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1.
Infect Immun ; : e0011324, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38624215

RESUMO

Malaria, one of the major infectious diseases in the world, is caused by the Plasmodium parasite. Plasmodium antigens could modulate the inflammatory response by binding to macrophage membrane receptors. As an export protein on the infected erythrocyte membrane, Plasmodium surface-related antigen (SRA) participates in the erythrocyte invasion and regulates the immune response of the host. This study found that the F2 segment of P. yoelii SRA activated downstream MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways by binding to CD68 on the surface of the macrophage membrane and regulating the inflammatory response. The anti-PySRA-F2 antibody can protect mice against P. yoelii, and the pro-inflammatory responses such as IL-1ß, TNF-α, and IL-6 after infection with P. yoelii are attenuated. These findings will be helpful for understanding the involvement of the pathogenic mechanism of malaria with the exported protein SRA.

2.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1298471, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38633263

RESUMO

Introduction: In light of the public health burden of the COVID-19 pandemic, boosting the safety and immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccines is of great concern. Numerous Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparations have shown to beneficially modulate immunity. Based on pilot experiments in mice that showed that supplementation with Huoxiang Suling Shuanghua Decoction (HSSD) significantly enhances serum anti-RBD IgG titers after inoculation with recombinant SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD protein, we conducted this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial aimed to evaluate the potential immunogenicity boosting effect of oral HSSD after a third homologous immunization with Sinovac's CoronaVac SARS-CoV-2 (CVS) inactivated vaccine. Methods: A total of 70 participants were randomly assigned (1:1 ratio) to receive a third dose of CVS vaccination and either oral placebo or oral HSSD for 7 days. Safety aspects were assessed by recording local and systemic adverse events, and by blood and urine biochemistry and liver and kidney function tests. Main outcomes evaluated included serum anti-RBD IgG titer, T lymphocyte subsets, serum IgG and IgM levels, complement components (C3 and C4), and serum cytokines (IL-6 and IFN-γ). In addition, metabolomics technology was used to analyze differential metabolite expression after supplementation with HSSD. Results: Following a third CVS vaccination, significantly increased serum anti-RBD IgG titer, reduced serum IL-6 levels, increased serum IgG, IgM, and C3 and C4 levels, and improved cellular immunity, evidenced by reduce balance deviations in the distribution of lymphocyte subsets, was observed in the HSSD group compared with the placebo group. No serious adverse events were recorded in either group. Serum metabolomics results suggested that the mechanisms by which HSSD boosted the immunogenicity of the CVS vaccine are related to differential regulation of purine metabolism, vitamin B6 metabolism, folate biosynthesis, arginine and proline metabolism, and steroid hormone biosynthesis. Conclusion: Oral HSSD boosts the immunogenicity of the CVS vaccine in young and adult individuals. This trial provides clinical reference for evaluation of TCM immunomodulators to improve the immune response to COVID-19 vaccines.

3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 329: 118129, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582151

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Shenlingbaizhu (SLBZ) formula, a classical traditional Chinese medicinal (TCM) formula, has been widely used for treating antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). However, the underlying pharmacological mechanisms have not yet been investigated thoroughly. AIM OF THE STUDY: To explore the remission mechanism of SLBZ in the treatment of AAD, we conducted network pharmacological analysis and experimental validation in vitro and in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, the main compounds of SLBZ were identified by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (UHPLC-MS) and online databases. The targets of the active components and AAD-related targets were predicted by network pharmacology, and the potential targets of SLBZ against AAD were obtained. Then the core targets were recognized after Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) analysis. Based on these, gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) signaling pathway analyses were conducted, and the key pathway was screened. Subsequently, molecular docking was performed using Auto Dock Vina to find the key components that played a crucial role in that pathway. Molecular dynamics simulation was performed by Gromacs software to detect the binding mode. Finally, the results were confirmed by in vitro and in vivo experiments. RESULTS: A total of 66 active ingredients of SLBZ were detected by UHPLC-MS, and 128 active ingredients were screened out by network pharmacological analysis. Additionally, 935 drug targets and 1686 AAD-related targets were obtained. Seventy-eight intersected genes were selected as potential therapeutic targets and 19 genes were excavated as core targets. Enrichment analysis revealed PI3K-AKT signaling pathway was the key pathway in SLBZ against AAD. Topological analysis further revealed that JAK2, MTOR, TLR4, and SYK were the key targets affected by SLBZ on the PI3K-AKT pathway, and 52 components of SLBZ were associated with them. Molecular docking and dynamics simulation revealed strong binding affinities between MTOR and diosgenin. Subsequently, after SLBZ treatment, the expression levels of JAK2, MTOR, TLR4, and SYK were found significantly upregulated in the AAD model rats (p < 0.05). The cell experiment further validated the good binding ability between MTOR and diosgenin. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that the therapeutic effect of SLBZ on AAD was achieved in part by inhibiting the PI3K-AKT pathway.

5.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 45(5): 2891-2904, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38629551

RESUMO

The increasing use of nitrogen fertilizers exerts extreme pressure on the environment (e.g., greenhouse gas emissions, GHGs) for winter wheat-summer maize rotation systems in the North China Plain. The application of controlled-release fertilizers is considered as an effective measure to improve crop yield and nitrogen fertilizer utilization efficiency. To explore the impact of one-time fertilization of controlled-release blended fertilizer on crop yield and GHGs of a wheat-maize rotation system, field experiments were carried out in Dezhou Modern Agricultural Science and Technology Park from 2020 to 2022. Five treatments were established for both winter wheat and summer maize, including no nitrogen control (CK), farmers' conventional nitrogen application (FFP), optimized nitrogen application (OPT), CRU1 (the blending ratio of coated urea and traditional urea on winter wheat and summer maize was 5:5 and 3:7, respectively), and CRU2 (the blending ratio of coated urea and traditional urea on winter wheat and summer maize was 7:3 and 5:5, respectively). The differences in yield, nitrogen fertilizer utilization efficiency, fertilization economic benefits, and GHGs among different treatments were compared and analyzed. The results showed that nitrogen application significantly increased the single season and annual crop yields of the wheat-maize rotation system (P < 0.05). Compared with those of FFP, the CRU1 and CRU2 treatments increased the yields of summer maize by 0.4% to 5.6%, winter wheat by -5.4% to 4.1%, and annual yields by -1.1% to 3.9% (P > 0.05). N recovery efficiency (NRE), N agronomic efficiency (NAE), and N partial factor productivity (NPFP) were increased by -8.6%-43.4%, 2.05-6.24 kg·kg-1, and 4.24-10.13 kg·kg-1, respectively. Annual net income increased by 0.2% to 6.3%. Nitrogen application significantly increased the annual emissions of soil N2O and CO2 in the rotation system (P < 0.05) but had no effect on the annual emissions of CH4 (except for in the FFP treatment in the first year). The annual total N2O emissions under the CRU1 and CRU2 treatments were significantly reduced by 23.4% to 30.2% compared to those under the FFP treatment (P < 0.05). Additionally, nitrogen application significantly increased the annual global warming potential (GWP) of the rotation system (P < 0.05), but the intensity of greenhouse gas emissions was reduced due to the increase in crop yields. Compared with that under FFP, the annual GWP under the CRU1 and CRU2 treatments decreased by 9.6% to 11.5% (P < 0.05), and the annual GHGs decreased by 11.2% to 13.8% (P > 0.05). In summary, the one-time application of controlled-release blended fertilizer had a positive role in improving crop yield and economic benefits, reducing nitrogen fertilizer input and labor costs, and GHGs, which is an effective nitrogen fertilizer management measure to promote cleaner production of food crops in the North China Plain.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Fertilizantes , Triticum , Zea mays , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Agricultura/métodos , Solo , China , Nitrogênio , Ureia
6.
J Phys Chem A ; 128(15): 3007-3014, 2024 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581407

RESUMO

Carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorption is a critical step to curbing carbon emissions from fossil fuel combustion. Among various options, transition metal oxides have received extensive attention as promising CO2 adsorbents due to their affordability and sustainability for large-scale use. Here, the nature of binding interactions between CO2 molecules and cationic scandium oxides of different sizes, i.e., ScO+, Sc2O2+, and Sc3O4+, is investigated by mass-selective infrared photodissociation spectroscopy combined with quantum chemical calculations. The well-accepted electrostatic considerations failed to provide explanations for the trend in the binding strengths and variations in the binding orientations between CO2 and metal sites of cationic scandium oxides. The importance of orbital interactions in the driving forces for CO2 adsorption on cationic scandium oxides was revealed by energy decomposition analyses. A molecular surface property, known as the local electron attachment energy, is introduced to elucidate the binding affinity and orientation-specific reactivity of cationic scandium oxides upon the CO2 attachment. This study not only reveals the governing factor in the binding behaviors of CO2 adsorption on cationic scandium oxides but also serves as an archetype for predicting and rationalizing favorable binding sites and orientations in extended surface-adsorbate systems.

7.
AMB Express ; 14(1): 37, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622373

RESUMO

This research aimed to investigate effects of different yeast culture (YC) levels on in vitro fermentation characteristics and bacterial and fungal community under high concentrate diet. A total of 5 groups were included in the experiment: control group without YC (CON), YC1 (0.5% YC proportion of substrate dry matter), YC2 (1%), YC3 (1.5%) and YC4 (2%). After 48 h of fermentation, the incubation fluids and residues were collected to analyze the ruminal fermentation parameters and bacterial and fungal community. Results showed that the ruminal fluid pH of YC2 and YC4 groups was higher (P < 0.05) than that of CON group. Compared with CON group, the microbial protein, propionate and butyrate concentrations and cumulative gas production at 48 h of YC2 group were significantly increased (P < 0.05), whereas an opposite trend of ammonia nitrogen and lactate was observed between two groups. Microbial analysis showed that the Chao1 and Shannon indexes of YC2 group were higher (P < 0.05) than those of CON group. Additionally, YC supplementation significantly decreased (P < 0.05) Succinivibrionaceae_UCG-001, Streptococcus bovis and Neosetophoma relative abundances. An opposite tendency of Aspergillus abundance was found between CON and YC treatments. Compared with CON group, the relative abundances of Prevotella, Succiniclasticum, Butyrivibrio and Megasphaera elsdenii were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in YC2 group, while Apiotrichum and unclassified Clostridiales relative abundances were decreased (P < 0.05). In conclusion, high concentrate substrate supplemented with appropriate YC (1%) can improve ruminal fermentation and regulate bacterial and fungal composition.

8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(17): e2322332121, 2024 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38625948

RESUMO

Apolipoprotein AV (APOA5) lowers plasma triglyceride (TG) levels by binding to the angiopoietin-like protein 3/8 complex (ANGPTL3/8) and suppressing its capacity to inhibit lipoprotein lipase (LPL) catalytic activity and its ability to detach LPL from binding sites within capillaries. However, the sequences in APOA5 that are required for suppressing ANGPTL3/8 activity have never been defined. A clue to the identity of those sequences was the presence of severe hypertriglyceridemia in two patients harboring an APOA5 mutation that truncates APOA5 by 35 residues ("APOA5Δ35"). We found that wild-type (WT) human APOA5, but not APOA5Δ35, suppressed ANGPTL3/8's ability to inhibit LPL catalytic activity. To pursue that finding, we prepared a mutant mouse APOA5 protein lacking 40 C-terminal amino acids ("APOA5Δ40"). Mouse WT-APOA5, but not APOA5Δ40, suppressed ANGPTL3/8's capacity to inhibit LPL catalytic activity and sharply reduced plasma TG levels in mice. WT-APOA5, but not APOA5Δ40, increased intracapillary LPL levels and reduced plasma TG levels in Apoa5-/- mice (where TG levels are high and intravascular LPL levels are low). Also, WT-APOA5, but not APOA5Δ40, blocked the ability of ANGPTL3/8 to detach LPL from cultured cells. Finally, an antibody against a synthetic peptide corresponding to the last 26 amino acids of mouse APOA5 reduced intracapillary LPL levels and increased plasma TG levels in WT mice. We conclude that C-terminal sequences in APOA5 are crucial for suppressing ANGPTL3/8 activity in vitro and for regulating intracapillary LPL levels and plasma TG levels in vivo.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas , Lipase Lipoproteica , Camundongos , Humanos , Animais , Proteínas Semelhantes a Angiopoietina/genética , Proteínas Semelhantes a Angiopoietina/metabolismo , Lipase Lipoproteica/metabolismo , Proteína 3 Semelhante a Angiopoietina , Aminoácidos , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Apolipoproteína A-V/genética
9.
Plants (Basel) ; 13(6)2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592885

RESUMO

The characterization of the PYL/RCAR ABA receptors in a great deal of plant species has dramatically advanced the study of ABA functions involved in key physiological processes. However, the genes in this family are still unclear in Lycium (Goji) plants, one of the well-known economically, medicinally, and ecologically valuable fruit crops. In the present work, 12 homologs of Arabidopsis PYL/RCAR ABA receptors were first identified and characterized from Lycium (L.) barbarum (LbPYLs). The quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that these genes had clear tissue-specific expression patterns, and most of them were transcribed in the root with the largest amount. Among the three subfamilies, while the Group I and Group III members were down-regulated by extraneous ABA, the Group II members were up-regulated. At 42 °C, most transcripts showed a rapid and violent up-regulation response to higher temperature, especially members of Group II. One of the genes in the Group II members, LbPYL10, was further functionally validated by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technology. LbPYL10 positively regulates heat stress tolerance in L. barbarum by alleviating chlorophyll degradation, thus maintaining chlorophyll stability. Integrating the endogenous ABA level increase following heat stress, it may be concluded that LbPYL-mediated ABA signaling plays a vital role in the thermotolerance of L. barbarum plants. Our results highlight the strong potential of LbPYL genes in breeding genetically modified L. barbarum crops that acclimate to climate change.

10.
Heliyon ; 10(7): e28553, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38596011

RESUMO

Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by progressive limb weakness, dysphagia, dysphonia, and respiratory failure due to degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons. The pathogenesis of ALS is still unclear. Neuroinflammation has been found to be involved in its development and progression. Cytokines play a significant role in the inflammatory process. This study aims to identify novel biomarkers that may assist in the diagnosis of ALS. Methods: In Fujian Medical University Union Hospital and Huashan Hospital Fudan University, two independent centers, we prospectively recruited 50 ALS patients, and 41 healthy controls (25 ALS and 26 controls in the first stage and 25 ALS and 15 controls in the validation stage). An 18-plex Luminex kit was used to screen the serum cytokines levels in the first stage. Commercial ELISA kits were used to measure the levels of target cytokines in the validation stage. A single-molecule array HD-X platform was applied to assess the levels of serum neurofilament light chain (NFL). Results: The levels of serum IL-18 were markedly increased in patients with ALS in the first stage (p = 0.016). The ROC curve showed an area under the curve at 0.695 (95% CI 0.50-0.84) in distinguishing ALS patients from healthy controls. The IL-21 was decreased in elderly patients when grouped by 55 years old (the medium age). Furthermore, the IL-5, IL-13, IL-18, and NFL had a positive relationship with the disease progression of ALS. We also found that serum IL-18 was markedly increased in ALS patients in the validation stage (167.67 [148.25-175.59] vs 116.44 [102.43-122.19]pg/ml, p < 0.0015). Conclusion: In this study, we identified systemic cytokine profile changes in the serum of ALS patients, especially the elevated IL-18, as well as the decreased IL-21 in elder patients. These changes in serum cytokine profiles may shed new light on an in-depth understanding of the immunopathogenic characteristics of ALS.

11.
Heliyon ; 10(7): e27979, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38596066

RESUMO

Background: The clinically meaningful cardiac troponin I (cTnI) threshold associated with the long-term prognosis in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is still debated. Objective: To assess the association between different thresholds for post-procedural cTnI and 5-year mortality. Methods: The study included 4059 consecutive patients with normal baseline cTnI values who underwent elective PCI. The post-procedural cTnI level was measured at 8-48 h after PCI. The main study endpoints were 5-year all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality. Results: A cTnI ≥5 times the upper reference limit (URL) as defined by the fourth universal definition of myocardial infarction (4th UDMI), ≥35 times as defined by the Academic Research Consortium-2 criteria, and ≥70 times as defined by the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI [2014]) was identified in 33%, 6.6%, and 3.3% of patients, respectively. During 5 years of follow-up, the all-cause mortality rate was 3.4% (n = 132) and the cardiovascular mortality rate was 2.0% (n = 77). Both all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality increased with higher peak cTnI, and were independently predicted by a cTnI ≥70 times the URL (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20-5.02 and adjusted HR 3.17, 95% CI 1.31-7.67, respectively; reference, cTnI <1 × URL]. The SCAI (2014) threshold was significantly associated with 5-year cardiovascular mortality (adjusted HR 2.66, 95% CI 1.20-5.89; reference, cTnI, <70 × URL) and all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 2.23, 95% CI 1.16-4.30; reference, cTnI <70 × URL). Conclusion: In patients with normal pre-procedural cTnI who underwent elective PCI, a post-procedural cTnI ≥70 times the URL independently predicted 5-year all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, only the SCAI (2014) post-procedural cTnI threshold was independently associated with long-term mortality.

12.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598500

RESUMO

The tight junction protein claudin-7 is essential for tight junction function and intestinal homeostasis. Cldn7 deletion in mice leads to an inflammatory bowel disease-like phenotype exhibiting severe intestinal epithelial damage, weight loss, inflammation, mucosal ulcerations, and epithelial hyperplasia. Claudin-7 has also been shown to be involved in cancer metastasis and invasion. Here, we test our hypothesis that claudin-7 plays an important role in regulating colonic intestinal stem cell function. Conditional knockout of Cldn7 in the colon led to impaired epithelial cell differentiation, hyperproliferative epithelium, a decrease in active stem cells, and dramatically altered gene expression profiles. In 3D colonoid culture, claudin-7-deficient crypts were unable to survive and form spheroids, emphasizing the importance of claudin-7 in stem cell survival. Inhibition of the Hippo pathway or activation of Notch signaling partially rescued the defective stem cell behavior. Concurrent Notch activation and Hippo inhibition resulted in restored colonoid survival, growth, and differentiation to the level comparable to those of wild-type derived crypts. In this study, we highlight the essential role of claudin-7 in regulating Notch and Hippo signaling-dependent colonic stem cell functions, including survival, self-renewal, and differentiation. These new findings may shed light on potential avenues to explore for drug development in colorectal cancer.

13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(16): e2318935121, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38588421

RESUMO

Glucose is required for generating heat during cold-induced nonshivering thermogenesis in adipose tissue, but the regulatory mechanism is largely unknown. CREBZF has emerged as a critical mechanism for metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD), formerly known as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We investigated the roles of CREBZF in the control of thermogenesis and energy metabolism. Glucose induces CREBZF in human white adipose tissue (WAT) and inguinal WAT (iWAT) in mice. Lys208 acetylation modulated by transacetylase CREB-binding protein/p300 and deacetylase HDAC3 is required for glucose-induced reduction of proteasomal degradation and augmentation of protein stability of CREBZF. Glucose induces rectal temperature and thermogenesis in white adipose of control mice, which is further potentiated in adipose-specific CREBZF knockout (CREBZF FKO) mice. During cold exposure, CREBZF FKO mice display enhanced thermogenic gene expression, browning of iWAT, and adaptive thermogenesis. CREBZF associates with PGC-1α to repress thermogenic gene expression. Expression levels of CREBZF are negatively correlated with UCP1 in human adipose tissues and increased in WAT of obese ob/ob mice, which may underscore the potential role of CREBZF in the development of compromised thermogenic capability under hyperglycemic conditions. Our results reveal an important mechanism of glucose sensing and thermogenic inactivation through reversible acetylation.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom , Glucose , Camundongos , Humanos , Animais , Glucose/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Acetilação , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Termogênese/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo
14.
Am J Cancer Res ; 14(3): 1139-1156, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38590399

RESUMO

Glioma, the most common primary malignant brain tumor, is characterized by infiltrating immune cells that contribute to tumor progression and therapeutic resistance. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) constitute a significant proportion of these infiltrating immune cells and have been implicated in glioma progression. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which TAMs promote glioma progression remain elusive. In this study, we investigated the role of PU.1, a crucial transcription factor involved in myeloid cell development, in glioma-associated macrophage polarization and activation. First, bioinformatics and analysis of clinical glioma samples demonstrated a positive correlation between PU.1 expression in TAMs and disease severity. Further experiments using in vitro coculture systems revealed that the expression of PU.1 is increased in glioma cells vs. control cells. Importantly, PU.1-overexpressing macrophages exhibited a protumorigenic phenotype characterized by enhanced migration, invasion, and proliferation. Mechanistically, we found that PU.1-induced activation of the Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) signaling pathway led to Akt/mTOR pathway activation in macrophages, which further enhanced their protumorigenic functions. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of the BTK or Akt/mTOR pathway reversed the protumorigenic effects of macrophages in vitro and impaired their ability to promote glioma progression in vivo. In conclusion, our study elucidates a novel mechanism by which PU.1 induces the polarization and activation of TAMs in the glioma microenvironment. We highlight the significance of BTK-mediated Akt/mTOR pathway activation in driving the protumorigenic functions of TAMs. Targeting PU.1 and its downstream signaling pathways in TAMs may provide a promising therapeutic strategy to suppress glioma progression and improve patient outcomes.

15.
COPD ; 21(1): 2322605, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38591165

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic respiratory condition characterized by persistent inflammation and oxidative stress, which ultimately leads to progressive restriction of airflow. Extensive research findings have cogently suggested that the dysregulation of essential transition metal ions, notably iron, copper, and zinc, stands as a critical nexus in the perpetuation of inflammatory processes and oxidative damage within the lungs of COPD patients. Unraveling the intricate interplay between metal homeostasis, oxidative stress, and inflammatory signaling is of paramount importance in unraveling the intricacies of COPD pathogenesis. This comprehensive review aims to examine the current literature on the sources, regulation, and mechanisms by which metal dyshomeostasis contributes to COPD progression. We specifically focus on iron, copper, and zinc, given their well-characterized roles in orchestrating cytokine production, immune cell function, antioxidant depletion, and matrix remodeling. Despite the limited number of clinical trials investigating metal modulation in COPD, the advent of emerging methodologies tailored to monitor metal fluxes and gauge responses to chelation and supplementation hold great promise in unlocking the potential of metal-based interventions. We conclude that targeted restoration of metal homeostasis represents a promising frontier for ameliorating pathological processes driving COPD progression.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Humanos , Cobre/uso terapêutico , Pulmão , Estresse Oxidativo , Ferro/uso terapêutico , Zinco/uso terapêutico
16.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 315: 124246, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593540

RESUMO

We created four fluorescent sensors in our work to determine the viscosity of mitochondria. Following screening, the probe Mito-3 was chosen because in contrast to the other three probes, it had a greater fluorescence enhancement, large Stokes shift (113 nm) and had a particular response to viscosity that was unaffected by polarity or biological species. As the viscosity increased from PBS to 90 % glycerol, the fluorescence intensity of probe at 586 nm increased 17-fold. Mito-3 has strong biocompatibility and is able to track changes in cell viscosity in response to nystatin and monensin stimulation. Furthermore, the probe has been successfully applied to detect changes in viscosity caused by nystatin and monensin in zebrafish. Above all, the probe can be applied to the increase in mitochondrial viscosity that accompanies the ferroptosis process. Mito-3 has the potential to help further study the relationship between viscosity and ferroptosis.

17.
Dalton Trans ; 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38595157

RESUMO

A series of two-dimensional (2D) spin-crossover coordination polymers (SCO-CPs) [FeII(TPE)(NCX)2]·solv (1: X = BH3, solv = H2O·2CH3OH·DMF; 2: X = Se, solv = H2O·2CH3OH·0.5DMF; 3: X = S, solv = H2O·2CH3OH·0.5DMF) were synthesized by employing 1,1,2,2-tetra(pyridin-4-yl)ethene (TPE) and pseudohalide (NCX-) coligands. Magnetic measurements indicated that complexes 1-3 exhibited SCO behaviors with diminishing thermal hysteresis (7/4/0 K) upon decreasing the ligand-field strength. The critical temperatures (Tc) during spin transition were found to be inversely proportional to the coordination ability parameters (a™) with a linear correlation. The guest effect was also investigated in the solvent-exchanged phases 1-SE/2-SE/3-SE wherein the DMF molecules were replaced by methanol molecules. Compared with 1-3, 1-SE/2-SE/3-SE displayed more abrupt and complete single-step SCO behaviors but narrower thermal hysteretic loops. The results reported here demonstrate that the Tc values of these two families were dominated by the ligand-field strength of the NCX- anions (NCBH3 > NCSe > NCS), whereas the guest effect only modulated the kinetic factor of the SCO nature in this system.

19.
Nano Lett ; 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592087

RESUMO

Electroactive artificial muscles with deformability have attracted widespread interest in the field of soft robotics. However, the design of artificial muscles with low-driven voltage and operational durability remains challenging. Herein, novel biomass porous carbon (BPC) electrodes are proposed. The nanoporous BPC enables the electrode to provide exposed active surfaces for charge transfer and unimpeded channels for ion migration, thus decreasing the driving voltage, enhancing time durability, and maintaining the actuation performances simultaneously. The proposed actuator exhibits a high displacement of 13.6 mm (bending strain of 0.54%) under 0.5 V and long-term durability of 99.3% retention after 550,000 cycles (∼13 days) without breaks. Further, the actuators are integrated to perform soft touch on a smartphone and demonstrated as bioinspired robots, including a bionic butterfly and a crawling robot (moving speed = 0.08 BL s-1). This strategy provides new insight into the design and fabrication of high-performance electroactive soft actuators with great application potential.

20.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592383

RESUMO

Aurora kinase inhibitors such as alisertib can destabilize MYC-family oncoproteins and have demonstrated compelling anti-tumor efficacy. In this study, we report 6K465, a novel pyrimidine-based Aurora A (AURKA) inhibitor that reduces levels of c-MYC and N-MYC oncoproteins more potently than alisertib. In an analysis of the antiproliferative effect of 6K465, the sensitivities of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and breast cancer (BC) cell lines to 6K465 were strongly associated with the protein levels of c-MYC and/or N-MYC. We also report DBPR728, an acyl-based prodrug of 6K465 bearing fewer hydrogen-bond donors that exhibited 10-fold improved oral bioavailability. DBPR728 induced durable tumor regression of c-MYC- and/or N-MYC- overexpressing xenografts including SCLC, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), hepatocellular carcinoma and medulloblastoma using a 5-on-2-off or once-a-week dosing regimen on a 21-day cycle. A single oral dose of DBPR728 at 300 mg/kg induced c-MYC reduction and cell apoptosis in the tumor xenografts for more than 7 days. The inhibitory effect of DBPR728 at a reduced dosing frequency was attributed to its uniquely high tumor/plasma ratio (3.6-fold within 7 days) and the long tumor half-life of active moiety 6K465. Furthermore, DBPR728 was found to synergize with the mTOR inhibitor everolimus to suppress c-MYC- or N-MYC- driven SCLC. Collectively, these results suggest DBPR728 has the potential to treat cancers overexpressing c-MYC- and/or N-MYC.

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