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1.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; : 109535, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582231

RESUMO

Mucosal immunity in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALTs) plays crucial roles in resisting infection by pathogens, including parasites, bacteria and viruses. However, the mucosal immune response in the MALTs of large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) upon parasitic infection remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of B cells and T cells in the MALTs of large yellow croaker following Cryptocaryon irritans infection. Upon C. irritans infection, the total IgM and IgT antibody levels were significantly increased in the skin mucus and gill mucus. Notably, parasite-specific IgM antibody level was increased in the serum, skin and gill mucus following parasitic infection, while the level of parasite-specific IgT antibody was exclusively increased in MALTs. Moreover, parasitic infection induced both local and systemic aggregation and proliferation of IgM+ B cells, suggesting that the increased levels of IgM in mucus may be derived from both systemic and mucosal immune tissues. In addition, we observed significant aggregation and proliferation of T cells in the gill, head kidney and spleen, suggesting that T cells may also be involved in the systemic and mucosal immune responses upon parasitic infection. Overall, our findings provided further insights into the role of immunoglobulins against pathogenic infection, and the simultaneous aggregation and proliferation of both B cells and T cells at mucosal surfaces suggested potential interactions between these two major lymphocyte populations during parasitic infection.

3.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2024 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38520371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Crop quality, yield and farmer income are reduced by soil-borne diseases, nematodes and weeds. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) is a plant-derived soil fumigant that provides effective control of them. However, its efficacy against soil-borne pathogens varies mainly because of its chemical instability and uneven distribution in soil. Formulation modification is an effective measure to optimize pesticide application. We encapsulated AITC into modified diatomite granules (GR) and measured the formulation's loading content and stability, environmental fate and efficacy against soil-borne pathogens, and impact on tomatoes' growth and yield. RESULTS: We observed that the AITC loading content in the granules of 27.6% resulted in a degradation half-life of GR that was 1.94 times longer than 20% AITC emulsifiable concentrate in water (EW) and shorter than AITC technical (TC) grade. The stable and more even distribution of GR in soil produced relatively consistent and acceptable control of soil-borne pathogens. Soil containing AITC residues that remained 10 ~ 24 days after GR fumigation were not phytotoxic to cucumber seeds. GR significantly reduced soil-borne pest populations, and increased tomato growth and yield as AITC dosage increased. GR containing an AITC dose of 20 g m-2 effectively controlled pathogens in soil for about 7 months and improved tomato yield by 108%. CONCLUSION: Our research demonstrated the benefits of soil fumigation with loaded AITC over other formulations for effective pest control, improved tomato plant growth and fruit yield. Fumigant encapsulation appears to be a useful method to improve pest and disease control, environmental performance and fumigant commercial sustainability. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

4.
J Hazard Mater ; 469: 133916, 2024 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479137

RESUMO

Aflatoxins from the fungus Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) that contaminate stored peanuts is a major hazard to human health worldwide. Reducing A. flavus in soil can decrease the risk of aflatoxins in stored peanuts. In this experiment, we determined whether peanuts grown on soil fumigated with dazomet (DZ), metham sodium (MS), allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), chloropicrin (PIC) or dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) would reduce of the quantity of A. flavus and its toxin's presence. The results of bioassays and field tests showed that PIC was the most effective fumigant for preventing and controlling A. flavus, followed by MS. PIC and MS applied to the soil for 14 d resulted in LD50 values against A. flavus of 3.558 and 4.893 mg kg-1, respectively, leading to almost 100% and 98.82% effectiveness of A. flavus, respectively. Peanuts harvested from fumigated soil and then stored for 60 d resulted in undetectable levels of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) compared to unfumigated soil that contained 0.64 ug kg-1 of AFB1, which suggested that soil fumigation can reduce the probability of aflatoxin contamination during peanut storage and showed the potential to increase the safety of peanuts consumed by humans. Further research is planned to determine the practical value of our research in commercial practice.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1 , Aflatoxinas , Humanos , Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Aflatoxina B1/análise , Arachis , Solo , Desinfecção , Aspergillus flavus , Aflatoxinas/toxicidade , Aflatoxinas/análise
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38432104

RESUMO

Methylosome protein 50 (Mep50) functions as a partner to protein arginine methyltransferase 5. MEP50 serves as a coactivator for both the androgen receptor and estrogen receptor in humans. Mep50 plays a crucial role in the development of germ cells in Drosophila. The precise role of Mep50 in oogenesis remains unclear in vertebrates. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of Mep50 in oogenesis in medaka fish. Disruption of Mep50 resulted in impaired oogenesis and the formation of multiple oocyte follicles in medaka. RNA-seq analysis revealed significant differential gene expression in the mutant ovary, with 4542 genes up-regulated and 1264 genes down-regulated. The regulated genes were found to be enriched in cellular matrices and ECM-receptor interaction, the Notch signaling pathway, the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, the MAPK signaling pathway, the Hippo signaling pathway, and the Jak-Stat pathway, among others. In addition, the genes related to the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis, steroid metabolism, and IGF system were impacted. Furthermore, the mutation of mep50 caused significant alterations in alternative splicing of pre-mRNA in ovarian cells. Quantitative RT-PCR results validated the findings from RNA-seq analysis in the specific genes, including akt2, map3k5, yap1, fshr, cyp17a, igf1, ythdc2, cdk6, and col1, among others. The findings of this study demonstrate that Mep50 plays a crucial role in oogenesis, participating in a diverse range of biological processes such as steroid metabolism, cell matrix regulation, and signal pathways. This may be achieved through the regulation of gene expression via mRNA splicing in medaka ovarian cells.

6.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 12: 1313610, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38481526

RESUMO

Background: Patients with Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) face a poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. Current data on eribulin usage to treat TNBC is scarce. Therefore, we sought to compare the feasibility and tolerability of eribulin-based regimens with other chemotherapy regimens in patients with TNBC. Method: This retrospective study was conducted at Fujian Medical University Cancer Hospital and included 159 patients with TNBC enrolled between October 2011 and January 2023. Patients underwent treatment with eribulin-based and other chemotherapy regimens. The study's primary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), while its secondary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), and safety. Tumour response was assessed using RECIST V.1.1 criteria. Results: Of the 159 participants in the study, 42 individuals (26.4%) received treatment with eribulin, whereas 117 participants (73.6%) were administered alternative chemotherapy regimens, which included nab-paclitaxel-based therapy (n = 45) and platinum-based therapy (n = 51). The follow-up period for all patients ended on 31 December 2022, and the median follow-up time was 18.3 months (range:0.7-27.5). Following propensity score matching (PSM), eribulin-based treatment resulted in longer median progression-free survival compared to platinum-based (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.41, p = 0.006), nab-paclitaxel-based (hazard ratio = 0.36, p = 0.001) and other chemotherapy (HR = 0.39, p < 0.001). Also, eribulin induced a remarkable prolongation of the median overall survival duration in all three comparative groups. The group receiving eribulin treatment showed significantly reduced incidences of any grade of anaemia, peripheral neuropathy, nausea and vomiting, and hair loss compared to other chemotherapy groups. Conclusion: For the salvage treatment of advanced TNBC, treatment with eribulin produced longer median PFS and OS than other chemotherapy regimens, with a well-tolerated safety profile. Therefore, further investigation of eribulin-based treatment in larger randomized trials for patients with advanced TNBC is warranted.

8.
Exp Mol Med ; 56(2): 441-452, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38383581

RESUMO

Helicobacter pylori, particularly cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA)-positive strains, plays a key role in the progression of gastric cancer (GC). Ferroptosis, associated with lethal lipid peroxidation, has emerged to play an important role in malignant and infectious diseases, but the role of CagA in ferroptosis in cancer cells has not been determined. Here, we report that CagA confers GC cells sensitivity to ferroptosis both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, CagA promotes the synthesis of polyunsaturated ether phospholipids (PUFA-ePLs), which is mediated by increased expression of alkylglycerone phosphate synthase (AGPS) and 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 3 (AGPAT3), leading to susceptibility to ferroptosis. This susceptibility is mediated by activation of the MEK/ERK/SRF pathway. SRF is a crucial transcription factor that increases AGPS transcription by binding to the AGPS promoter region. Moreover, the results demonstrated that CagA-positive cells are more sensitive to apatinib than are CagA-negative cells, suggesting that detecting the H. pylori CagA status may aid patient stratification for treatment with apatinib.


Assuntos
Ferroptose , Helicobacter pylori , Neoplasias Gástricas , Humanos , Citotoxinas , Éteres Fosfolipídicos
9.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 16: 1335550, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38298610

RESUMO

Non-motor symptoms are prevalent among individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) and seriously affect patient quality of life, even more so than motor symptoms. In the past decade, an increasing number of studies have investigated non-motor symptoms in PD. The present study aimed to comprehensively analyze the global literature, trends, and hotspots of research investigating non-motor symptoms in PD through bibliometric methods. Studies addressing non-motor symptoms in the Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC), published between January 2013 and December 2022, were retrieved. Bibliometric methods, including the R package "Bibliometrix," VOS viewer, and CiteSpace software, were used to investigate and visualize parameters, including yearly publications, country/region, institution, and authors, to collate and quantify information. Analysis of keywords and co-cited references explored trends and hotspots. There was a significant increase in the number of publications addressing the non-motor symptoms of PD, with a total of 3,521 articles retrieved. The United States was ranked first in terms of publications (n = 763) and citations (n = 11,269), maintaining its leadership position among all countries. King's College London (United Kingdom) was the most active institution among all publications (n = 133) and K Ray Chaudhuri was the author with the most publications (n = 131). Parkinsonism & Related Disorders published the most articles, while Movement Disorders was the most cited journal. Reference explosions have shown that early diagnosis, biomarkers, novel magnetic resonance imaging techniques, and deep brain stimulation have become research "hotspots" in recent years. Keyword clustering revealed that alpha-synuclein is the largest cluster for PD. The keyword heatmap revealed that non-motor symptoms appeared most frequently (n = 1,104), followed by quality of life (n = 502), dementia (n = 403), and depression (n = 397). Results of the present study provide an objective, comprehensive, and systematic analysis of these publications, and identifies trends and "hot" developments in this field of research. This work will inform investigators worldwide to help them conduct further research and develop new therapies.

10.
Sci Total Environ ; 918: 170503, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301776

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) over-production and oxidative stress resulted from climate change and environmental pollution seriously endangered global fish populations and healthy development of marine aquaculture. Peroxiredoxins (Prxs), a highly conserved family of thiol-specific antioxidants, can mitigate ROS and protect cells from oxidative stress. We previously demonstrated that large yellow croaker PrxIV (LcPrxIV) could not only regulate the pro-inflammatory responses, but also scavenge ROS. However, the underlying mechanism how LcPrxIV regulated immune response and redox homeostasis remains unknown. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that play important roles in the regulation of various biological processes. In this study, mRNA and miRNA expression profiles from LYCK-pcDNA3.1 and LYCK-PrxIV cells, with or without oxidative stress stimulated by H2O2 were evaluated using high-throughput sequencing. A series of differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) and differentially expressed genes (DEGs), as well as DEM-DEG pairs were identified from each two-group comparison, respectively. GO and KEGG functional analyses indicated that most significant DEGs were associated with signaling pathways related to oxidative stress and immune response. Subsequent DEM-DEG interaction analysis revealed that miR-731 and miR-1388 may be involved in both redox regulation and immune response via synergistic effect with LcPrxIV. Interestingly, miR-731 could regulate the expression of different down-stream DEGs under different stimulations of LcPrxIV over-expression, H2O2, or both. Moreover, miR-731 could cause the DEG, γ-glutamyl hydrolase (GGH), to be expressed in opposite ways under different stimulations. On the other hand, the expression of miR-1388 could be negatively or positively regulated under the stimulation of LcPrxIV over-expression with or without oxidative stress, thus regulating gene expression of different mRNAs. Based on these results, we speculate that LcPrxIV may participate in immune response or redox regulation by regulating the expression of different down-stream genes through controlling the expression level of a certain miRNA or by regulating the varieties of expressed miRNAs.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Perciformes , Animais , MicroRNAs/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Rim Cefálico/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Perciformes/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
11.
J Immunol ; 212(7): 1207-1220, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38345351

RESUMO

Teleost fish type I IFNs and the associated receptors from the cytokine receptor family B (CRFB) are characterized by remarkable diversity and complexity. How the fish type I IFNs bind to their receptors is still not fully understood. In this study, we demonstrate that CRFB1 and CRFB5 constitute the receptor pair through which type I subgroup d IFN (IFNd) from large yellow croaker, Larimichthys crocea, activates the conserved JAK-STAT signaling pathway as a part of the antiviral response. Our data suggest that L. crocea IFNd (LcIFNd) has a higher binding affinity with L. crocea CRFB5 (LcCRFB5) than with LcCRFB1. Furthermore, we report the crystal structure of LcIFNd at a 1.49-Å resolution and construct structural models of LcIFNd in binary complexes with predicted structures of extracellular regions of LcCRFB1 and LcCRFB5, respectively. Despite striking similarities in overall architectures of LcIFNd and its ortholog human IFN-ω, the receptor binding patterns between LcIFNd and its receptors show that teleost and mammalian type I IFNs may have differentially selected helices that bind to their homologous receptors. Correspondingly, key residues mediating binding of LcIFNd to LcCRFB1 and LcCRFB5 are largely distinct from the receptor-interacting residues in other fish and mammalian type I IFNs. Our findings reveal a ligand/receptor complex binding mechanism of IFNd in teleost fish, thus providing new insights into the function and evolution of type I IFNs.


Assuntos
Interferon Tipo I , Perciformes , Animais , Humanos , Filogenia , Peixes/metabolismo , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Mamíferos/metabolismo
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(6): e2300644120, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306481

RESUMO

It is unclear how severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection leads to the strong but ineffective inflammatory response that characterizes severe Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with amplified immune activation in diverse cell types, including cells without angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors necessary for infection. Proteolytic degradation of SARS-CoV-2 virions is a milestone in host viral clearance, but the impact of remnant viral peptide fragments from high viral loads is not known. Here, we examine the inflammatory capacity of fragmented viral components from the perspective of supramolecular self-organization in the infected host environment. Interestingly, a machine learning analysis to SARS-CoV-2 proteome reveals sequence motifs that mimic host antimicrobial peptides (xenoAMPs), especially highly cationic human cathelicidin LL-37 capable of augmenting inflammation. Such xenoAMPs are strongly enriched in SARS-CoV-2 relative to low-pathogenicity coronaviruses. Moreover, xenoAMPs from SARS-CoV-2 but not low-pathogenicity homologs assemble double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into nanocrystalline complexes with lattice constants commensurate with the steric size of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-3 and therefore capable of multivalent binding. Such complexes amplify cytokine secretion in diverse uninfected cell types in culture (epithelial cells, endothelial cells, keratinocytes, monocytes, and macrophages), similar to cathelicidin's role in rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. The induced transcriptome matches well with the global gene expression pattern in COVID-19, despite using <0.3% of the viral proteome. Delivery of these complexes to uninfected mice boosts plasma interleukin-6 and CXCL1 levels as observed in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Células Endoteliais , Proteoma , Peptídeos
13.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 146: 109427, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38316347

RESUMO

Large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) farming dominates the marine aquaculture industry in China. However, the epidemic outbreaks of visceral white nodules disease (VWND), caused by bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas plecoglossicida, have emerged as a significant concern within the large yellow croaker industry. Although vaccination is considered to be an effective method for preventing and controlling P. plecoglossicida infection, there is currently no commercially available vaccine targeting this bacterium. In the present study, the outer membrane porin F (OprF) of P. plecoglossicida was characterized and revealed a high sequence similarity with that of other Pseudomonas species. The recombinant OprF protein (rOprF) produced in Escherichia coli was then evaluated for its immunogenicity and protective role against P. plecoglossicida in large yellow croaker. The rOprF was identified to have immunogenicity by Western blot using large yellow croaker anti-P. plecoglossicida sera. Additionally, the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIFA) provided evidence indicating the surface exposure of OprF in P. plecoglossicida. Fish vaccinated twice via intraperitoneal (IP) injection with the purified rOprF combined with commercial adjuvant ISA 763A VG exhibited a relative percent survival (RPS) of 70.60% after challenge with virulent P. plecoglossicida strain through immersion. The administration of rOprF resulted in a notable increase in specific serum antibody levels and serum lysozyme activity compared to the control groups. The immune-related genes in the spleen and head kidney of rOprF-vaccinated fish were remarkably upregulated compared with the PBS-vaccinated sham group after the P. plecoglossicida challenge. In summary, the findings of this study suggest that rOprF exhibits considerable potential in inducing a robust immune response, making it a viable candidate for vaccination against P. plecoglossicida infection in large yellow croaker.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes , Perciformes , Infecções por Pseudomonas , Animais , Infecções por Pseudomonas/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Pseudomonas/veterinária , Pseudomonas/genética , Baço , Proteínas de Peixes
14.
Gastroenterol Rep (Oxf) ; 12: goae001, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38390578

RESUMO

Background: Systemic chemotherapy for gastric cancer with peritoneal metastasis has limited clinical benefit; for those with intraoperative detection of occult peritoneal metastasis, cytoreductive surgery followed by hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is an alternative treatment. However, the feasibility and effects of this modality and criteria for selecting suitable groups remain unclear. This study aimed to explore the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic cytoreductive surgery (L-CRS) followed by HIPEC in gastric cancer with limited peritoneal metastasis, and this study also aimed to determine the optimized cut-off of the peritoneal cancer index. Methods: Between March 2017 and November 2019, patients diagnosed with gastric cancer peritoneal metastases by using laparoscopy and the Sugarbaker peritoneal cancer index of ≤12 were eligible for inclusion. All patients received L-CRS (including gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection) and resection of visible peritoneal metastasis, followed by post-operative HIPEC, and systemic chemotherapy. The primary end points were median progression-free survival and median survival time, and the secondary outcomes were morbidity and mortality within 30 days after surgery. Results: Thirty patients were eligible for analysis, of whom 19 (63.3%) were female, and the overall mean age was 53.0 years. The post-operative morbidity was 20% and the severe complication rate was 10%. The median survival time was 27.0 months with a 2-year overall survival rate of 52.3% and median progression-free survival was 14.0 months with a 2-year progression-free survival of 30.4%. Conclusions: L-CRS followed by HIPEC can be safely performed for gastric cancer with limited peritoneal metastasis and potential survival benefits.

15.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1363426, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38404580

RESUMO

In mammals, the transcription factor Pax5 is a key regulator of B cell development and maturation and specifically expressed in naive/mature B cells but repressed upon B cell activation. Despite the long-standing proposal that Pax5 repression is essential for proper B cell activation, the underlying mechanisms remain largely elusive. In this study, we used a teleost model to elucidate the mechanisms governing Pax5 repression during B cell activation. Treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) significantly enhanced the antibody secreting ability and phagocytic capacity of IgM+ B cells in large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea), coinciding with upregulated expression of activation-related genes, such as Bcl6, Blimp1, and sIgM, and downregulated expression of Pax5. Intriguingly, two CpG islands were identified within the promoter region of Pax5. Both CpG islands exhibited hypomethylation in naive/mature B cells, while CpG island1 was specifically transited into hypermethylation upon B cell activation. Furthermore, treatment with DNA methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (AZA) prevented the hypermethylation of CpG island1, and concomitantly impaired the downregulation of Pax5 and activation of B cells. Finally, through in vitro methylation experiments, we demonstrated that DNA methylation exerts an inhibitory effect on promoter activities of Pax5. Taken together, our findings unveil a novel mechanism underlying Pax5 repression during B cell activation, thus promoting the understanding of B cell activation process.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Fator de Transcrição PAX5 , Animais , Fator de Transcrição PAX5/genética , Fator de Transcrição PAX5/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Ilhas de CpG , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Mamíferos/metabolismo
16.
BMC Cancer ; 24(1): 39, 2024 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38182995

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This investigation sought to examine the efficacy and safety of low-dose apatinib used alongside chemotherapy in the clinical management of patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) within a real-world setting, whilst comparing the outcomes with those treated solely with chemotherapy. METHODS: This case series study analyzed clinical data and treatment outcomes of 163 patients with metastatic TNBC who underwent rescue treatment at the Medical Oncology Department of Clinical Oncology, Fujian Cancer Hospital, School of Fujian Medical University, China, between October 2011 and January 2023. All the patients underwent rescue treatment with either chemotherapy alone or apatinib (250 mg/day) combined with chemotherapy. The study's primary outcome was progression-free survival (PFS), whereas the secondary outcomes included overall survival (OS), objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), and safety profiles. RESULTS: The study was designed to compare two groups [1]. Out of the 163 TNBC patients who participated in the study, 107 individuals (65.6%) received treatment based on chemotherapy, whereas 56 patients (34.4%) were given treatment based on a combination of low-dose apatinib (250 mg/day) and other treatments, including chemotherapy. After propensity score matching (PSM), the objective response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR) of patients with advanced triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) who received apatinib-based treatment were 50.0 and 90.0%, respectively, while they were 6.7 and 20.0%, respectively, for the chemotherapy-based group (P < 0.001). The group that received apatinib-based treatment showed superior results in both PFS and OS compared to the group that received chemotherapy. The median PFS and OS for the apatinib-based group were 7.8 and 20.3 months, respectively, while they were only 2.2 months and 9.0 months, respectively, for the chemotherapy-based group (P < 0.001) [2]. Patients who were administered combo therapies, including PD-1 inhibitors, were excluded. In total, 97 patients received chemotherapy alone, while 34 patients were treated with apatinib in combination with chemotherapy. After propensity score matching (PSM), the ORR and DCR for the total group who received combo therapies were 44.4 and 81.5%, respectively, while they were 11.1 and 22.2%, respectively, for the chemotherapy alone group (P < 0.001). The group receiving both apatinib and chemotherapy displayed notable advantages over the group solely receiving chemotherapy in regards to PFS and OS for the entirety of the population. The PFS was found to be 7.8 months in comparison to 2.1 months (P < 0.001) and the OS was 21.1 months in contrast to 9.0 months (P < 0.001). Apatinib combined with chemotherapy induced grade 3/4 hematological toxicities, including neutropenia (8.8%) and thrombocytopenia (2.9%). Additionally, non-hematological toxicities were commonly observed, such as Hand-foot syndrome (35.3%), proteinuria (26.5%), hypertension (61.8%), higher alanine aminotransferase levels (26.5%), and fatigue (35.3%). The most frequent non-hematological grade 3/4 toxicities were Hand-foot syndrome (2.9%) and hypertension (5.9%). The study did not report any fatal adverse effects. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of low-dose apatinib with chemotherapy has proven to be more effective than chemotherapy alone in treating metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Additionally, the occurrence of grade 3/4 non-hematologic toxicities was significantly lower compared to the recommended dose of apatinib.


Assuntos
Síndrome Mão-Pé , Hipertensão , Leucopenia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Humanos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Protocolos Clínicos
17.
BMC Cancer ; 24(1): 26, 2024 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38166756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epigenetic alterations contribute greatly to the development and progression of colorectal cancer, and effect of aberrant miR-622 expression is still controversial. This study aimed to discover miR-622 regulation in CRC proliferation. METHODS: miR-622 expression and prognosis were analyzed in clinical CRC samples from Nanfang Hospital. miR-622 regulation on cell cycle and tumor proliferation was discovered, and FOLR2 was screened as functional target of miR-622 using bioinformatics analysis, which was validated via dual luciferase assay and gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments both in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: miR-622 overexpression in CRC indicated unfavorable prognosis and it regulated cell cycle to promote tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo. FOLR2 is a specific, functional target of miR-622, which negatively correlates with signature genes in cell cycle process to promote CRC proliferation. CONCLUSIONS: miR-622 upregulates cell cycle process by targeting FOLR2 to promote CRC proliferation, proposing a novel mechanism and treatment target in CRC epigenetic regulation of miR-622.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias Colorretais , Receptor 2 de Folato , MicroRNAs , Humanos , Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Epigênese Genética , Receptor 2 de Folato/genética , Receptor 2 de Folato/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs/metabolismo
18.
Infect Dis Model ; 9(1): 195-203, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38293688

RESUMO

Background: China has experienced a COVID-19 wave caused by Omicron XBB variant starting in April 2023. Our aim is to conduct a retrospective analysis exploring the dynamics of the outbreak under counterfactual scenarios that combine the use of vaccines, antiviral drugs, and nonpharmaceutical interventions. Methods: We developed a mathematical model of XBB transmission in China, which has been calibrated using SARS-CoV-2 positive rates per week. Intrinsic age-specific infection-hospitalization risk, infection-ICU risk, and infection-fatality risk were used to estimate disease burdens, characterized as number of hospital admissions, ICU admissions, and deaths. Results: We estimated that in absence of behavioral change, the XBB outbreak in spring 2023 would have resulted in 0.86 billion infections (∼61% of the total population). Our counterfactual analysis shows that the synergetic effect of vaccination (70% vaccination coverage), antiviral treatment (20% receiving antiviral treatment), and moderate nonpharmaceutical interventions (20% isolation and L1 PHSMs) could reduce the number of deaths to levels close to seasonal influenza (1.17 vs. 0.65 per 10,000 individuals and 5.85 vs. 3.85 per 10,000 individuals aged 60+, respectively). The maximum peak prevalence of hospital and ICU admissions are estimated to be lower than the corresponding capacities (8.6 vs. 10.4 per 10,000 individuals and 1.2 vs. 2.1 per 10,000 individuals, respectively). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the capacity of the Chinese healthcare system was adequate to face the Omicron XBB wave in spring 2023 but, at the same time, supports the importance of administering highly effective vaccine with long-lasting immune response, and the use of antiviral treatments.

19.
Environ Res ; 241: 117602, 2024 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37951379

RESUMO

Abyssal and hadal sediments represent two of the most type ecosystems on Earth and have the potential interactions with geochemistry. However, little is known about the prokaryotic community assembly and the response of prokaryotic communities to metal(loid)s in trench sediments due to the lack of adequate and appropriate samples. In this study, a systematic investigation combined the assembly mechanisms and co-occurrence patterns of prokaryotic communities between the hadal and abyssal sediments across the Yap Trench. The results revealed that the hadal prokaryotes had less species diversity, but more abundant function than the abyssal prokaryotes. The prokaryotic communities in the abyssal sediments had more core taxa than the hadal sediments. Twenty-one biomarkers mostly affiliated with Nitrosopumilaceae were detected using Random-Forests machine learning algorithm. Furthermore, stochasticity was dominant in the prokaryotic community assembly processes of the Yap Trench sediments. Meanwhile, homogeneous selection (32.6%-52.9%) belonging to deterministic processes governed the prokaryotic community assembly in hadal sediments with increasing of sediment depth. In addition to total nitrogen and total organic carbon, more metal(loid)s were significantly correlated with the prokaryotic community in the hadal sediments than that in the abyssal sediments. The hadal prokaryotic communities was most positively related to bismuth (r = 0.31, p < 0.01), followed by calcium, chromium, cerium, potassium, plumbum, scandium, titanium, and vanadium. Finally, co-occurrence networks revealed two potential dominant prokaryotic modules in Yap Trench sediments covaried across oceanographic zonation. By contrast, the hadal network had relatively more complexity, more bacterial taxa, and more associations among prokaryotic taxa, relative to the abyssal network. This study reveals potentially metal variables and community assembly mechanisms of the prokaryotic community in abyssal and hadal sediments and provides a better understanding on the prokaryotic diversity and ecology in trench sediment ecosystems.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Ecossistema , Archaea , Ecologia , Cromo , Sedimentos Geológicos
20.
Environ Pollut ; 343: 123129, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38092337

RESUMO

The unprecedented proliferation of disposable face masks during the COVID-19 pandemic, coupled with their improper disposal, threatens to exacerbate the already concerning issue of plastic pollution. This study evaluates the role of environmentally weathered masks as potential sources of microplastics (MPs) and nanoplastics (NPs) and assesses their adverse impact on the early life stages of zebrafish. Experimental findings revealed that a single disposable mask could release approximately 1.79 × 109 particles, with nearly 70% measuring less than 1 µm, following 60 days of sunlight exposure and subsequent sand-induced physical abrasion. Remarkably, the MPs/NPs (MNPs) emanating from face masks have the potential to permeate the outer layer (chorion) of zebrafish embryos. Furthermore, due to their minute size, these particles can be consumed by the larvae's digestive system and subsequently circulated to other tissues, including the brain. Exposure to mask-derived MNPs at concentrations of 1 and 10 µg/L led to significant cases of developmental toxicity, incited oxidative stress, and prompted cell apoptosis. A subsequent metabolomics analysis indicated that the accumulation of these plastic particles perturbed metabolic functions in zebrafish larvae, primarily disrupting amino acid and lipid metabolism. The outcomes of this research underscore the accelerating possibility of environmental aging processes and physical abrasion in the release of MNPs from disposable face masks. Most importantly, these results shed light on the possible ecotoxicological risk posed by improperly disposed of face masks.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Animais , Peixe-Zebra , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Máscaras , Pandemias , Plásticos
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