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1.
Accid Anal Prev ; 162: 106425, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601181

RESUMO

Automated driving is a developing trend that is coming to the consumer market, and conditionally automated driving (CAD) is anticipated to become the primary automated driving system. For enhancing both the comfort and security of human drivers in self-driving cars, the most significant concern of CAD is ensuring that not only can the driver conduct non-driving related tasks (NDRT) while automated driving is in progress, but also quickly and competently take over when the system reaches a limit and issues a takeover request (TOR). However, the level of distraction by NDRTs may affect the transition from automated driving to the human driver taking over. The focus of the present study was allowing a driver immersed in NDRTs to discover the TOR and take control of the driving quickly. A 3×2×2 factor experimental design was used: vehicle display interface information load (basic vs. prediction vs. advanced prediction interfaces); TOR information load (directional vs. non-directional information notifications); and degree of NDRT immersion (not performing vs. performing an NDRT when TOR prompt was issued). 48 participants were recruited, and different automotive display interfaces were used as TOR prompts with different information loads during driving to analyze the takeover behavior, performance, and subjective perception of the drivers, who were immersed in a smartphone-related task. The takeover process out of NDRT immersion was found to be more efficient with the advanced prediction interface, compared to the other two interfaces. All groups achieved faster takeovers and demonstrated better takeover performance if given directional rather than non-directional information, regardless of interface type or NDRT immersion.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636339

RESUMO

In this work, we propose a ferromagnetic Bi2Se3 as a candidate to hold the coexistence of Weyland nodal-line semimetal phases, which breaks the time reversal symmetry. We demonstrate that the type-I Weyl semimetal phase, type-I-, type-II- and their hybrid nodal-line semimetal phases can arise by tuning the Zeeman exchange field strength and the Fermi velocity. Their topological responses under U(1) gauge field are also discussed. Our results raise a new way for realizing Weyl and nodal-line semimetals and will be helpful in understanding the topological transport phenomena in three-dimensional material systems.

3.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 429, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Z score utility is emphasized in classifying coronary artery lesions in Kawasaki disease patients. The present study is the largest such multicenter Chinese pediatric study about coronary artery diameter reference values and Z score regression equation to date. It is useful in Chinese pediatric echocardiography. METHODS: A multicenter cohort was assembled, which consisted of 852 healthy children between 1 month and 17 years of age, ten children were excluded because their ultrasound images were not clear, or lost in following up. Diameters of the right coronary artery, left coronary artery, and left anterior descending coronary artery were assessed using echocardiography. Data were body surface area (BSA)-corrected using BSA calculated via either the Stevenson BSA formula or the Haycock BSA formula. Coronary artery diameter reference values and Z score regression equations were established for use in the Chinese pediatric population. RESULTS: No difference was observed between coronary artery diameter data corrected using BSAste or BSAhay. Of the five assessed regression models, the exponential model exhibited the best fit and was therefore selected as the basis for derivation of the SZ method. When comparing Z scores, those produced by the SZ method conformed to the standard normal distribution, while those produced by the D method did not. In addition, there was a statistically significant difference between Z scores produced by the SZ and D methods (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Coronary artery diameter reference values for echocardiography were successfully established for use in the Chinese pediatric population, and a Z score regression equation more suitable for clinical use in this population was successfully developed.

4.
Neurochem Res ; 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626306

RESUMO

Neuropathic pain is one of the most common conditions requiring treatment worldwide. Salidroside (SAL), a phenylpropanoid glucoside extracted from Rhodiola, has been suggested to produce an analgesic effect in chronic pain. However, whether SAL could alleviate pain hypersensitivity after peripheral nerve injury and its mode of action remains unclear. Several studies suggest that activation of the spinal NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and its related proteins contribute to neuropathic pain's pathogenesis. This study investigates the time course of activation of spinal NLRP3 inflammasome axis in the development of neuropathic pain and also whether SAL could be an effective treatment for this type of pain by modulating NLRP3 inflammasome. In the chronic constriction injury (CCI) mice model, spinal NLRP3 inflammasome-related proteins and TXNIP, the mediator of NLRP3, were upregulated from the 14th to the 28th day after injury. The TXNIP and NLRP3 inflammasome-related proteins were mainly present in neurons and microglial cells in the spinal dorsal horn after CCI. Intraperitoneal injection of SAL at 200 mg/kg for 14 consecutive days starting from the 7th day of CCI injury could ameliorate mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity in the CCI model. Moreover, SAL inhibited the activation of the TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome axis and mitigated the neuronal loss of spinal dorsal horn induced by nerve injury. These results indicate that SAL could produce analgesic and neuroprotective effects in the CCI model of neuropathic pain.

5.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; : e3501, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614535

RESUMO

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Fulminant type 1 diabetes (FT1D) could present diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) at early onset. It is crucial to identify FT1D from DKA manifestations in time at clinical practice. This study was aimed at investigating whether the fulminant index (FI), encompassing plasma glucose (PG) to glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ratio (PG/HbA1c), serum potassium ion (K+ ) to HbA1c ratio (K+ /HbA1c) and serum sodium ion (Na+ ) multiplied by HbA1c (Na+ *HbA1c), is a feasible indicator for early FT1D diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 78 subjects were enroled, including 40 FT1D patients and 38 non-FT1D patients with DKA. We utilised receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to determine the FI cut-off values between FT1D and non-FT1D groups and examined efficacies of FI based on statistics. RESULTS: ROC curve analyses showed that the maximum Youden's index for PG/HbA1c bonding to a cut-off value of 4.389, with the sensitivity of 75.0% and specificity of 81.6% in identifying FT1D from DKA. And optimal K+ /HbA1c cut-off value was 0.728 with a sensitivity of 90.0% and specificity of 84.2%. For Na+ *HbA1c, the best cut-off value was 923.65, and its sensitivity and specificity were 85% and 73.7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested FI could work as a valid and convenient indicator for differentiating FT1D from initial DKA patients. FI (K+ /HbA1c) presented the best efficacy as an independent index.

6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(40): e27341, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ethmoid or sphenoid intestinal-type adenocarcinomas (ITACs) form a distinct subtype of sinonasal adenocarcinomas that occur less than 1 case/100,000/yr. They have obvious exposure relationship to hardwood or leather dusts, infrequent metastasis, but a relatively high local-recurrence rate. They locate at sinuses close to vital structures listed as high-risk areas in surgeries. Even in expert hands, a craniofacial resection is associated with non-negligible mortality and morbidity. Management of these tumors, first or recurrent, needs to weigh these consequences versus the survival, regional-recurrence, and distant-recurrence rates. Due to the rareness of ethmoid or sphenoid ITACs, accurate overall survival and local- or regional-recurrence rates across diverse treatments are unclear. The aim of this study is to report the overall statistics of this cancer and the relationship between enrollment year versus age, recurrence, and survival. METHODS: Systemic review and meta-analysis with 1126 cases across various treatments in the literature. RESULTS: Here, we show that patients of ethmoid or sphenoid ITACs had overall local-, regional-, and distant-recurrence rates of 32.2%, 2.2%, and 10.3%, respectively, with a 5-year overall survival rate of 66.2%. The results present a significant correlation between age, local-recurrent rate, or overall survival rate versus enrollment year. CONCLUSION: This suggests that recent patients of ethmoid or sphenoid ITACs may present at an older mean age, have a lower local-recurrence rate, and have a better 5-year survival rate than before. There was a shifting trend of treating ethmoid ITACs from external approach to endoscopic resection. Clinicians may want to weigh mortality and morbidity rates of external surgeries and these data to share or decide a solution.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Neoplasias dos Seios Paranasais/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Seio Etmoidal/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Seio Esfenoidal/cirurgia
7.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644716

RESUMO

Low-dimensional systems have strong multi-body interactions and fewer geometric constraints due to the screening effect of the Coulomb interaction. We use the single-shot GW-Bethe Salpeter equation (G0W0-BSE) to calculate the electronic and optical properties of six-blue arsenic phosphorus (ß-AsP) conformers. The results show significant anisotropic exciton effects of covering visible regions, which apparently changed the light absorption. The maximum exciton binding energy is up to 0.99 eV, which is more extensive than the black phosphorus monolayer (0.9 eV). We predict that the different orbital contributions to valence bands may cause the anisotropic exciton effect difference. Our results indicate that ß-AsP monolayers with the large binding energies of exciton hold a great promise for applications in optoelectronic devices.

8.
QJM ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke is a rare complication of snakebites, but may lead to serious sequelae. We aimed to explore the relationship between venomous snakebite and the risk for acute stroke, in a nationwide population-based cohort study. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used claims data between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2012, from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The study included data of patients aged 18 years or older with venomous snakebite (N = 535), matched for propensity score with controls without venomous snakebite (N = 2140). The follow-up period was the duration from the initial diagnosis of venomous snakebite and administration of antivenom to the date of an acute stroke, or until December 31, 2013. The competing risk model was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of stroke, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke, after adjusting for demographic and other possible stroke risk factors. RESULT: The adjusted HR for the venomous snakebite group compared with the control group was 2.72 for hemorrhagic stroke (95% CI: 1.41, 5.26). Stratified analysis showed that the older age group (>65 years old) had a higher risk of hemorrhagic stroke. A 2.68-fold significant increase in the risk for hemorrhagic stroke was observed following venomous snakebite with antivenom usage (95% CI = 1.46, 26.63). CONCLUSION: Venomous snakebite is associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke after the use of an antivenom. Further study of the underlying mechanism is warranted.

9.
Poult Sci ; 100(11): 101450, 2021 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627020

RESUMO

The first purpose of this study was to reveal the distribution of the angel wing (AW) of geese. Our data showed that the total incidence of AW was 6.67% in 150-day-old White Zhedong (ZD) geese, the occurrence of AW in left wing is higher than that in right wing and bilateral wing than unilateral wing (both P < 0.01). In 70-day-old Hybrid-Wanxi (HW) geese, the total incidence of AW was 8.86%, with similar incidence rate between unilateral and bilateral. The sex has not apparently affected the incidence of AW in both ZD and HW geese. To explore the potential relationship between wing type with body weight, organ index, bone characteristic, or blood biochemical parameters in 70-day-old HW geese. We found that the body weight and organ index were similar between normal wing (NW) and AW geese. The length for the humerus, metacarpal and phalanx, and the phalanx weights, as well as the angle between the humerus and the radial ulna (HRU) in NW geese were pronounced greater than that in AW geese (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the angel wing was strongly associated with lower platelet size indicators. Collectively, AW affected the wing bone length, phalanx weight, and HRU, and the occurrence of AW may be related with dysfunctional platelet activation in geese.

10.
Eur J Med Genet ; 64(12): 104362, 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637946

RESUMO

Autosomal recessive deafness-102 (DFNB102), a new profound prelingual non-syndromic hearing loss, is caused by mutations in the EPS8 gene. To date, only three such consanguineous families with three different homozygous variants in EPS8 have been reported. Here, we report the fourth case from a non-consanguineous Chinese family, an 11-month-old male infant presented with congenital profound non-syndromic hearing loss. Trio whole-exome sequencing initially identified the patient with a novel seemingly homozygous splicing variant NM_004447.5: c.1435-2A > T in intron 14 of the EPS8 gene and was inherited from his father; further CNVs analysis identified a novel 65.9 kb intragenic deletion and was inherited from his mother. The deletion is covering intron 14 that could account for the apparent homozygosity of the patient. In vitro splicing assay showed the variant c.1435-2A > T creates a new donor site at position c.1443, which is predicted to produce a stop codon after 14 additional amino acids (p.His479Cysfs*14). Furthermore, quantitative allele-specific expression assay showed that relative EPS8 gene expression in the patient significantly decreased (0-fold for the wild-type transcript and 0.25-0.27-fold for the mutant transcript) compared to the control (P < 0.05), indicating the pathogenicity of the identified variants. Overall, our study provides additional evidence that EPS8 is a causative gene for DFNB102 and highlights the clinical utility of simultaneous analysis of CNVs and SNVs to avoid potential errors in the diagnosis and interpretation of patients with apparent homozygosity.

11.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; : 1-7, 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648389

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate whether patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at increased risk of uveitis. METHODS: Data was collected from the Taiwan National Health Insurance system and included patients newly diagnosed with CKD between 2000 and 2012. The endpoint of interest was a diagnosis of uveitis. RESULTS: 30,256 CKD patients and 121,024 matched comparisons were analyzed. CKD patients were found to have a significantly higher cumulative uveitis incidence. Through multivariate Cox regression analysis, the CKD group was found to have higher risk of developing uveitis (adjusted hazard ratio 1.51). After stratified by gender, age, and comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia), the increased risk of uveitis in CKD patients remained significant. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with CKD were found to have higher risk of developing uveitis. For patients over 18 years old and with hypertension, diabetes, or hyperlipidemia, the presence of CKD was demonstrated as an additional crucial factor for uveitis development.

12.
World Neurosurg ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648985

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Postoperative fracture of the upper instrumented vertebrae (UIV) is thought to be a fracture type of proximal junctional failure (PJF), which usually needs revision surgery for salvage. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of spinopelvic parameters, such as the lumbar lordosis (LL) angels, pelvic incidence (PI), sacral slope (SS), pelvic tilt (PT), and sagittal vertical axis (SVA) on the development of the proximal junctional failure fracture type after posterior instrumentation. METHODS: This was a retrospective 1:3 matched case-control cohort study: 24 patients who developed proximal instrumented fracture were in the study group and 72 patients without PJF were in the control group. The weighted Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and bone mineral density (BMD) with T score were recorded. In addition to spinopelvic parameters, proximal local kyphosis (PLK), which means a kyphosis angle between the upper end-plate of UIV+1 and the lower end-plate of UIV, PI-LL, and spinopelvic realignment score were calculated. RESULTS: More comorbidities (CCI, p= 0.002) and poorer bone density (T score, p= 0.001) were noted in the study group. Before surgery, the study group had significantly lower LL (p= 0.046), SS (p= 0.043), and significantly higher PLK (p < 0.001) and PT (p = 0.044) than the control group. Postoperatively, the study group had significantly higher PLK (p < 0.001) and lower LL (p= 0.031) than the control group; the degree of PI-LL (p = 0.007) remained significantly higher in the study group. Both preoperative (p=0.026) and postoperative (p=0.045) spinopelvic realignment scores was worse in the study group. Multivariate analysis revealed postoperative PLK is the most significantly radiographic factor to develop proximal instrumented fracture (p=0.002, Odd Ratio: 1.140; 95% confidence interval). CONCLUSIONS: In our experience, an appropriate LL and a lower PLK should be obtained at surgery to prevent the development of instrumented fracture.

13.
BMC Genomics ; 22(Suppl 3): 739, 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play vital roles in many important biological processes in plants. Currently, a large fraction of plant lncRNA studies center at lncRNA identification and functional analysis. Only a few plant lncRNA studies focus on understanding their evolutionary history, which is crucial for an in-depth understanding of lncRNAs. Therefore, the integration of large volumes of plant lncRNA data is required to deeply investigate the evolution of lncRNAs. RESULTS: We present a large-scale evolutionary analysis of lncRNAs in 25 flowering plants. In total, we identified 199,796 high-confidence lncRNAs through data integration analysis, and grouped them into 5497 lncRNA orthologous families. Then, we divided the lncRNAs into groups based on the degree of sequence conservation, and quantified the various characteristics of 756 conserved Arabidopsis thaliana lncRNAs. We found that compared with non-conserved lncRNAs, conserved lncRNAs might have more exons, longer sequence length, higher expression levels, and lower tissue specificities. Functional annotation based on the A. thaliana coding-lncRNA gene co-expression network suggested potential functions of conserved lncRNAs including autophagy, locomotion, and cell cycle. Enrichment analysis revealed that the functions of conserved lncRNAs were closely related to the growth and development of the tissues in which they were specifically expressed. CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive integration of large-scale lncRNA data and construction of a phylogenetic tree with orthologous lncRNA families from 25 flowering plants was used to provide an oversight of the evolutionary history of plant lncRNAs including origin, conservation, and orthologous relationships. Further analysis revealed a differential characteristic profile for conserved lncRNAs in A. thaliana when compared with non-conserved lncRNAs. We also examined tissue specific expression and the potential functional roles of conserved lncRNAs. The results presented here will further our understanding of plant lncRNA evolution, and provide the basis for further in-depth studies of their functions.

14.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 537, 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Necator americanus is one of the major etiological agents of human ancylostomiasis. Historically, the epidemiology of ancylostomiasis in Henan Province of central China and the molecular characteristics of N. americanus have been poorly understood. METHODS: In this study, we report a case of ancylostomiasis in Zhengzhou city of Henan Province. We also review the epidemiology of ancylostomiasis in Henan Province from 1949 to 2020. In addition, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of one clinical isolate is fully characterized using Illumina sequencing. All available mt genomes of hookworms in GenBank were included to reconstruct the phylogeny using both maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) methods. RESULTS: A total of three worms were collected from the patient. These worms were identified as N. americanus based on morphological characteristics as well as confirmed by genotyping with the barcoding gene cox1. Although ancylostomiasis cases have dropped substantially in recent years, hookworm infection is still a public health problem in underdeveloped areas and remote rural areas in Henan Province. The mt genome features of the N. americanus contained 12 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and a major non-coding region. The nad1 gene showed high sequence variability among isolates, which is worth considering for future genetic studies of N. americanus. Phylogenetic analyses support the monophyly of hookworm isolates from different hosts and distinct geographical locations. CONCLUSIONS: The mt genome of N. americanus presented here will serve as a useful data set for studying population genetics and phylogenetic relationships of hookworms. Positive measures for preventing and controlling ancylostomiasis are required by both health services and individuals in Henan Province.

15.
Dalton Trans ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518853

RESUMO

Three mononuclear, dinuclear and one-dimensional dysprosium(III) complexes based on 3-azotriazolyl-2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid (H4ATB) of [Dy(H3ATB)3]·3H2O (1), [Dy2(H2ATB)2(H2DHB)2(H2O)4]·2CH3CN·5H2O (2), and [Dy2(H2ATB)2(DCB)(DMF)2(H2O)2]·4DMF (3) were synthesized and structurally characterized by X-ray single crystal diffraction (H3DHB = 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid, H2DCB = 1,4-dicarboxybenzene). Complex 1 was used as a precursor to synthesize complexes 2 and 3, and 2 was further used to synthesize 3. Complex 1 is a mononuclear complex, in which the Dy(III) ion is in a nine-coordinated structure surrounded by three tridentate chelate H3ATB- ligands. Complex 2 displays a dinuclear structure bridged by two µ2 carboxyl groups of two H2DHB- ligands and two µ1,1-O atoms from the phenolic hydroxyl groups of two H2ATB2- ligands. Complex 3 shows a one-dimensional structure formed by two bridging DCB2- ligands. The magnetic measurements were performed on three complexes 1-3, and they showed different magnetic behavior. Complex 1 shows a field-induced slow magnetic relaxation. Complexes 2 and 3 display distinct slow magnetic relaxation under zero dc field with energy barriers (Ueff) of 26(2) cm-1 and 11(1) cm-1, respectively. The magnetic behavior of three complexes 1-3 was investigated by ab initio calculations.

16.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 43(4): 628-633, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494536

RESUMO

Neurodegenerative diseases are associated with neuroinflammation,oxidative stress,and aging,which can lead to cognitive and motor dysfunctions.Recent studies suggest that the development of neurodegenerative diseases is related to adaptive immunity,in which CD4+T cells are involved as adaptive immune cells.Through different pathways,CD4+T cells differentiate into effector and regulatory subsets,which may have different effects on the progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease,Parkinson's disease,multiple sclerosis,and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.Here,we review the role and research progress of CD4+T cells in neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Doença de Parkinson , Humanos , Linfócitos T
17.
J Craniofac Surg ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519710

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Fat fixation is a key step in filling tear trough depression with inferior eyelid orbital septum fat. The ideal position for inferior eyelid fat fixation is to cross the tear trough ligament causing tear trough depression and the orbicularis retaining ligament, with the distal end fixed at the farthest end of the dissected lacuna deep down the inferior orbicularis oculi muscle. Traditional suturing is difficult in the deep narrow lacunae, but a buried guide needle can be used to suture and fix the fat in the deepest lacuna. In this study, 264 patients who underwent tear trough filling using a buried guide needle to fix the released inferior eyelid orbital septum fat from 2017 to 2020 were followed up. The preoperative and postoperative imaging findings were compared to evaluate the effectiveness of the operation and postoperative complications. The inferior eyelid bulging, loose skin, and tear trough depression significantly improved than that before the operation. None of the patients had any severe complications, such as inferior eyelid ectropion, lagophthalmos, scar hyperplasia, and diplopia, in the long term (6 months) postoperatively. Five patients showed mild eyelid-eyeball separation and recovered in 1 month. Four patients had diplopia, and 3 patients had chemosis; all recovered in 7 days. The tear trough depression was not corrected completely in 2 patients. The operation showed satisfactory results in the improvement of tear trough depression in addition to alleviation of inferior eyelid bulging and loose inferior eyelid skin that is caused by the traditional inferior eyelid pouch removal.

18.
World Neurosurg ; 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500099

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We systematically evaluated the global research trends in robotic application on the spine through bibliometric analysis and mapping knowledge domains. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed of the PubMed and Web of Science, including the Science Citation Index Expanded, databases. The number, countries, journals, and authors of the publications, total citations, average publication year, and institution sources were analyzed using Microsoft Excel, the Online Analysis Platform of Bibliometrics, and VOSviewer. The hotspots were analyzed and visualized using VOSviewer. RESULTS: We identified a total of 2135 publications. The United States ranked first in the number of publications (n = 824; 38.63%) and frequency of citations (n = 29,075). Northwestern University had the highest number of publications (n = 67) and Harvard University the highest number of citations (n = 4198). The Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation published the largest number of reports (n = 73), and the most frequently cited journal was Nature (n = 3844 citations). The research hotspots were divided into 3 categories analyzed by VOSviewer: rehabilitation, basic science, and surgery. According to the average publication year, the most recent hotspot was radiation exposure, and the earliest hotspot was radiosurgery. CONCLUSIONS: The number of studies of robotic application on the spine has continued to increase. The United States was the greatest contributor to robotic applications on the spine. Robot-assisted rehabilitation for neurological and orthopedic lesions is still a major research hotspot. The range of robotic applications on the spine has expanded from assisted rehabilitation to assisted rehabilitation and surgery.

19.
Math Biosci Eng ; 18(5): 5995-6011, 2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517520

RESUMO

The traditional signature-based detection method requires detailed manual analysis to extract the signatures of malicious samples, and requires a large number of manual markers to maintain the signature library, which brings a great time and resource costs, and makes it difficult to adapt to the rapid generation and mutation of malware. Methods based on traditional machine learning often require a lot of time and resources in sample labeling, which results in a sufficient inventory of unlabeled samples but not directly usable. In view of these issues, this paper proposes an effective malware classification framework based on malware visualization and semi-supervised learning. This framework includes mainly three parts: malware visualization, feature extraction, and classification algorithm. Firstly, binary files are processed directly through visual methods, without assembly, decompression, and decryption; Then the global and local features of the gray image are extracted, and the visual image features extracted are fused on the whole by a special feature fusion method to eliminate the exclusion between different feature variables. Finally, an improved collaborative learning algorithm is proposed to continuously train and optimize the classifier by introducing features of inexpensive unlabeled samples. The proposed framework was evaluated over two extensively researched benchmark datasets, i.e., Malimg and Microsoft. The results show that compared with traditional machine learning algorithms, the improved collaborative learning algorithm can not only reduce the cost of sample labeling but also can continuously improve the model performance through the input of unlabeled samples, thereby achieving higher classification accuracy.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Aprendizado de Máquina Supervisionado , Aprendizado de Máquina
20.
Environ Pollut ; 290: 118015, 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488162

RESUMO

Size and magnetic separation of incineration bottom ash (IBA) are common for ferrous metals recovery, however, their influences on the mineral phase and the element redistribution, and subsequently the induced variation of metal leaching potential herein remain limited understanding. The lack of research in this field may misunderstand IBA performances, cause confused results for comparison among various studies, and potentially lead to biased conclusions. We herein quantitatively investigate the effects of size and magnetic separation on the IBA based on element distribution, leaching behavior, morphology, and mineralogy with statistical analysis. For preparation, sieving was performed with the original IBA (to obtain 7 size-fractions termed as OR1-7, respectively), followed by magnetic separation of each, to further yield magnetic fractions (MF1-7) to discriminate nonmagnetic fractions (NF1-7). In this study, we show that size and magnetic separation may pose significant yet different impacts on different fractions, which would affect their leaching potential concerning their respective downstream applications.

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