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1.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124795, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520977

RESUMO

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from constructed wetlands (CWs) have raised environmental concern and thus offset their environmental and ecological benefits. This study evaluated the influence of plant species, i.e., Canna indica (C. indica), Cyperus alternifolius (C. alternifolius), Phragmites australis (P. australis) and unplanted control, on GHG emissions, pollutant removal and associated microbial abundance in subsurface flow constructed wetland (SSFCW) mesocosms. C. indica outperformed the other tested plant species in pollutant removal, and the presence of plants irrespective of species enhanced the removal efficiencies of nitrogen, phosphorus and organics in SSFCW mesocosms compared to unplanted control. The greatest carbon dioxide (CO2) flux (582.01 ±â€¯89.25 mg/m2/h), methane (CH4) flux (21.88 ±â€¯2.51 µg/m2/h) and nitrous oxide (N2O) flux (37.27 ±â€¯15.82 µg/m2/h) were observed in mesocosms planted with C. indica, P. australis and C.alternifolius, respectively. Unexpectedly, the mcrA and pmoA genes were not detected in any mesocosms. For denitrifiers, the N2O fluxes showed a significantly (p < 0.05) positive correlation with nirS and nirK genes abundance. The abundance of nosZ gene (ranged from 0.18 × 104 to 0.75 × 104 copies/mg gravel) and nosZ/(nirS + nirK) (ranged from 1.29 × 10-4 to 2.12 × 10-4 copies/mg gravel) in this study was lower than that in most reported studies. Regarding the global warming potential (GWP), the lowest value was observed in mesocosms planted with C. indica. In conclusion, C. indica is selected as the optimal plant species in this study due to its lower GWP and excellent pollutant removal performance.

2.
Cytokine ; 125: 154810, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430659

RESUMO

Prostate cancer (CaP) is a common male malignancy. Using prostate specific antigen (PSA) and prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) in the diagnosis of prostate cancer, sensitivity and specificity still require improvement. Additional targets are urgently needed for the diagnosis, prognosis, and prediction of therapeutic response, leading to better treatments in order to reduce the mortality of CaP. Here, we utilized a solid-phase antibody array, which can simultaneously detect 200 proteins, for the screening of novel blood-based biomarkers. The proteins differentially expressed in the pathogenesis of CaP were further analyzed using bioinformatics methods. The identified targets were further validated by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A total of 38 proteins were identified with significantly differential levels in CaP serum compared to healthy control serum, including 21 up-regulated and 17 down-regulated cytokines. ELISA result showed that validated six ones of these differential cytokines were significantly differential between CaP and control, consistent with the antibody array result. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis for these differentially expressed cytokines showed the top five cytokines interacting with most other cytokines were insulin, SDF-1a, CD40L, IL-18 and NCAM-1, suggesting these five targets are important in the pathogenesis of CaP, and more sensitive for the early diagnosis and prognosis of CaP. Targeting these cytokines may be more effective therapies against CaP. Among these differentially expressed cytokines, it was found that AR, BTC, IL-1 F8, IL-31, Marapsin, b-NGF, EDA-A2, MCP-3, MCP-4, MIP-3a, PIGF, and TECK decreased, while Fas, Flt-3L, and NCAM-1 increased in CaP when compared to the controls. Taken together, those 38 differentially expressed cytokines may service as novel serum biomarkers for CaP, which will be further validated with more clinical samples.

3.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 26(1): 729-738, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442987

RESUMO

We present a non-uniform recursive sampling technique for multi-class scatterplots, with the specific goal of faithfully presenting relative data and class densities, while preserving major outliers in the plots. Our technique is based on a customized binary kd-tree, in which leaf nodes are created by recursively subdividing the underlying multi-class density map. By backtracking, we merge leaf nodes until they encompass points of all classes for our subsequently applied outlier-aware multi-class sampling strategy. A quantitative evaluation shows that our approach can better preserve outliers and at the same time relative densities in multi-class scatterplots compared to the previous approaches, several case studies demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach in exploring complex and real world data.

4.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 25: 452-462, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585896

RESUMO

Gastric cancer is the fourth most common malignancy world-wide that bears a high mortality by invasiveness and metastases. To this end, we examined the role of miR-1 in mobility and migration of gastric cancer cells. miR-1 was down-regulated and Sorcin, which supports invasion, was highly expressed in gastric cancer cell lines as compared to the control. The overexpression of miR-1 significantly inhibited the mobility and migration of gastric cancer cells, while, its knockdown exerted an oppoiste effect. In addition, while overexpression of miR-1 suppressed the expression of Sorcin, the siRNA knockdown of Sorcin significantly counteracted the effect of miR-1 inhibitor on cell invasion and migration of gastric cancer cells. A miR-1 mimic decreased while its inhibitor increased the MMP-7 and VEGF required for invasion. Taken together, the findings support the view that miR-1 controls the mobility and migration of gastric cancer cells and might be a therapeutic target for blocking gastric cancer invasion.

5.
Bioorg Chem ; : 103367, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685258

RESUMO

Ibrutinib (IBN), a first-in-class BTK-inhibitor, was approved by the FDA for the treatment of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Although IBN shows excellent performance as an anti-lymphoma agent, it has some undesirable side effects due to its off-target activities. Our studies yielded a novel series of 3-(6-phenoxypyridin-3-yl)-4-amine-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine derivatives capable of potent inhibition of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK). Notably, compound 13e explained potent BTK inhibitory activity and could completely inhibit the phosphorylation of BTK and PLCγ2 in Z138 cells at low micromolar concentration. Compared with IBN, compound 13e improved anti-proliferative activities 3-40 folds in MCL cell lines with IC50 values lower than 1 µM. Low micromolar doses of 13e could induce strong cell apoptosis in Jeko-1 and Z138 cells. In addition, compound 13e showed greater BTK selectivity and higher stability in human liver microsomes than IBN and potential safety improvement for the treatment of MCL.

6.
Hypertens Res ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685939

RESUMO

This study aimed to explore the association of systolic blood pressure (SBP) trajectories of pregnant women with the risk of adverse outcomes of pregnant women and their fetuses. A register-based cohort of 63,724 pregnant women and their fetuses from January 2013 to December 2017 was investigated. Demographic characteristics, history of disease and family history of disease for pregnant women and perinatal outcomes were recorded, and blood pressure was measured during the whole pregnancy. SBP trajectories were estimated with latent mixture modeling by Proc Traj in SAS using SBP data from the first antenatal care appointment (8-14 weeks), the highest SBP before admission, the admission SBP and the SBP at 2 h postpartum. A censored normal model (CNORM) was considered appropriate, and model fit was assessed using the Bayesian information criterion (BIC). A logistic regression model was used to examine the association between SBP trajectories and the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes. Four distinct SBP trajectory patterns over the pregnancy period were identified and were labeled as low-stable, moderate-stable, high-decreasing and moderate-increasing. Three maternal and three fetal adverse outcomes were selected as the main outcome measures. After adjusting for confounding factors, compared with pregnant women with the low-stable pattern, those with the high-decreasing pattern had a higher risk of developing poor growth outcomes of fetuses, while those with the moderate-increasing pattern had higher risks of developing both adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Our study results suggest that pregnant women should pay attention to the control of blood pressure throughout pregnancy.

7.
Nat Plants ; 5(11): 1184-1193, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712753

RESUMO

Bicarbonate transporters play essential roles in pH homeostasis in mammals and photosynthesis in aquatic photoautotrophs. A number of bicarbonate transporters have been characterized, among which is BicA-a low-affinity, high-flux SLC26-family bicarbonate transporter involved in cyanobacterial CO2-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) that accumulate CO2 and improve photosynthetic carbon fixation. Here, we report the three-dimensional structure of BicA from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. Crystal structures of the transmembrane domain (BicATM) and the cytoplasmic STAS domain (BicASTAS) of BicA were solved. BicATM was captured in an inward-facing HCO3--bound conformation and adopts a '7+7' fold monomer. HCO3- binds to a cytoplasm-facing hydrophilic pocket within the membrane. BicASTAS is assembled as a compact homodimer structure and is required for the dimerization of BicA. The dimeric structure of BicA was further analysed using cryo-electron microscopy and physiological analysis of the full-length BicA, and may represent the physiological unit of SLC26-family transporters. Comparing the BicATM structure with the outward-facing transmembrane domain structures of other bicarbonate transporters suggests an elevator transport mechanism that is applicable to the SLC26/4 family of sodium-dependent bicarbonate transporters. This study advances our knowledge of the structures and functions of cyanobacterial bicarbonate transporters, and will inform strategies for bioengineering functional BicA in heterologous organisms to increase assimilation of CO2.

8.
Neuroradiology ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713666

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Myxoma-related intracranial diseases were rarely documented in history. The main purpose of our study is to provide a more comprehensive and detailed understanding of the pathogenesis, imaging features, surgical procedures and pathology of such patients through long-term follow-up. METHODS: From March 2012 to July 2018, baseline information that included neuroimaging and neuropathology data from 12 cardiac myxoma patients with neurological symptoms were retrospectively analysed, and the treatment options were discussed. Nine patients underwent long-term postoperative follow-up. RESULTS: Twelve cardiac myxoma patients with neurological symptoms were identified, and among them, 10 patients were postoperative patients who had undergone excision of cardiac myxoma, 5 patients had received craniotomy, and the others had received conservative treatment. Positive neuroimaging findings were found in all patients, including cerebral infarction (12/12, 100%), multiple intracranial aneurysms (8/12, 67%), and extravascular metastasis (6/12, 50%). After a long-term average follow-up of 27 months, an increased number of metastatic lesions or an enlargement of the intracranial aneurysms was found in 4 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Neuroimaging findings of myxoma-related intracranial lesions were diversed and usually presented as multiple cerebral infarction, aneurysm formation, focal intracranial haemorrhage and space-occupying lesions. Progress is over a long period of time after primary tumour resection. It is necessary for patients to be regularly examined within 2 years after cardiac myxoma resection using MRI+CTA/MRA/DSA in order to be ruled out. Stable and effective chemotherapy drugs are urgently needed.

9.
Oncogene ; 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676872

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common cancer type and a threat to human health. Tumor budding (TB) is the presence of a single cancer cell or clusters of up to five cancer cells prior to the invasive front of an aggressive carcinoma and is an independent prognosis factor for CRC. The molecular mechanism of TB is still unclear, and drugs that inhibit this process are still in the blank stage. This study found that TBs exhibit characteristics of partial EMT with a decreased expression of E-cadherin and no substantial differences in the expression of N-cadherin and vimentin. We also observed the interaction of integrin with extracellular matrix components, laminin-5γ2 (LN-5γ2), play essential roles in the TB of CRC. We then verified that the interaction between LN-5γ2 and integrin ß1 promotes the TB of CRC via the activation of FAK and Yes-associated proteins (YAP). A natural drug monomer, cucurbitacin B, was screened using virtual screening methods for the interaction interface of proteins. We found that this monomer could block the interaction interface between LN-5γ2 and integrin ß1 and substantially inhibit the TB of CRC cells via inactivation of YAP. This study provides new insights into the mechanism of TB mechanism and the development of drugs targeting the TB of CRC.

10.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 14(1): 191, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mild preoperative renal dysfunction (RD) is not rare in patients receiving isolated cardiopulmonary coronary artery bypass grafting (CCABG). However, there are not too many studies about the impact of mild preoperative RD on in-hospital and follow-up outcomes after isolated CCABG. This single-centre, retrospective propensity score matching study designed to study the impact of mild preoperative RD on in-hospital and long-term outcomes after first isolated CCABG. METHODS: After propensity score matching, 1144 patients with preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of more than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 receiving first isolated CCABG surgery from January 2012 to December 2015 entered the study, who were divided into 2 groups: A group (eGFR ≥90 ml/min/1.73 m2, n = 572) and B group (eGFR of 60-89 ml/min/1.73 m2, n = 572). The in-hospital and long-term outcomes were recorded and analyzed. The mean follow-up time was 54.4 ± 10.7 months. Acute kidney injury (AKI) was defined and classified according to the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria. RESULTS: The 2 propensity score-matched groups had similar baseline and procedure except the baseline eGFR. There were 8 patients died in A group (mortality is 1.4%) and 14 died in B group (mortality is 2.5%) during the in hospital and 30-day postoperatively(χ2 = 1.159, p = 0.282). There were totally 38 patients lost to follow-up, 18 in group A and 20 in group B. 21 patients died in group A and 37 died in group B during the follow-up, and long-term survival in group A was higher than in group B (96.2% vs 93.1%, χ2 = 4.336, p = 0.037). Comparing with group A, group B was associated with an increased rates and severity of AKI postoperatively (total AKI: 62 vs 144. AKIN stageI: 54 vs 113; AKIN stageII: 6 vs 22; AKIN stageIII: 2 vs 9, p<0.0001). During follow-up, group B also had a higher rate of new onset of dialysis (0 vs 6, χ2 = 4.432, p = 0.039). Multivariable logistic regression showed that comparing with A group, the HR for long-term mortality and new onset of dialysis in B group was 1.67 and 1.52 respectively (95%CI 1.09-2.90, p = 0.035; 95%CI 1.14-2.49, p = 0.027). CONCLUSIONS: Comparing with normal preoperative renal function, patients with mild preoperative RD had a similar in-hosptial mortality, but with an increased in-hosptial rates and severity of AKI, and with a decreased long-term survival and increased long-term new onset of dialysis.

11.
J Biomed Inform ; : 103335, 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689549

RESUMO

Lines of therapy (LOT) derived from real-world healthcare data not only depict real-world cancer treatment sequences, but also help define patient phenotypes along the course of disease progression and therapeutic interventions. The sequence of prescribed anticancer therapies can be defined as temporal phenotyping resulting from changes in morphological (tumor staging), biochemical (biomarker testing), physiological (disease progression), and behavioral (physician prescribing and patient adherence) parameters. We introduce a novel methodology that is a two-part approach: 1) create an algorithm to derive patient-level LOT and 2) aggregate LOT information via clustering to derive temporal phenotypes, in conjunction with visualization techniques, within a large insurance claims dataset. We demonstrated the methodology using two examples: metastatic non-small cell lung cancer and metastatic melanoma. First, we generated a longitudinal patient cohort for each cancer type and applied a set of rules to derive patient-level LOT. Then the LOT algorithm outputs for each cancer type were visualized using Sankey plots and K-means clusters based on durations of LOT and of gaps in therapy between LOT. We found differential distribution of temporal phenotypes across clusters. Our approach to identify temporal patient phenotypes can increase the quality and utility of analyses conducted using claims datasets, with the potential for application to multiple oncology disease areas across diverse healthcare data sources. The understanding of LOT as defining patients' temporal phenotypes can contribute to continuous health learning of disease progression and its interaction with different treatment pathways; in addition, this understanding can provide new insights that can be applied by tailoring treatment sequences for the patient phenotypes who will benefit.

12.
J Craniofac Surg ; 30(8): e697-e700, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689737

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Accurate localization and removal of deep-seated cavernomas through a less invasive approach is still a challenge. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of neuronavigation and ultrasound in guiding surgery for resection of deep-seated cavernomas by transsulcal microsurgical approach. METHODS: A total of 38 consecutive patients who suffered from deep-seated cavernomas underwent surgery via a transsulcal microsurgical approach in our hospital between September 2016 and March 2018. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups (20 cases in neuronavigation group and 18 cases in ultrasound group). The clinical features, character of images, and surgical outcome were analyzed. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in diameter (16.6 ±â€Š2.7 mm versus 19.6 ±â€Š2.0 mm, P > 0.05) and depth (19.2 ±â€Š2.4 mm versus 22.0 ±â€Š4.6 mm, P > 0.05) of lesions. The ultrasound group had a similar tumor resection rate (100% versus 80%, P = 0.11) and shorter operation time (119.7 ±â€Š4.5 minutes versus 137.3 ±â€Š4.9 minutes, P < 0.05) than that in the neuronavigation group. There was no significant difference between in the symptomatic improvement rate, complication, postoperative hospital stay, and period of follow-up (P > 0.05). No death and recurrence appeared in both groups. CONCLUSION: Ultrasound showed certain advantages than neuronavigation in guiding resection of deep-seated cavernomas by transsulcal microsurgical approach.

13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(44): e17672, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies investigated the relation of prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) and birth outcomes, but these results were inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of prenatal exposure to BPA and birth outcomes, provide comprehensive results based on current studies. METHODS: The PubMed, Cochrane databases, and Web of Science databases were searched systematically by two researchers respectively from their inceptions to Oct. 2018, using the following keywords "bisphenol A, birth weight, birth length, head circumference, gestational age, birth outcomes". We extracted ß coefficient and 95% confidence interval (CI) or ß coefficient and standard deviation (SD) from included study. The subgroup analysis was performed to evaluate the potential heterogeneity between studies. We conducted sensitivity analysis by excluding the each individual study to assess the results whether were stable. Finally, the publication bias was performed by accumulative forest plot. RESULTS: Seven studies with 3004 participants met the inclusion criteria. BPA had significant positively association with birth weight (ß = 21.92, 95%CI: 1.50-42.35, P = .04). No significant associations were found between BPA and birth length, head circumference and gestational age (All of P > .05). CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis demonstrated that the BPA was positively associated with birth weight. Therefore, further studies are needed to investigate the critical sensitive period of influencing fetal development and to investigate the difference on gender.

14.
Cell Oncol (Dordr) ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691159

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In recent years, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have received increasing attention as important regulators of cancer development. As yet, however, a large fraction of them has not been characterized in detail, and the functional role of LINC00346 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has remained unclear. METHODS: The role of LINC00346 in HCC development was investigated using both in vitro and in vivo assays. Interactions between LINC00346, miR-542-3p and WDR18 were assessed using luciferase reporter, RT-qPCR and Western blotting assays. Loss- and gain-of-function experiments were performed to assess the roles of LINC00346, miR-542-3p and WDR18 in HCC cell viability, proliferation, migration and invasion. RESULTS: We found that LINC00346 was upregulated in primary HCC tissues and HCC-derived cell lines and that LINC00346 may promote HCC cell viability, proliferation, migration and invasion. Furthermore, we found that LINC00346 may regulate WDR18 expression via competitively binding to miR-542-3p. This miRNA was found to be downregulated in primary HCC tissues and to act as a tumor suppressor that can inhibit HCC cell viability, proliferation, migration and invasion. In contrast, WDR18 was found to be upregulated in primary HCC tissues and to act as an oncogene. Additional functional studies indicated that WDR18 can activate the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway and its downstream effectors in HCC cells. We also found that LINC00346, through competitive sponging of miR-542-3p, may enhance the expression of WDR18 and activate the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway in HCC cells. Finally, a positive feedback loop involving LINC00346, ß-catenin and MYC in HCC cells was uncovered. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate an oncogenic role of LINC00346 in HCC cells via a positive feedback loop involving LINC00346, ß-catenin and MYC, and they may be instrumental for the design of novel HCC biomarkers and/or therapeutic strategies.

15.
Theor Appl Genet ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691838

RESUMO

Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) caused by Cercospora canescens is an important disease of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). A previous study using an F2 population [CSR12906 (susceptible) × IT90K-59-120 (resistant)] identified a major QTL qCLS9.1 for resistance to CLS. In this study, we finely mapped and identified candidate genes of qCLS9.1 using an F3:4 population of 699 individuals derived from two F2:3 individuals segregating at qCLS9.1 from the original population. Fine mapping narrowed down the qCLS9.1 for the resistance to a 60.6-Kb region on cowpea chromosome 10. There were two annotated genes in the 60.6-Kb region; Vigun10g019300 coding for NAD-dependent malic enzyme 1 (NAD-ME1) and Vigun10g019400 coding for dynamin-related protein 1C (DRP1C). DNA sequence analysis revealed 12 and 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding sequence (CDS) and the 5' untranslated region and TATA boxes of Vigun10g019300 and Vigun10g019400, respectively. Three SNPs caused amino acid changes in NAD-ME1 in CSR12906, N299S, S488N and S544N. Protein prediction analysis suggested that S488N of CSR12906 may have a deleterious effect on the function of NAD-ME1. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that IT90K-59-120 and CSR12906 challenged with C. canescens showed different expression in both Vigun10g019300 and Vigun10g019400. Taken together, these results indicated that Vigun10g019300 and Vigun10g019400 are the candidate genes for CLS resistance in the cowpea IT90K-59-120. Two derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers were developed to detect the resistance alleles at Vigun10g019300 and Vigun10g019400 in IT90K-59-120.

16.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 13: 3625-3634, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695330

RESUMO

Purpose: The aim of this study is to assess the bioequivalence of a new generic formulation and the branded formulation of levocetirizine dihydrochloride in healthy Chinese volunteers under fasting and fed conditions, and food-intake effect on the pharmacokinetic properties is also evaluated. Patients and methods: Volunteers were randomly allocated into two groups to receive a single oral dose of generic formulation and branded formulation under fasting or fed conditions, respectively. Blood samples were collected at designated time points. Plasma concentrations of levocetirizine were determined by UFLC-MS/MS. Safety evaluations were carried out through the study. The main pharmacokinetic parameters of the two formulations of levocetirizine were calculated using non-compartmental analysis incorporated in WinNonlin® 7.0 software. Results: Forty-nine volunteers were enrolled; 46 completed the studies. Under fasting and fed conditions, the 90% confidence intervals for the geometric mean of generic/branded ratios were in the range of 94.75-107.24% and 99.98-114.69% for the maximum observed concentration, and 97.13-102.50% and 98.36-103.98% for the area under the concentration-time curve. As a result of food intake before administration, the reduced rate and extent of absorption of levocetirizine were observed. Both formulations were generally well tolerated, with no serious adverse reactions reported. Conclusion: The two formulations demonstrated essentially identical pharmacokinetic profiles and were all well within the FDA/CFDA bioequivalence standards. Meanwhile, food intake can delay the absorption rate and reduced the bioavailability of levocetirizine in healthy Chinese volunteers.

17.
Trends Genet ; 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753528

RESUMO

Epigenetic mechanisms play essential roles in determining distinct cell fates during the development of multicellular organisms. Histone proteins represent crucial epigenetic components that help specify cell identities. Previous work has demonstrated that during the asymmetric cell division of Drosophila male germline stem cells (GSCs), histones H3 and H4 are asymmetrically inherited, such that pre-existing (old) histones are segregated towards the self-renewing GSC whereas newly synthesized (new) histones are enriched towards the differentiating daughter cell. In order to further understand the molecular mechanisms underlying this striking phenomenon, two key questions must be answered: when and how old and new histones are differentially incorporated by sister chromatids, and how epigenetically distinct sister chromatids are specifically recognized and segregated. Here, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms and cellular bases underlying these fundamental and important biological processes responsible for generating two distinct cells through one cell division.

18.
Environ Pollut ; : 113581, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753641

RESUMO

Soil application of Zn fertilizer is an effective approach to improve yield and Zn accumulation in wheat grain. However, it remains unclear whether repeated Zn application can result in high accumulation of heavy metals (HMs) in soils and grains and thus represents a potential risk for human consumption. This study aimed to evaluate the health risk assessment of HMs in a wheat production system which had continuously received 8 years of Zn application at varying rates (0, 2.3, 5.7, 11.4, 22.7, 34.1 kg Zn ha-1). The results showed that Zn application significantly increased the soil total Zn concentration without affecting concentrations of As, Pb, Cd, Cu and Cr. Across Zn rates, Zn application increased grain concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd by 75%, 51% and 14%, respectively, and reduced grain As concentration by 14%. The human health risk assessment revealed that the threshold hazard quotients for the individual HM were below 1, independent of Zn rates. The hazard index (HI) values at Zn rates of 11.4, 22.7 and 34.1 kg Zn ha-1 were significantly greater than that at null Zn treatment. Furthermore, exposures to As, Cu and Zn accounted for 97% of HI at all Zn rates. Analysis of the threshold cancer risk with Pb and As showed that ingestion of wheat grain even from highest Zn application rate wouldn't bring the lifetime carcinogenic risk. In contrast, long-term Zn application significantly reduced the carcinogenic risk of As by 9.7-26.5%. In conclusion, repeated soil applications of Zn at optimal rate (5.7 kg Zn ha-1) didn't cause health risk for Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb, Cr, and As, while improving productivity and grain Zn concentration of wheat to meet human recruitment. Our study highlights the importance of appropriate Zn fertilizer management in improving grain quality while reducing HMs risks from human consumption.

19.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726132

RESUMO

Garlic polysaccharide-Fe(III) complex (FePS) was synthesized by co-thermal synthesis with garlic polysaccharide (PS) and ferric trichloride. The complex was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The scavenging activity of PS and FePS on hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anions and lipid peroxidation were studied. The scavenging hydroxyl radical activity of PS and FePS was similar, that was to say, FePS had not obvious raised compared with PS. The inhibitory effect on lipid peroxidation of FePS was lower than that of PS at low concentration. With the increase of concentration, the inhibitory effect of FePS increased rapidly and exceeded that of PS. The scavenging ability of FePS on superoxide anion radicals was obviously raised than that of PS, which showed a good synergistic effect.

20.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734360

RESUMO

Herein, positively surface-charged silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) capped with trimethylchitosan nitrate (TMCN) were synthesized using an environmentally friendly method. Nano-sized TMCN-AgNPs (∼80 nm) with high zeta potential (>30 mV) provide sufficient static repulsion to stabilize colloid AgNPs in aqueous solutions without aggregation for more than 3 months. In in vitro cell cycle assays, TMCN-AgNPs showed low cytotoxicity towards L929 cells. A microdilution inhibition assay demonstrated the antifungal potential of TMCN-AgNPs, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.06 mM against Candida tropicalis ATCC 750, and 0.46 mM against both Candida albicans ATCC 76615 and Candida glabrata ATCC 15545. Moreover, the addition of TMCN-AgNPs at 0.23 mM significantly reduced biofilm formation in 96-well plates with C. albicans and C. tropicalis. Importantly, when zebrafish eggs were infected with Candida cells, 0.23 mM TMCN-AgNPs greatly diminished the amount of biofilm on eggs and rescued the survival of embryos by up to 70%.

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