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1.
Heliyon ; 10(2): e24240, 2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38304800

RESUMO

By controlling the 800 nm fs laser energy and applying an isopropyl alcohol environment, controlled sub-diffraction limited lithography with a characteristic structure of approximately 30 nm was achieved on the surface of diamond films, and diamond gratings with a period of 200 nm were fabricated. The fabrication of single grooves with a feature size of 30 nm demonstrates the potential for patterning periodic or nonperiodic structures, and the fabrication of 200 nm periodic grating structures demonstrates the ability of the technique to withstand laser proximity effects. This enhances the technology of diamond film nanofabrication and broadens its potential applications in areas such as optoelectronics and biology.

2.
Heliyon ; 10(3): e23873, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317915

RESUMO

Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are significantly involved in determining the patient's prognosis and response to bladder cancer (BLCA) therapy. CAFs can induce epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) as well as complex interaction with immune cells. Hence, it is imperative to identify potential markers for enhancing our understanding of CAFs in BLCA progression and immune regulation. A variety of algorithms and analyses were employed in the study, leading to the development of a novel prognostic feature for CAFs-Stromal-EMT (CSE)-prognostic feature. This feature was constructed based on the genes MFAP5, PCOLCE2, and JUN. Furthermore, we revealed that patients with higher CSE risk scores responded to immunotherapy better compared to those with lower. Finally, we verified two CSE-related genes using in vitro experiments. Our results suggested that the CSE-prognostic feature could predict the prognosis and evaluate the response of patients to immune and chemotherapies. This would aid clinicians in designing treatment strategies for patients with BLCA.

3.
Lung Cancer ; 189: 107472, 2024 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38320371

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Lepidic Component (LP) identifies a subgroup with an excellent prognosis for lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). Our research aimed to propose an improved pathological T (pT) stage for LUAD based on LP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Totally, 3335 surgical patients with pathological stage I LUAD were incorporated. Factors affecting survival were investigated by analyzing recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analyses. Subgroup analysis based on Lepidic Ratio (LR) was further evaluated. The net benefit from the modified pT category (pTm) was assessed using the Area Under the time-dependent Receiver Operating Curve (AUC), Harrell's Concordance Index (C-index), Reclassification Improvement (NRI), and Integrated Discrimination Improvement (IDI). RESULTS: The presence of LP (LP+) was identified in 1425 (42.7 %) patients, indicating a significantly better RFS (P < 0.001) and OS (P < 0.001) than those without LP, and similar results were reproduced in pT1a-pT2a subcategory (P < 0.050 for all). Multivariable Cox analysis revealed LP+ as an independent prognostic factor for both RFS (HR, 0.622; P < 0.001) and OS (HR, 0.710; P = 0.019). However, lepidic ratio (LR) was not independently associated with both RFS and OS for LP+ patients. The 5-year RFS and OS rates between T1a (LP-) and T1b (LP+), T1b (LP-) and T1c (LP+), and T1b (LP-) and T2a (LP+) were comparable (P > 0.050 for all). After modification, compared with current 8th edition pT stage system (pT8), pTm independently predicted RFS and OS, and AUCs, c-index, NRI, and IDI analysis all demonstrated pTm holds better discrimination performances than pT8 for LUAD prognosis. CONCLUSION: LP can be an additional down-staged T descriptor for pathological stage I LUAD and improve the survival predictive performance of reclassification.

4.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 106: 104393, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38367920

RESUMO

Recent evidence indicates that PM2.5 poses a risk for congenital heart diseases, but the mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesized that AHR activated by PM2.5 might cause mitochondrial damage via PGC-1α dysregulation, leading to heart defects. We initially discovered that the PGC-1α activator ZLN005 counteracted cardiac defects in zebrafish larvae exposed to EOM (extractable organic matter) from PM2.5. Moreover, ZLN005 attenuated EOM-induced PGC-1α downregulation, mitochondrial dysfunction/biogenesis, and apoptosis. EOM exposure not only decreased PGC-1α expression levels, but suppressed its activity via deacetylation, and SIRT1 activity is required during both processes. We then found that SIRT1 expression levels and NAD+/NADH ratio were reduced in an AHR-dependent way. We also demonstrated that AHR directly suppressed the transcription of SIRT1 while promoted the transcription of TiPARP which consumed NAD+. In conclusion, our study suggests that PM2.5 induces mitochondrial damage and heart defects via AHR/SIRT1/PGC-1α signal pathway.

6.
EClinicalMedicine ; 69: 102486, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38370536

RESUMO

Background: Limited data exists on how early-life weight changes relate to metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk in midlife. This study examines the association between long-term trajectories of body mass index (BMI), its variability, and MetS risk in Chinese individuals. Methods: In the Hanzhong Adolescent Hypertension study (March 10, 1987-June 3, 2017), 1824 participants with at least five BMI measurements from 1987 to 2017 were included. Using group-based trajectory modeling, different BMI trajectories were identified. BMI variability was assessed through standard deviation (SD), variability independent of the mean (VIM), and average real variability (ARV). Logistic regression analyzed the relationship between BMI trajectory, BMI variability, and MetS occurrence in midlife (URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02734472). Findings: BMI trajectories were categorized as low-increasing (34.4%), moderate-increasing (51.8%), and high-increasing (13.8%). Compared to the low-increasing group, the odds ratios (ORs) [95% CIs] for MetS were significantly higher in moderate (4.27 [2.63-6.91]) and high-increasing groups (13.11 [6.30-27.31]) in fully adjusted models. Additionally, higher BMI variabilities were associated with increased MetS odds (ORs for SDBMI, VIMBMI, and ARVBMI: 2.30 [2.02-2.62], 1.22 [1.19-1.26], and 4.29 [3.38-5.45]). Furthermore, BMI trajectories from childhood to adolescence were predictive of midlife MetS, with ORs in moderate (1.49 [1.00-2.23]) and high-increasing groups (2.45 [1.22-4.91]). Lastly, elevated BMI variability in this period was also linked to higher MetS odds (ORs for SDBMI, VIMBMI, and ARVBMI: 1.24 [1.08-1.42], 1.00 [1.00-1.01], and 1.21 [1.05-1.38]). Interpretation: Our study suggests that both early-life BMI trajectories and BMI variability could be predictive of incident MetS in midlife. Funding: This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China No. 82070437 (J.-J.M.), the Clinical Research Award of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University of China (No. XJTU1AF-CRF-2022-002, XJTU1AF2021CRF-021, and XJTU1AF-CRF-2023-004), the Key R&D Projects in Shaanxi Province (Grant No. 2023-ZDLSF-50), the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College (2017-CXGC03-2), and the International Joint Research Centre for Cardiovascular Precision Medicine of Shaanxi Province (2020GHJD-14).

7.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38298014

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Closed or open reduction and spica casting are common treatments for children aged 6 to 18 months, as well as infants aged 0 to 6 months whose harness treatment for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) was unsuccessful. The study aimed to quantify the distance between the femoral head and the acetabulum after closed or open reduction and evaluate the dynamic docking progression of the femoral head using serial hip medical ultrasound. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and hip medial ultrasound images of a consecutive series of patients with DDH who underwent spica casting after reduction and compared images obtained immediately after reduction and at follow-up. The first cast (stage I) was maintained for 2 to 3 months and scheduled for outpatient repeat ultrasound in 4 to 8 weeks. Then the second cast was placed (stage II), lasting for another 2 to 3 months. The triradiate cartilage-femoral head distance (TFD) was measured in the acetabulum coronal mid-sectional plane. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the TFD values. RESULTS: This study included 49 patients. All patients underwent hip medial ultrasound 0 to 3 days after stage I (time 1) and 4 to 8 weeks (time 2) postoperatively, with 24 patients reviewed again 0 to 7 days after stage II. The TFD values in time 1 and time 2 were 6.0 (5.0, 9.0) mm and 5.0 (3.6, 7.0) mm, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between times 1 and 2 regarding TFD values in 49 close-reduction hips (6.0 vs 5.0 mm, P < 0.001). Similar findings were also observed in 13 open-reduction hips (6.0 vs 5.0 mm, P = 0.023). CONCLUSIONS: Hip medial ultrasonography during the period of cast immobilization after reduction in children with DDH can objectively and quantitatively show the dynamic change of the distance between the femoral head and the acetabulum, and can be used to assess reduction of the hip and progression of femoral head docking. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II-prognostic study.

8.
Int J Pharm ; 653: 123875, 2024 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38316316

RESUMO

Impairment of the skin's structural integrity initially results in acute wounds which can become chronic if timely wound closure is not achieved. Chronic wounds (CWs) affect more than 1% of the global population with increasing cases of this condition due to the ageing population. Current wound management relies on debridement, hyperbaric oxygen, antibiotics, and wound dressings, which lack early intervention and specificity. Herein, antibiotics-free retinol-based micellar formulations (RMF) were made and their wound healing efficacy were investigated in vitro. Five different formulations with retinol contents of 0.3% and 1% against a placebo were topically applied to an organotypic full-thickness skin wound model (FT-SWM, MatTek®) with a 3 mm punch wound, and maintained in an incubator for 6 days. The histological analysis of the FT-SWM was conducted at depths of 60 µm and 80 µm. It was found that all the micellar retinol formulations accelerated wound bed contraction, with 0.3% RMF demonstrating the highest efficacy. At the depths of 60 µm and 80 µm, the 0.3% RMF exhibited inner wound diameter contraction of 58% and 77%, respectively, in comparison to the placebo showing 15% and 8%. The RMF significantly accelerated wound healing and can thus be a potential early intervention for speedy wound recovery. It should be pointed out that these results were obtained based on a small sample size and a large sample size will be explored to further validate the results.

9.
Cureus ; 16(1): e52083, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38344606

RESUMO

In recent years, the issue of antimicrobial resistance has gained significant global attention. The prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection rates worldwide has seen a rapid rise, increasing from 1%-5% in the mid-1980s to 60%-70% at present. This alarming increase in MRSA infection poses a serious threat to public health globally. Consequently, it is crucial to explore and identify effective drug candidates for combating MRSA. We researched the antibacterial properties of Urtica dioica L. Modern techniques such as systematic solvent extraction, macroporous resin chromatography, and silica gel column chromatography were utilized to isolate and detect components of MRSA. The most potent antibacterial active components were screened using fungal staining (K-B staining) and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining (TTC staining). Based on pharmacological activity guidance, we isolated a total of nine compounds from this plant. They were vanillic acid (compound A), quercetin-3-O-glucopyranoside (compound B), ursolic acid (compound C), vanillin (compound D), salicyl alcohol (compound E), kaempferol (compound F), quercetin (compound G), quercetin-3-O-galactoside (compound H), and isorhamnetin (compound I). Isolated compounds A, D, and E have better anti-MRSA activity. It inhibits bacterial division and growth during the logarithmic growth period and acts as a bacterial inhibitor. Inhibition may be mediated by the disruption of the bacterial cell structure, leading to leakage of contents including sugars, nucleic acids, and proteins. It may also be mediated by regulating phosphorus metabolism and disrupting the bacterial cell membrane potential to affect cellular metabolism.

10.
J Immunol ; 2024 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38345351

RESUMO

Teleost fish type I IFNs and the associated receptors from the cytokine receptor family B (CRFB) are characterized by remarkable diversity and complexity. How the fish type I IFNs bind to their receptors is still not fully understood. In this study, we demonstrate that CRFB1 and CRFB5 constitute the receptor pair through which type I subgroup d IFN (IFNd) from large yellow croaker, Larimichthys crocea, activates the conserved JAK-STAT signaling pathway as a part of the antiviral response. Our data suggest that L. crocea IFNd (LcIFNd) has a higher binding affinity with L. crocea CRFB5 (LcCRFB5) than with LcCRFB1. Furthermore, we report the crystal structure of LcIFNd at a 1.49-Å resolution and construct structural models of LcIFNd in binary complexes with predicted structures of extracellular regions of LcCRFB1 and LcCRFB5, respectively. Despite striking similarities in overall architectures of LcIFNd and its ortholog human IFN-ω, the receptor binding patterns between LcIFNd and its receptors show that teleost and mammalian type I IFNs may have differentially selected helices that bind to their homologous receptors. Correspondingly, key residues mediating binding of LcIFNd to LcCRFB1 and LcCRFB5 are largely distinct from the receptor-interacting residues in other fish and mammalian type I IFNs. Our findings reveal a ligand/receptor complex binding mechanism of IFNd in teleost fish, thus providing new insights into the function and evolution of type I IFNs.

11.
Plant Genome ; : e20435, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38348504

RESUMO

The rhomboid-like (RBL) gene encodes serine protease, which plays an important role in the response to cell development and diverse stresses. However, genome-wide identification, expression profiles, and haplotype analysis of the RBL family genes have not been performed in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). This study investigated the phylogeny and diversity of the RBL family genes in the wheat genome through various approaches, including gene structure analysis, evolutionary relationship analysis, promoter cis-acting element analysis, expression pattern analysis, and haplotype analysis. The 41 TaRBL genes were identified and divided into five subfamilies in the wheat genome. RBL family genes were expanded through segmented duplication and purification selection. The cis-element analysis revealed their involvement in various stress responses and plant development. The results of RNA-seq and quantitative real-time-PCR showed that TaRBL genes displayed higher expression levels in developing spike/grain and were differentially regulated under polyethylene glycol, NaCl, and abscisic acid treatments, indicating their roles in grain development and abiotic stress response. A kompetitive allele-specific PCR molecular marker was developed to confirm the single nucleotide polymorphism of TaRBL14a gene in 263 wheat accessions. We found that the elite haplotype TaRBL14a-Hap2 showed a significantly higher 1000-grain weight than TaRBL14a-Hap11 in at least three environments, and the TaRBL14a-Hap2 was positively selected in wheat breeding. The findings will provide a good insight into the evolutionary and functional characteristics of the TaRBL genes family in wheat and lay the foundation for future exploration of the regulatory mechanisms of TaRBL genes in plant growth and development, as well as their response to abiotic stresses.

12.
IEEE Trans Image Process ; 33: 1136-1148, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38300774

RESUMO

The image-level label has prevailed in weakly supervised semantic segmentation tasks due to its easy availability. Since image-level labels can only indicate the existence or absence of specific categories of objects, visualization-based techniques have been widely adopted to provide object location clues. Considering class activation maps (CAMs) can only locate the most discriminative part of objects, recent approaches usually adopt an expansion strategy to enlarge the activation area for more integral object localization. However, without proper constraints, the expanded activation will easily intrude into the background region. In this paper, we propose spatial structure constraints (SSC) for weakly supervised semantic segmentation to alleviate the unwanted object over-activation of attention expansion. Specifically, we propose a CAM-driven reconstruction module to directly reconstruct the input image from deep CAM features, which constrains the diffusion of last-layer object attention by preserving the coarse spatial structure of the image content. Moreover, we propose an activation self-modulation module to refine CAMs with finer spatial structure details by enhancing regional consistency. Without external saliency models to provide background clues, our approach achieves 72.7% and 47.0% mIoU on the PASCAL VOC 2012 and COCO datasets, respectively, demonstrating the superiority of our proposed approach. The source codes and models have been made available at https://github.com/NUST-Machine-Intelligence-Laboratory/SSC.

13.
Acta Trop ; 252: 107138, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38307363

RESUMO

Ticks are small and adaptable arachnid ectoparasites and global carriers of various pathogens that threaten both human and animal health. They are present in many parts of China. A total of 858 ticks were collected from various regions and hosts, then subjected to species identification based on morphological and molecular characteristics, as described in the authors' previous study. Eighty-three individual tick samples were selected for screening pathogens based on metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. The genomic DNA of tick species was extracted, and amplification of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was carried out from DNA of individual ticks using V3-V4 hypervariable regions, before subjecting to metagenomic analysis. Each tick underwent specific PCR tests for identifying the bacterial species present, including Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Coxiella, and Rickettsia, and also protozoans such as Babesia, Theileria, and Hepatozoon. Illumina NovaSeq sequencing results revealed that the dominant phylum and family in Rhipicephalus spp. were Bacteroidota and Muribaculaceae, respectively. Alpha diversity patterns varied depending on tick sex (R. linnaei only), species and location, but not on host. Furthermore, bacterial pathogens, including A. marginale (58 %, 29/50), A. platys (6 %, 3/50), E. minasensis (2 %, 1/50), Ehrlichia sp. (10 %, 5/50), T. sinensis (24 %, 12/50), T. orientalis (54 %, 27/50) and Coxiella-like bacteria (CLB) (80 %, 40/50) were detected in R. microplus, while E. canis (33.33 %, 10/30), H. canis (20 %, 6/30) and CLB (100 %, 30/30) were detected in R. linnaei. Also, Anaplasma sp. (33.33 %, 1/3), A. marginale (33.33 %, 1/3), R. felis (33.33 %, 1/3) and CLB (100 %, 3/3) were detected in R. haemaphysaloides. Dual and triple co-infections involving pathogens or CLB were detected in 84.00 % of R. microplus, 66.66 % of R. haemaphysaloides, and 33.00 % of R. linnaei. The report on microbial communities and pathogens, which found from Rhipicephalus spp. in Hainan Island, is an important step towards a better understanding of tick-borne disease transmission. This is the first report in the area on the presence of Anaplasma sp., A. marginale, R. felis and Coxiella, in R. haemaphysaloides.

14.
Adv Healthc Mater ; : e2304125, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301194

RESUMO

Disturbance in the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) is a key factor in the emerging discovery of immune cell activation in inflammatory diseases, yet specific regulation of ETC homeostasis is extremely challenging. In this paper, a mitochondrial complex biomimetic nanozyme (MCBN), which plays the role of an artificial "VI" complex and acts as an electron and free radical conversion factory to regulate ETC homeostasis is creatively developed. MCBN is composed of bovine serum albumin (BSA), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and triphenylphosphine (TPP) hierarchically encapsulating MnO2 polycrystalline particles. It has nanoscale size and biological properties like natural complexes. In vivo and in vitro experiments confirm that MCBN can target the mitochondrial complexes of inflammatory macrophages, absorb excess electrons in ETC, and convert the electrons to decompose H2 O2 . By reducing the ROS and ATP bursts and converting existing free radicals, inhibiting NLRP3 inflammatory vesicle activation and NF-κB signaling pathway, MCBN effectively suppresses macrophage M1 activation and inflammatory factor secretion. It also demonstrates good inflammation control and significantly alleviates alveolar bone loss in a mouse model of ligation-induced periodontitis. This is the first nanozyme that mimics the mitochondrial complex and regulates ETC, demonstrating the potential application of MCBN in immune diseases.

15.
Environ Pollut ; 345: 123467, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38311157

RESUMO

N-(1,3-dimethylbutyl)-N'-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine-quinone (6PPDQ) has raised significant concerns due to its widespread distribution and high toxicity to aquatic organisms. However, the cardiac developmental toxicity of 6PPDQ and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we observed no notable alterations in heart morphology or embryo survival in zebrafish embryos exposed to 6PPDQ (0.2-2000 µg/L) up to 3 days post-fertilization (dpf). However, concentrations at 2 µg/L or higher induced cardiac dysfunctions, leading to lethal effects at later stages (6-8 dpf). We further found that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) inhibitor CH22351 attenuated 6PPDQ-induced cardiac dysfunctions, implicating the involvement of AHR signal pathway. Moreover, 6PPDQ exposure led to an overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and an upregulation of genes associated with oxidative stress (sod1, sod2, and nrf2a). This was accompanied by an increase in oxidative DNA damage and the induction of p53-dependent extrinsic apoptosis. Co-exposure to the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine effectively counteracted the DNA damage and apoptosis induced by 6PPDQ. Importantly, inhibition of AHR or its downstream target cyp1b1 attenuated 6PPDQ-induced oxidative stress, DNA damage, and apoptosis. In conclusion, our results provide evidence that 6PPDQ induces oxidative stress through the AHR/cyp1b1 signaling pathway, leading to DNA damage and extrinsic apoptosis, ultimately resulting in cardiac dysfunction.

16.
Food Chem ; 444: 138473, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38330599

RESUMO

Camellia oleifera leaf is a rich source of polyphenols. In this study, 50 polyphenolic compounds from C. oleifera leaves was identified by UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS. Accordingly, COSMO-RS was used in the design of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) to extract those polyphenols. 17 types of choline chloride (ChCl)-based DESs molecules (ChCl-acid, ChCl-sugar, ChCl-alcohol, ChCl-amine and amide) were synthetized into virtual cluster molecules with Materials Studio software. They were used to determine the activity coefficients with the standard compounds. The results showed that the amine and amide-based DESs exhibited outstanding dissolution effects. Additionally, ChCl-acetamide was selected as the solvent in response surface methodology to optimize the ultrasound-assisted DES extraction process parameters, including ultrasonic power, ultrasonic time, and liquid-solid ratio, resulting in an improved total phenolic content of 131.63 ± 0.85 mg GAE/g. This study developed a system utilizing UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS to acquire specific substances required for COSMO-RS calculations.

17.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2024 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38330912

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer is highly lethal. New diagnostic and treatment modalities are desperately needed. We report here that an expanded porphyrin, cyclo[8]pyrrole (CP), with a high extinction coefficient (89.16 L/g·cm) within the second near-infrared window (NIR-II), may be formulated with an αvß3-specific targeting peptide, cyclic-Arg-Gly-Asp (cRGD), to form cRGD-CP nanoparticles (cRGD-CPNPs) with promising NIR-II photothermal (PT) therapeutic and photoacoustic (PA) imaging properties. Studies with a ring-array PA tomography system, coupled with analysis of control nanoparticles lacking a targeting element (CPNPs), revealed that cRGD conjugation promoted the delivery of the NPs through abnormal vessels around the tumor to the solid tumor core. This proved true in both subcutaneous and orthotopic pancreatic tumor mice models, as confirmed by immunofluorescent studies. In combination with NIR-II laser photoirradiation, the cRGD-CPNPs provided near-baseline tumor growth inhibition through PTT both in vitro and in vivo. Notably, the combination of the present cRGD-CPNPs and photoirradiation was found to inhibit intra-abdominal metastases in an orthotopic pancreatic tumor mouse model. The cRGD-CPNPs also displayed good biosafety profiles, as inferred from PA tomography, blood analyses, and H&E staining. They thus appear promising for use in combined PA imaging and PT therapeutic treatment of pancreatic cancer.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38350840

RESUMO

PURPOSES: This study determined the synergy of polymyxin B (POLB) and colistin (COL) with 16 other tested antimicrobial agents in the inhibition of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDR-AB). METHODS: We used chequerboard assays to determine synergy between the drugs against 50 clinical MDR-AB from a tertiary hospital in the Zhejiang province in 2019, classifying combinations as either antagonistic, independent, additive, or synergistic. The efficacy of hit combinations which showed highest synergistic rate were confirmed using time-kill assays. RESULTS: Both POLB and COL displayed similar bactericidal effects when used in combination with these 16 tested drugs. Antagonism was only observed for a few strains (2%) exposed to a combination of POLB and cefoperazone/sulbactam (CSL). A higher percentage of synergistic combinations with POLB and COL were observed with rifabutin (RFB; 90%/96%), rifampicin (RIF; 60%/78%) and rifapentine (RFP; 56%/76%). Time-kill assays also confirmed the synergistic effect of POLB and rifamycin class combinations. 1/2 MIC rifamycin exposure can achieve bacterial clearance when combined with 1/2 MIC POLB or COL. CONCLUSION: Nearly no antagonism was observed when combining polymyxins with other drugs by both chequerboard and time-kill assays, suggesting that polymyxins may be effective in combination therapy. The combinations of POLB/COL with RFB, RIF, and RFP displayed neat synergy, with RFB showing the greatest effect.

19.
Pharm Res ; 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351229

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study investigates in silico the contribution of the hair follicle to the overall dermal permeability of small molecules, as published experimental work provides inconclusive information on whether the follicular route favours the permeation of hydrophobic or hydrophilic permeants. METHOD: A study is conducted varying physico-chemical parameters of permeants such as lipophilicity, molecular weight and protein binding. The simulated data is compared to published experimental data to discuss how those properties can modulate the contribution of the hair follicle to the overall dermal permeation. RESULTS: The results indicate that the contribution of the follicular route to dermal permeation can range from negligible to notable depending on the combination of lipophilic/hydrophilic properties of the substance filling the follicular route and the permeant. CONCLUSION: Characterisation of the substance filling the follicular route is required for analysing the experimental data of dermal permeation of small molecules, as changes between in vivo and in vitro due to handling of samples and cessation of vital functions can modify the contribution of the follicular route to overall dermal permeation, hence hindering data interpretation.

20.
Pain Physician ; 27(2): E245-E254, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38324790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Assessing the 3-dimensional (3D) relationship between critical anatomical structures and the surgical channel can help select percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) approaches, especially at the L5/S1 level. However, previous evaluation methods for PELD were mainly assessed using 2-dimensional (2D) medical images, making the understanding of the 3D relationship of lumbosacral structures difficult. Artificial intelligence based on automated magnetic resonance (MR) image segmentation has the benefit of 3D reconstruction of medical images. OBJECTIVES: We developed and validated an artificial intelligence-based MR image segmentation method for constructing a 3D model of lumbosacral structures for selecting the appropriate approach of percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy at the L5/S1 level. STUDY DESIGN: Three-dimensional reconstruction study using artificial intelligence based on MR image segmentation. SETTING: Spine and radiology center of a university hospital. METHODS: Fifty MR data samples were used to develop an artificial intelligence algorithm for automatic segmentation. Manual segmentation and labeling of vertebrae bone (L5 and S1 vertebrae bone), disc, lumbosacral nerve, iliac bone, and skin at the L5/S1 level by 3 experts were used as ground truth. Five-fold cross-validation was performed, and quantitative segmentation metrics were used to evaluate the performance of artificial intelligence based on the MR image segmentation method. The comparison analysis of quantitative measurements between the artificial intelligence-derived 3D (AI-3D) models and the ground truth-derived 3D (GT-3D) models was used to validate the feasibility of 3D lumbosacral structures reconstruction and preoperative assessment of PELD approaches. RESULTS: Artificial intelligence-based automated MR image segmentation achieved high mean Dice Scores of 0.921, 0.924, 0.885, 0.808, 0.886, and 0.816 for L5 vertebrae bone, S1 vertebrae bone, disc, lumbosacral nerves, iliac bone, and skin, respectively. There were no significant differences between AI-3D and GT-3D models in quantitative measurements. Comparative analysis of quantitative measures showed a high correlation and consistency. LIMITATIONS: Our method did not involve vessel segmentation in automated MR image segmentation. Our study's sample size was small, and the findings need to be validated in a prospective study with a large sample size. CONCLUSION: We developed an artificial intelligence-based automated MR image segmentation method, which effectively segmented lumbosacral structures (e.g., L5 vertebrae bone, S1 vertebrae bone, disc, lumbosacral nerve, iliac bone, and skin) simultaneously on MR images, and could be used to construct a 3D model of lumbosacral structures for choosing an appropriate approach of PELD at the L5/S1 level.


Assuntos
Discotomia Percutânea , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral , Humanos , Endoscopia/métodos , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/cirurgia , Inteligência Artificial , Discotomia Percutânea/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos
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