gene therapy is a feasible treatment for Lowe syndrome, laying the foundation for therapeutic application of ABE in the currently incurable disease.

18.
J Vis Exp ; (205)2024 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587395

RESUMO

This paper presents a novel and efficient method for certifying primary organs involved in secondary metabolite synthesis. As the most important secondary metabolite in Parispolyphylla var. yunnanensis (Franch.) Hand. -Mzt. (PPY), Paris saponin (PS) has a variety of pharmacological activities and PPY is in increasing demand. This study established leaf, rhizome, and stem-vascular-bundle 13C6-Glucose feeding and non-feeding four treatments to precisely certify the primary organs involved in Paris saponins VII (PS VII) synthesis. By combining liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), the 13C/12C ratios of leaf, rhizome, stem, and root in different treatments were quickly and accurately calculated, and four types of PS isotopic ion peak(M-) ratios were found: (M+1) -/M-, (M+2) -/M-, (M+3) -/M- and (M+4) -/M-. The results showed that the ratio of 13C/12C in the rhizomes of the stem-vascular-bundle and rhizome feeding treatments was significantly higher than that in the non-feeding treatment. Compared to the non-feeding treatment, the ratio of PS VII molecules (M+2) -/M- in the leaves increased significantly under leaf and stem-vascular-bundle feeding treatments. Simultaneously, compared to the non-feeding treatment, the ratio of PS VII molecules (M+2) -/M- in the leaves under rhizome treatment showed no significant difference. Furthermore, the ratio of PS VII molecules (M+2) -/M- in the stem, root, and rhizome showed no differences among the four treatments. Compared to the non-feeding treatment, the ratio of the Paris saponin II (PS II) molecule (M+2) -/M- in leaves under leaf feeding treatment showed no significant difference, and the (M+3) -/M- ratio of PS II molecules in leaves under leaf feeding treatment were lower. The data confirmed that the primary organ for the synthesizing of PS VII is the leaves. It lays the foundation for future identification of the primary organs and pathways involved in the synthesis of secondary metabolites in medicinal plants.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massa com Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida , Folhas de Planta
19.
Ren Fail ; 46(1): 2332492, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584135

RESUMO

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with a high mortality rate. Pathologically, renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (RIRI) is one of the primary causes of AKI, and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α may play a defensive role in RIRI. This study assessed the role of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α)-mediated mitophagy in protection against RIRI in vitro and in vivo. The human tubular cell line HK-2 was used to assess hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced mitophagy through different in vitro assays, including western blotting, immunofluorescence staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement. Additionally, a rat RIRI model was established for evaluation by renal histopathology, renal Doppler ultrasound, and transmission electron microscopy to confirm the in vitro data. The selective HIF-1α inhibitor LW6 reduced H/R-induced mitophagy but increased H/R-induced apoptosis and ROS production. Moreover, H/R treatment enhanced expression of the FUN14 domain-containing 1 (FUNDC1) protein. Additionally, FUNDC1 overexpression reversed the effects of LW6 on the altered expression of light chain 3 (LC3) BII and voltage-dependent anion channels as well as blocked the effects of HIF-1α inhibition in cells. Pretreatment of the rat RIRI model with roxadustat, a novel oral HIF-1α inhibitor, led to decreased renal injury and apoptosis in vivo. In conclusion, the HIF-1α/FUNDC1 signaling pathway mediates H/R-promoted renal tubular cell mitophagy, whereas inhibition of this signaling pathway protects cells from mitophagy, thus aggravating apoptosis, and ROS production. Accordingly, roxadustat may protect against RIRI-related AKI.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Animais , Humanos , Ratos , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Injúria Renal Aguda/metabolismo , Apoptose , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Hipóxia/patologia , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Isquemia , Rim/patologia , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais , Mitofagia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
20.
J Diabetes Investig ; 2024 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38641877

RESUMO

AIM: New-onset diabetes mellitus is a frequent and severe complication arising after liver transplantation (LT). We aimed to identify the risk factors for new-onset diabetes mellitus after liver transplantation (NODALT) and to develop a risk prediction score system for relevant risks. METHODS: We collected and analyzed data from all recipients who underwent liver transplantation at the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University. The OR derived from a multiple logistic regression predicting the presence of NODALT was used to calculate the risk prediction score. The performance of the risk prediction score was externally validated in patients who were from the CLTR (China Liver Transplant Registry) database. RESULTS: A total of 468 patients met the outlined criteria and finished the follow-up. Overall, NODALT was diagnosed in 115 (24.6%) patients. Age, preoperative impaired fasting glucose (IFG), postoperative fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and the length of hospital stay were significantly associated with the presence of NODALT. The risk prediction score includes age, preoperative IFG, postoperative FPG, and the length of hospital stay. The risk prediction score of the area under the receiver operating curve was 0.785 (95% CI: 0.724-0.846) in the experimental population and 0.782 (95% CI: 0.708-0.856) in the validation population. CONCLUSIONS: Age at the time of transplantation, preoperative IFG, postoperative FPG, and length of hospital stay were independent predictive factors of NODALT. The use of a simple risk prediction score can identify the patients who have the highest risk of NODALT and interventions may start early.

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