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1.
Virulence ; 12(1): 1011-1021, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797313

RESUMO

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a potentially emerging zoonotic pathogen that causes severe diarrhea in young pigs, with a risk of fatal dehydration. Its pathogenicity on neonatal piglet has been previously reported, however, it is less known if the coinfection with immunosuppressive pathogens can influence PDCoV disease manifestation. Here, a coinfection model of PDCoV and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a global-spread immunosuppressive virus, was set to study their interaction. Weaning pigs in the coinfection group were intranasally inoculated with PRRSV NADC30-like virus and latterly orally inoculated with PDCoV at three day-post-inoculation (DPI). Unexpectedly, compared with pigs in the PDCoV single-infected group, the coinfected pigs did not show any obvious diarrhea, as PDCoV fecal shedding, average daily weight gain (ADWG), gross and microscopic lesions and PDCoV IHC scores consistently indicated that PRRSV coinfection lessened PDCoV caused diarrhea. Additionally, three proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-6, which can be secreted by PRRSV infected macrophages, were detected to be highly expressed at the intestine from both PRRSV infected groups. By adding to PDCoV-infected cells, these three cytokines were further confirmed to be able to inhibit the PDCoV replication post its cellular entry. Meanwhile, the inhibition effect of the supernatant from PRRSV-infected PAMs could be obviously blocked by the antagonist of these three cytokines. In conclusion, PRRSV coinfection increased TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6 in the microenvironment of intestines, which inhibits the PDCoV proliferation, leading to lessened severity of diarrhea. The findings provide some new insight into the pathogenesis and replication regulation of PDCoV.

2.
Food Chem ; 356: 129612, 2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831828

RESUMO

The rapid colorimetric detection of neomycin sulfate has been achieved using polyvinyl pyrrolidone shell coated gold nanoparticle (Au@PVP NPs) sol. We also observed that, the aggregation of Au@PVP NPs, possibly caused by the hydrogen bonds formed between neomycin sulfate and PVP shell, generates a new surface plasmon resonance absorption in the wavelength of 600 ~ 700 nm. The proposed method showed an excellent performance towards the determination of neomycin sulfate in wide linear range from 0.01 ~ 10 µM with a correlation coefficient of 0.99 and low detection limit of 1 nM. After extracted with trichloroacetic acid and treated with hot chloroform, neomycin sulfate in the tilapia fish samples was detected with satisfied recovery. Additionally, the high selectivity of Au@PVP NPs sol towards neomycin sulfate has been achieved even in presence of common interfering agents. This method has the advantages of high sensitivity, rapidity, specificity, low cost and no complicated pretreatment procedure.

3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 633573, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33816337

RESUMO

Shiga toxin (Stx) is the main virulence factor of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), and ruminants are the main reservoir of STEC. This study assessed the abundance and expression of Stx genes and the expression of host immune genes, aiming to determine factors affecting these measures and potential gene markers to differentiate Stx gene expression in the recto-anal junction of feedlot beef cattle. Rectal tissue and content samples were collected from 143 feedlot steers of three breeds (Angus, Charolais, and Kinsella Composite) over 2 consecutive years 2014 (n=71) and 2015 (n=72). The abundance and expression of stx1 and stx2 were quantified using qPCR and reverse-transcription-qPCR (RT-qPCR), respectively. Four immune genes (MS4A1, CCL21, CD19, and LTB), previously reported to be down-regulated in super-shedder cattle (i.e., > 104 CFU g-1) were selected, and their expression was evaluated using RT-qPCR. The stx1 gene abundance was only detected in tissue samples collected in year 2 and did not differ among breeds. The stx2 gene was detected in STEC from all samples collected in both years and did not vary among breeds. The abundance of stx1 and stx2 differed (P < 0.001) in content samples collected across breeds (stx1:AN>CH>KC, stx2: AN=CH>KC) in year 1, but not in year 2. Expression of stx2 was detected in 13 RAJ tissue samples (2014: n=6, 2015: n=7), while expression of stx1 was not detected. Correlation analysis showed that the expression of stx2 was negatively correlated with the expression of MS4A1 (R=-0.56, P=0.05) and positively correlated with the expression of LTB (R=0.60, P=0.05). The random forest model and Boruta method revealed that expression of selected immune genes could be predictive indicators of stx2 expression with prediction accuracy of MS4A1 >LTB >CCL21 >CD19. Our results indicate that the abundance of Stx could be affected by cattle breed and sampling year, suggesting that host genetics and environment may influence STEC colonization of the recto-anal junction of feedlot cattle. Additionally, the identified relationship between expressions of host immune genes and stx2 suggests that the host animal may regulate stx2 expression in colonizing STEC through immune functions.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666825

RESUMO

Up to now we have had few evidences on the Non-vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants (NOACs)' efficacy and safety in preventing device-related thrombosis (DRT) after percutaneous left atrial appendage closure (LAAC). After LAAC implantation, short-term anticoagulation (NOACs or warfarin) was prescribed. Baseline clinical characteristics, procedural parameters and postoperative follow up data were collected and compared between the two groups. From May 2014 to June 2018, 361 consecutive patients underwent LAAC implantation in our center. 170 patients received warfarin for 45 days at least after LAAC implantation, who were compared with 170 age-matched patients on NOACs. The basic clinical characteristics, as well as procedural parameters were comparable between the two groups, while the NOACs group had higher average CHA2DS2-VASc score (3.3  ±  1.6 vs. 2.9  ±  1.5, P = 0.022*). At 45 days follow up, 289 (86.5%) patients received transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE), and the overall incidence of DRT was 2.4%. The DRT rate was not significantly different between the NOACs and warfarin groups (2.7% vs. 2.1%, P > 0.05), while the NOACs group showed lower all bleeding rate (1.2% vs. 9.0%, P < 0.01). The rates of ischemic stroke as well as major bleeding were comparable between the two groups. Except for 7 DRTs and 1 major peri-device leakage (> 5 mm), anticoagulation was terminated in all other patients. During the follow-up thereafter (mean 868 days), the rates of all-cause death, ischemic stroke and bleeding were comparable between the two groups. Short-term NOACs after LAAC appear to be as effective as warfarin in preventing DRT, with lower bleeding rate.

5.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 634505, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33732664

RESUMO

Cattle have been suggested as the primary reservoirs of E. coli O157 mainly as a result of colonization of the recto-anal junction (RAJ) and subsequent shedding into the environment. Although a recent study reported different gene expression at RAJ between super-shedders (SS) and non-shedders (NS), the regulatory mechanisms of altered gene expression is unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether bovine non-coding RNAs play a role in regulating the differentially expressed (DE) genes between SS and NS, thus further influencing E. coli O157 shedding behavior in the animals through studying miRNAomes of the whole gastrointestinal tract including duodenum, proximal jejunum, distal jejunum, cecum, spiral colon, descending colon and rectum. The number of miRNAs detected in each intestinal region ranged from 390 ± 13 (duodenum) to 413 ± 49 (descending colon). Comparison between SS and NS revealed the number of differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs ranged from one (in descending colon) to eight (in distal jejunum), and through the whole gut, seven miRNAs were up-regulated and seven were down-regulated in SS. The distal jejunum and rectum were the regions where the most DE miRNAs were identified (eight and seven, respectively). The miRNAs, bta-miR-378b, bta-miR-2284j, and bta-miR-2284d were down-regulated in both distal jejunum and rectum of SS (log2fold-change: -2.7 to -3.8), bta-miR-2887 was down-regulated in the rectum of SS (log2fold-change: -3.2), and bta-miR-211 and bta-miR-29d-3p were up-regulated in the rectum of SS (log2fold-change: 4.5 and 2.2). Functional analysis of these miRNAs indicated their potential regulatory role in host immune functions, including hematological system development and immune cell trafficking. Our findings suggest that altered expression of miRNA in the gut of SS may lead to differential regulation of immune functions involved in E. coli O157 super-shedding in cattle.

6.
Blood Purif ; : 1-10, 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730732

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between serum procalcitonin (PCT) and acute kidney injury (AKI) induced by bacterial septic shock. METHODS: A retrospective study was designed which included patients who were admitted to the ICU from January 2015 to October 2018. Multiple logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) as well as smooth curve fitting analysis were used to assess the relationship between the PCT level and AKI. RESULTS: Of the 1,631 patients screened, 157 patients were included in the primary analysis in which 84 (53.5%) patients were with AKI. Multiple logistic regression results showed that PCT (odds ratio [OR] = 1.017, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.009-1.025, p < 0.001) was associated with AKI induced by septic shock. The ROC analysis showed that the cutoff point for PCT to predict AKI development was 14 ng/mL, with a sensitivity of 63% and specificity 67%. Specifically, in multivariate piecewise linear regression, the occurrence of AKI decreased with the elevation of PCT when PCT was between 25 ng/mL and 120 ng/mL (OR 0.963, 95% CI 0.929-0.999; p = 0.042). The AKI increased with the elevation of PCT when PCT was either <25 ng/mL (OR 1.077, 95% CI 1.022-1.136; p = 0.006) or >120 ng/mL (OR 1.042, 95% CI 1.009-1.076; p = 0.013). Moreover, the PCT level was significantly higher in the AKI group only in female patients aged ≤75 years (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our data revealed a nonlinear relationship between PCT and AKI in septic shock patients, and PCT could be used as a potential biomarker of AKI in female patients younger than 75 years with bacterial septic shock.

7.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(2): 2152-2157, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasma fibrinogen (FIB), also known as factor I, plays a key role in the coagulation process. FIB testing in a clinical laboratory is crucial for coagulation screening and thrombolytic therapy. Here, we assessed the performance of a new, Chinese-made coagulation analyzer in the detection of FIB by comparing its precision and clinical feasibility with that of an imported system. METHODS: Blood samples were collected and plasmas were separated. The precision, linearity, reference interval, carryover rate, clinically reportable range, and clinical applicability of the domestic coagulation analyzer for FIB assay were assessed and validated based on the documents or industry standards issued by the United States Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). RESULTS: The within-batch precision CVs (coefficient of variation) for the low- and high-level specimens were 2.92% and 0.24%, respectively, while the total precision CVs were 3.05% and 1.81%, respectively; all of them met the experimental requirements. The linear range was validated to cover 1.0-6.5 g/L, and a good linear relationship was obtained within the measurement range (R2=0.9998). The reference interval was verified for adults and the carryover rate was also evaluated to be 0.68%. The clinically reportable range was 0.33-13.0 g/L. With a sample size of 180 cases, the methodological comparison showed a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9886 between Mindray ExC810 and Sysmex CS5100. Furthermore, when the level of FIB was higher than 4.0 g/L or lower than 1.0 g/L, the 2 systems had an agreement rate of 100%. CONCLUSIONS: Mindray ExC810 has a good performance for FIB assay in terms of precision, linearity, reference interval, carryover rate, and clinically reportable range. Methodological study showed that Mindray ExC810 has good agreement with Sysmex CS5100 and meets the requirements of laboratory testing. Therefore, Mindray ExC810 is suitable for FIB assay in clinical laboratory.

8.
Genomics ; 113(3): 900-909, 2021 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592313

RESUMO

Fusarium wilt of banana is considered one of the most destructive plant diseases. Bacillus subtilis R31 and TR21, isolated from Dendrobium sp. leaves, exhibit different phytobeneficial effects on banana Fusarium wilt bio-controlling. Here, we performed genome sequencing and comparative genomics analysis of R31 and TR21 to enhance our understanding of the different phytobeneficial traits. These results revealed that the strain-specific genes of R31 involved in sporulation, quorum sensing, and antibiotic synthesis allow R31 to present a better capacity of sporulation, rhizosphere adaptation, and quorum sensing than TR21. Selective pressure analysis indicated that the glycosylase and endo-alpha-(1- > 5)-L-arabinanase genes were strong positive selected, which may contribute to the TR21 to colonize well in banana's vascular bundles. Altogether, our findings presented here should advance further agricultural application of R31 and TR21 as two promising resources of plant growth promotion and biological control via genetic engineering.

9.
Inorg Chem ; 60(4): 2663-2671, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33492954

RESUMO

An inorganic-organic hybrid 3-D FeIII-CeIII heterometallic antimonotungstate framework [Ce(H2O)5(2,6-pdca)]4H2[Fe4(H2O)6(SbW9O33)2]·38H2O (1) (2,6-H2pdca = 2,6-pyridine-dicarboxylic acid) has been synthesized via a hydrothermal method by the one-pot reaction of 2,6-H2pdca, FeCl3·6H2O, Ce(NO3)3·6H2O, and Na9[B-α-SbW9O33]·19.5H2O. Notably, the structural unit of 1 possesses a Krebs-type [Fe4(H2O)6(2,6-pdca)2(SbW9O33)2]10- subunit supported with four bridging [Ce(H2O)5(2,6-pdca)]+ moieties. It is worth highlighting that adjacent structural units are concatenated together through heterobimetallic bridges to construct a 3-D framework. Furthermore, cuboid nanocrystal 1' was prepared under mild hydrothermal conditions based on the electrostatic interaction between 1 and K+. The effects of concentration and time on the morphology of nanocrystal 1' were also studied. The cuboid nanocrystal 1' was used as a modified electrode material for simultaneous electrochemical detection of dopamine and acetaminophen. The 1'-modified glassy carbon electrode shows good selectivity and sensitivity for detecting dopamine and acetaminophen.

10.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 29, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited data was available for rapid and accurate detection of COVID-19 using CT-based machine learning model. This study aimed to investigate the value of chest CT radiomics for diagnosing COVID-19 pneumonia compared with clinical model and COVID-19 reporting and data system (CO-RADS), and develop an open-source diagnostic tool with the constructed radiomics model. METHODS: This study enrolled 115 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and 435 non-COVID-19 pneumonia patients (training dataset, n = 379; validation dataset, n = 131; testing dataset, n = 40). Key radiomics features extracted from chest CT images were selected to build a radiomics signature using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression. Clinical and clinico-radiomics combined models were constructed. The combined model was further validated in the viral pneumonia cohort, and compared with performance of two radiologists using CO-RADS. The diagnostic performance was assessed by receiver operating characteristics curve (ROC) analysis, calibration curve, and decision curve analysis (DCA). RESULTS: Eight radiomics features and 5 clinical variables were selected to construct the combined radiomics model, which outperformed the clinical model in diagnosing COVID-19 pneumonia with an area under the ROC (AUC) of 0.98 and good calibration in the validation cohort. The combined model also performed better in distinguishing COVID-19 from other viral pneumonia with an AUC of 0.93 compared with 0.75 (P = 0.03) for clinical model, and 0.69 (P = 0.008) or 0.82 (P = 0.15) for two trained radiologists using CO-RADS. The sensitivity and specificity of the combined model can be achieved to 0.85 and 0.90. The DCA confirmed the clinical utility of the combined model. An easy-to-use open-source diagnostic tool was developed using the combined model. CONCLUSIONS: The combined radiomics model outperformed clinical model and CO-RADS for diagnosing COVID-19 pneumonia, which can facilitate more rapid and accurate detection.


Assuntos
/métodos , /diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , /estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Nomogramas , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/métodos , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Médica Translacional
11.
Eur Radiol ; 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33496829

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the value of full-field digital mammography-based deep learning (DL) in predicting malignancy of Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) 4 microcalcifications. METHODS: A total of 384 patients with 414 pathologically confirmed microcalcifications (221 malignant and 193 benign) were randomly allocated into the training, validation, and testing datasets (272/71/71 lesions) in this retrospective study. A combined DL model was developed incorporating mammography and clinical variables. Model performance was evaluated by using areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and compared with the clinical model, stand-alone DL image model, and BI-RADS approach. The predictive performance for malignancy was also compared between the combined model and human readers (2 juniors and 2 seniors). RESULTS: The combined DL model demonstrated favorable AUC, sensitivity, and specificity of 0.910, 85.3%, and 91.9% in predicting BI-RADS 4 malignant microcalcifications in the testing dataset, which outperformed the clinical model, DL image model, and BI-RADS with AUCs of 0.799, 0.841, and 0.804, respectively. The combined model achieved non-inferior performance as senior radiologists (p = 0.860, p = 0.800) and outperformed junior radiologists (p = 0.155, p = 0.029). The diagnostic performance of two junior radiologists was improved after artificial intelligence assistance with AUCs increased to 0.854 and 0.901 from 0.816 (p = 0.556) and 0.773 (p = 0.046), while the interobserver agreement was improved with a kappa value increased to 0.843 from 0.331. CONCLUSIONS: The combined deep learning model can improve the malignancy prediction of BI-RADS 4 microcalcifications in screening mammography and assist junior radiologists to achieve better performance, which can facilitate clinical decision-making. KEY POINTS: • The combined deep learning model demonstrated high diagnostic power, sensitivity, and specificity for predicting malignant BI-RADS 4 mammographic microcalcifications. • The combined model achieved similar performance with senior breast radiologists, while it outperformed junior breast radiologists. • Deep learning could improve the diagnostic performance of junior radiologists and facilitate clinical decision-making.

12.
Plant Sci ; 302: 110676, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33288001

RESUMO

Ascorbic acid (AsA) is an antioxidant and enzyme co-factor that is vital to plant development and abiotic stress tolerance. However, the regulation mechanisms of AsA biosynthesis in plants remain poorly understood. Here, we report a basic helix-loop-helix 55 (ZmbHLH55) transcription factor that regulates AsA biosynthesis in maize. Analysis of publicly available transcriptomic data revealed that ZmbHLH55 is co-expressed with several genes of the GDP-mannose pathway. Experimental data showed that ZmbHLH55 forms homodimers localized to the cell nuclei, and it exhibits DNA binding and transactivation activity in yeast. Under salt stress conditions, knock down mutant (zmbhlh55) in maize accumulated lower levels of AsA compared with wild type, accompanied by lower antioxidant enzymes activity, shorter root length, and higher malondialdehyde (MDA) level. Gene expression data from the WT and zmbhlh55 mutant, showed that ZmbHLH55 positively regulates the expression of ZmPGI2, ZmGME1, and ZmGLDH, but negatively regulates ZmGMP1 and ZmGGP. Furthermore, ZmbHLH55-overexpressing Arabidopsis, under salt conditions, showed higher AsA levels, increased rates of germination, and elevated antioxidant enzyme activities. In conclusion, these results have identified previously unknown regulation mechanisms for AsA biosynthesis, indicating that ZmbHLH55 may be a potential candidate to enhance plant salt stress tolerance in the future.

13.
Mol Med Rep ; 23(2): 1, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33300066

RESUMO

The purpose of the present study was to determine the biological function and associated regulatory mechanism of small nucleolar RNA host gene 14 (SNHG14) in childhood acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). SNHG14 expression was measured via RT­qPCR in bone marrow tissues from 57 patients with AML and 57 healthy donors. The clinicopathological features of AML patients with low and high SNHG14 expression were analysed. AML cell viability and apoptosis were assessed using MTT and flow cytometry analyses. The starBase online database, and RNA­binding protein immunoprecipitation and dual luciferase reporter gene assays were employed to analyse the interactions among SNHG14, microRNA (miR)­193b­3p and MCL1 apoptosis regulator BCL2 family member (MCL1). SNHG14 was found to be overexpressed in the bone marrow tissues of patients with AML. The French­American­British classification and cytogenetics were significantly different between patients with high and low expression of SNHG14. Silencing SNHG14 decreased AML cell proliferation and facilitated apoptosis. SNHG14 functioned as a sponge for miR­193b­3p, and miR­193b­3p decreased the viability and accelerated the apoptosis rate of AML cells. In addition, miR­193b­3p targeted MCL1. Furthermore, silencing SNHG14 resulted in the sponging of miR­193b­3p to regulate cell viability, apoptosis, and MCL1 expression in AML. SNHG14 silencing decreased the viability and promoted apoptosis of AML cells by modulating the miR­193b­3p/MCL1 axis.

14.
Carbohydr Polym ; 251: 116976, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33142553

RESUMO

Alginate is a natural polysaccharide resource abundant in brown algae and it can be cleaved into alginate oligosaccharides by alginate lyase. Alginate lyases and the bioactive alginate oligosaccharides have been applied in diverse fields such as pharmaceutical therapy and nutraceutical supplementation. Immobilized enzymes greatly facilitate their industrial application owing to their reusability, stability, and tunability. In this study, magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized and used to immobilize an exolytic alginate lyase AlgL17 that was characterized previously. The immobilized AlgL17 demonstrated enhanced thermal and pH tolerance, extended storage stability, and moderate reusability. The mass spectrum indicated the specific activity of the immobilized AlgL17 to release alginate oligosaccharides (AOS) from alginate polysaccharide. The produced AOS exhibited their antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities in H2O2-stressed human umbilical vein endothelial cells by upregulation of reactive oxygen species scavenging activities and attenuation of the caspase-mediated apoptosis pathway.


Assuntos
Alginatos/metabolismo , Alginatos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Polissacarídeo-Liase/metabolismo , Alginatos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Biocatálise , Enzimas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Enzimas Imobilizadas/ultraestrutura , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/ultraestrutura , Espectrometria de Massas , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Oligossacarídeos/química , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Polissacarídeo-Liase/ultraestrutura , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
15.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(2): 2290-2301, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358167

RESUMO

Branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA) have recently been reported to play a role in human gut health during early life. However, little information is available on the fecal BCFA profiles in young ruminants and whether they are associated with the development of neonatal calf diarrhea. The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize BCFA profiles in feces collected from young calves, (2) compare the fecal BCFA composition between diarrheic and nondiarrheic dairy calves, and (3) explore the potential relationships between BCFA and microbiota in the feces. A total of 32 male Holstein dairy calves (13 ± 3 d old) with the same diet management were grouped as diarrheic (n = 16) or healthy (n = 16) based on fecal score (determined by liquid fecal consistency with some solid particles); diarrhea cases were defined as fecal score ≥2 for at least 2 d. Fecal samples were collected on the seventh day after calf arrival, and the fecal BCFA and microbial profiles were assessed using gas chromatograph and amplicon sequencing, respectively. In total, 7 BCFA were detected in the feces of all dairy calves; however, the concentrations of fecal BCFA differed between diarrheic and nondiarrheic calves. Specifically, the concentrations of iso-C16:0, iso-C17:0, anteiso-C17:0, and total even-chain BCFA were significantly higher in the feces of diarrheic calves. When the associations between BCFA and bacteria were studied, the relative abundance of Eggerthella was positively correlated with the concentrations of iso-C16:0 (ρ = 0.67), iso-17:0 (ρ = 0.77), anteiso-C17:0 (ρ = 0.73), and iso-C18:0 (ρ = 0.65), whereas the relative abundance of Subdoligranulum was positively correlated with the concentrations of iso-C14:0 (ρ = 0.62), iso-C15:0 (ρ = 0.78), and anteiso-C15:0 (ρ = 0.63). Use of random forest algorithm showed that BCFA such as anteiso-C15:0, iso-C16:0, iso-C17:0, iso-C18:0, and total even-chain BCFA could be used as biomarkers to differentiate diarrheic calves from healthy ones. Our findings generated fundamental knowledge on the potential roles of BCFA in neonatal calf gut health. Follow-up studies with larger animal populations are warranted to validate the feasibility of using BCFA as indicators of health status in neonatal calves.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/metabolismo , Diarreia/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde
16.
Am J Transl Res ; 12(10): 6122-6135, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33194018

RESUMO

The incidence of ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) in chronic heart failure (CHF) exhibits a notable circadian rhythm, for which the underlying mechanism has not yet been well defined. Thus, we aimed to investigate the role of cardiac core circadian genes on circadian VAs in CHF. First, a guinea pig CHF model was created by transaortic constriction. Circadian oscillation of core clock genes was evaluated by RT-PCR and was found to be unaltered in CHF (P > 0.05). Using programmed electrical stimulation in Langendorff-perfused failing hearts, we discovered that the CHF group exhibited increased VAs with greater incidence at CT3 compared to CT15 upon isoproterenol (ISO) stimulation. Circadian VAs was blunted by a ß1-AR-selective blocker rather than a ß2-AR-selective blocker. Circadian oscillation of ß1-AR was retained in CHF (P > 0.05) and a 4-h phase delay between ß1-AR and CLOCK-BMAL1 was recorded. Therefore, when CLOCK-BMAL1 was overexpressed using adenovirus infection, an induced overexpression of ß1-AR also ensued, which resulted in prolonged action potential duration (APD) and enhanced arrhythmic response to ISO stimulation in cardiomyocytes (P < 0.05). Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase assays confirmed that CLOCK-BMAL1 binds to the enhancer of ß1-AR gene and upregulates ß1-AR expression. Therefore, in this study, we discovered that CLOCK-BMAL1 regulates the expression of ß1-AR on a transcriptional level and subsequently modulates circadian VAs in CHF.

17.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(12): 11483-11489, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33041035

RESUMO

Although odd-chain fatty acids (OCFA) and branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA) are found in bovine milk and have some positive influences on human and animal health, their concentrations in bovine colostrum and transition milk have not been reported. In this study, we reported the OCFA and BCFA concentrations in colostrum and transition milk and their stability after heating or freezing treatments (or both), which are processes commonly applied in dairy calf management. Milk samples were collected from 12 Holstein dairy cows (6 primiparous and 6 multiparous) at the first milking (colostrum), fifth milking (transition milk), and ninth milking (mature milk) after calving, respectively, and were used for fatty acid analysis using gas chromatography. The sum concentration of OCFA and BCFA (termed OBCFA) was 134 mg/100 g of milk in the colostrum, which was 24% and 35% lower than that in the transition milk and mature milk, respectively. Among these fatty acids detected, C15:0 and C17:0 were the top 2 abundant fatty acids in all milk types, accounting for 20 to 25% and 21 to 24% of the total concentration of OBCFA, respectively. Additionally, anteiso-C17:0 was the most abundant BCFA, followed by iso-C17:0, anteiso-C15:0, iso-C16:0, iso-C15:0, iso-C18:0, and iso-C14:0 in 3 types of milk. Significant interactions between milk type and cow parity were observed for all OCFA and BCFA concentrations. The milk samples were also treated with heating (at 65°C for 60 min), freezing (at -20°C for 30 d), and heating and freezing (at 65°C for 60 min and then at -20°C for 30 d), and milk OCFA and BCFA concentrations were similar between these treatments. In conclusion, the OBCFA concentration was lower in colostrum, compared with transition and mature milks, and it remained stable after heating and freezing treatments.

18.
Am J Emerg Med ; 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood-activating drugs (BADs) are widely used to treat microvascular angina in China. This study aims to summarize relevant evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the efficacy and safety of BADs in the treatment of microvascular angina. METHODS: We searched for relevant studies before June 2019 from seven databases. Twenty-four studies were included of 1903 patients with microvascular angina. All studies compared the use of traditional Chinese medicine for activating blood circulation (BADs) and Western medicine (WM) with the use of Western medicine alone. RESULTS: In all, 15 trials reported a significant effect of BADs on improving clinical symptoms compared with the control treatment (P < .00001), and 8 trials reported significant effects of BADs on reducing the frequency of angina pectoris attacks compared with Western medicine treatment (P < .00001). The pooled results also demonstrated that BADs provided a significant benefit in reducing the dosage of nitroglycerin required (P = .02), the maximum range of ST-segment depression (P = .003) and the descending degree of the ST-T segment of ECG (P = .0002); prolonging the total time of treadmill exercise (P < .00001) and the time of ST-segment depression of 1 mm (P = .002); enhancing the total effective rate of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) syndromes (P < .00001); improving endothelial function (P < .00001); and reducing the levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (P < .00001). BAD treatment showed no statistically significant effect on the levels of TNF-a (P = .8) or IL-6 (P = .13). No severe adverse events were reported. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis shows that BADs are effective for the treatment of microvascular angina. Although concerns regarding selective bias and low methodological quality were raised, our findings suggest that BADs are beneficial for patients with microvascular angina and should be given priority for future clinical studies.

19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16452, 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020539

RESUMO

Armchair WS2 nanoribbons are semiconductors with band gaps close to 0.5 eV. If some of the W atoms in the ribbon are replaced by transition metals, the impurity states can tremendously affect the overall electronic structure of the doped ribbon. By using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory, we investigated substitutional doping of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Co at various positions on WS2 ribbons of different widths. We found that Fe-doped ribbons can have two-channel conduction in the middle segment of the ribbon and at the edges, carrying opposite spins separately. Many Co-doped ribbons are transformed into spin filters that exhibit 100% spin-polarized conduction. These results will be useful for spintronics and nanoelectronic circuit design.

20.
Front Pediatr ; 8: 498885, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33072666

RESUMO

Objectives: To develop a Brief Haze Weather Health Protection Behavior Assessment Scale-Adolescent Version (BHWHPBAS-AV). Methods: Considering primary prevention, secondary prevention and tertiary prevention as a theoretical basis, researchers developed a Brief Haze Weather Health Protection Behavior Assessment Scale-Adolescent Version-I(BHWHPBAS-AV-I). After performing 6 reviews by related experts, and after conducting six adolescent tests for BHWHPBAS-AV-I, researchers developed an updated BHWHPBAS-AV-II. Out of the 20 districts in Baoding, two districts were randomly selected; moreover, two middle schools from these two districts were also randomly selected. Considering one class as a unit, researchers subsequently randomly selected 22 classes by using stratified sampling. In the end, 1,025 valid questionnaires were used as part of the study. At which point, researchers investigated the validity and reliability of the scale and obtained the final scale (BHWHPBAS-AV). Results: BHWHPBAS-AV Cronbach's α = 0.878, content validity = 0.948, and factor cumulative contribution rate = 54.058% using exploratory factor analysis. By confirmatory factor analysis, Chi square value (χ2) = 271.791, degrees of freedom (df) = 94, Chi square value/degrees of freedom (χ2/df) = 2.891, root-mean-square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.051, normed fit index (NFI) = 0.930, incremental fit index (IFI) = 0.953, goodness of fit index (GFI) = 0.955, Tueker-Lewis index (TLI) = 0.940, comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.953. BHWHPBAS-AV was composed of 16 items as well as 3 dimensions. Conclusions: A BHWHPBAS-AV scale that has an acceptable reliability and validity can be applied to assess adolescent haze weather health protection behavior, and can also help school teachers, as well as medical staff working in community health care institutions, to perform targeted behavioral interventions and deliver health education programs to adolescents.

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