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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 401: 123270, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645543

RESUMO

The increasing use of raw carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) will inevitably affect wastewater treatment systems. Constructed wetlands (CWs) are ecological wastewater treatment facilities and can intercept the vast particles pollutant, including CBNs. However, the impacts of CBNs on the treatment performance of CWs have no available knowledge. Therefore, we systematically inspected the effects of single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and MWCNTs) and fullerene nanoparticles (C60) on CW performance under 180-day exposure to 0, 10 and 1000 µg/L concentrations. The results showed that CBNs had marginally adverse impacts on chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phosphorus (TP) removal, whereas nitrogen removal declined by 24.1 %-42.7 % following long-term exposure to CBNs. MWCNTs had the greatest inhibition effect on nitrogen removal, followed by SWCNTs and C60. The CBNs also induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction as the increasing concentration, which confirmed that CBNs have biotoxic effects in CWs. The variation of functional microbial community and the inhibition of enzyme activities were the dominant reasons for the decline in nitrogen removal efficiency. Furthermore, predictive functional profiling showed that CBNs affected functional gene abundance, and caused a decline in the enzymes abundance connected to nitrogen removal by the end of the 180-day exposure period.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 141579, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the effects of environmental factors on birth outcomes is crucial for public health because newborns' birth size affects their likelihood of childhood survival, risk of perinatal morbidity, and subsequent health and growth. Therefore, we investigated the associations of birth outcomes with prenatal air pollutant exposure and residential land use characteristics in the Greater Taipei Area. METHODS: Participants were selected from the Longitudinal Examination across Prenatal and Postpartum Health in Taiwan study, which is an ongoing prospective study launched in July 2011. Parental sociodemographic data and medical histories were collected using standardized questionnaires. Mean air pollutant levels during each trimester were estimated using the spatial interpolation technique (Ordinary Kriging). Land use types surrounding participants' homes were evaluated within a designated radius of their residential addresses. We used multiple regressions to examine relationships between birth outcomes (i.e., birth weight, height, and head circumference) and environmental factors after adjustment for parental characteristics. RESULTS: A total of 436 pregnant women-infant pairs were included. Birth weight was negatively associated with commercial land and greenhouse areas near the residence. Living near greenhouse areas negatively affected birth height, but higher greenness level within 100 m of the residence had a positive effect. Birth head circumference was only associated with sociodemographic factors in the multivariate model. CONCLUSION: Land use types near the homes of pregnant women, but not exposure to air pollutants, were significantly associated with birth weight and height in the Greater Taipei Area. Increased greenness level was positively associated with birth height, and living near commercial or greenhouse areas had adverse effects on birth outcomes. Living in a healthy neighborhood is critical for the birth outcomes of infants and presumably their health in early childhood.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Peso ao Nascer , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Taiwan/epidemiologia
3.
J Exp Med ; 218(3)2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33201171

RESUMO

Tracking how individual naive T cells from a natural TCR repertoire clonally expand, differentiate, and make lineage choices in response to an infection has not previously been possible. Here, using single-cell sequencing technology to identify clones by their unique TCR sequences, we were able to trace the clonal expansion, differentiation trajectory, and lineage commitment of individual virus-specific CD4 T cells during an acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection. Notably, we found previously unappreciated clonal diversity and cellular heterogeneity among virus-specific helper T cells. Interestingly, although most naive CD4 T cells gave rise to multiple lineages at the clonal level, ∼28% of naive cells exhibited a preferred lineage choice toward either Th1 or TFH cells. Mechanistically, we found that TCR structure, in particular the CDR3 motif of the TCR α chain, skewed lineage decisions toward the TFH cell fate.

4.
Food Chem ; 339: 127879, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877814

RESUMO

Qualitative analysis of bound polyphenols from carrot dietary fiber (CDF-PP) was performed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography equipped with an electrospray ionization and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS). Eleven organic acids, nine hydroxybenzoic acids and derivatives, six hydroxycinnamic acids and derivatives, four phenolic alcohols and derivatives, three flavonoids and derivatives, seven esters and derivatives, two other compounds, were detected by matching their retention times, secondary mass spectrometry fragment information with authentic standards or literature data. Furthermore, in vitro antioxidant activity was determined by different kinds of assays, including DPPH, ORAC, PSC, demonstrated that CDF-PP could scavenge radicals in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, CDF-PP exhibited significantly reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity in living Caenorhabditis elegans. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive research to investigate composition and in vitro/in vivo antioxidant activity of bound polyphenols in CDF, which implied that CDF-PP could be a promising source of antioxidants.

5.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 21(2): 814-823, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183412

RESUMO

With the continuous improvement of carbon nanotube synthesis and purification technology and the continuous improvement of carbon nanotube dispersion technology, carbon nanotubes have played an increasingly important role in the treatment of malignant tumours. One of the hot spots. Compared with other carbon nanotube materials, the carbon nanosphere drug loading system is more suitable for loading hydrophobic drugs, and the drug loading capacity is higher than other one-dimensional two-dimensional carbon nano-materials. In addition, carbon nanospheres of a suitable size are more easily absorbed by tumour cells and can carry a large amount of drugs for transport in the blood. And the pore structure of the carbon nanosphere is adjustable, and the drug release can be controlled by adjusting the pore size, and the pore diameter is generally less than 10 nm to prevent the drug from being released in advance. Esophageal cancer is one of the most frequently occurring malignancies in China, and the incidence of esophageal cancer ranks 8th in the world. Palliative chemotherapy is t he main treatment method for patients with advanced esophageal cancer. Simultaneous chemoradiotherapy has relatively obvious advantages in improving the survival rate of patients. It is of great significance to study the application of carbon nanosphere drug-loading system in chemoradiotherapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore, in this study under the hydrothermal method, which is one of the commonly used methods for the synthesis of hollow carbon nanospheres, carboxymethyl chitosan was used as a carbon precursor, and the targeted drug erlotinib was loaded with carbon nanospheres. A new hollow nano-carbon sphere drug-loading system (HNCSDLS) was prepared and related characterizations were carried out. At the same time, the morphology, properties, in vitro and in vivo toxicity, bio-distribution, and anti-tumour activity of HNCSDLS were also studied in this study using scanning electron microscopy flow cytometry, laser confocal, spectrometer, cell proliferation experiment, and in vivo fluorescence imaging experiment Detection. The results of this study indicate that HNCSDLS has high biocom-patibility and stability, can be quickly distributed in the cytoplasm, and avoids lysosomal clearance. It can effectively deliver erlotinib to the tumour site, extend the drug's in vivo circulation time, inhibit tumour growth, reduce the toxicity of erlotinib to heart and kidney tissues, and increase its antitumor activity.

6.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 21(2): 987-994, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183434

RESUMO

Liver diseases seriously endanger people's physical health, especially liver cancer, and its morbidity and mortality have increased year by year. The reason why liver cancer is difficult to cure is that in addition to the low lethality of cancer drugs to cancer cells, another important factor is that the drugs do not have liver targeting, and there is no way to efficiently deliver anti-cancer drugs to the liver lesions. Hepatocytes can specifically recognize galactose, therefore the galactosyl liver-targeted drug carrier can deliver the drug to the liver in a targeted manner, so that the drug can be directed to the liver, reduce the dose and times of drug administration, reduce toxic side effects, and reduce the adverse reactions of patients, which is of great significance for the treatment of liver cancer. In this thesis, paclitaxel long-circulating nano-liposomes targeting liver cancer constructed with galactose as raw materials can improve the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of traditional formulations of paclitaxel, and enhance the safety and tumor suppressive effect of paclitaxel in vivo.

7.
Neuroimage ; 225: 117496, 2020 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181352

RESUMO

In this work, we investigate the importance of explicitly accounting for cross-trial variability in neuroimaging data analysis. To attempt to obtain reliable estimates in a task-based experiment, each condition is usually repeated across many trials. The investigator may be interested in (a) condition-level effects, (b) trial-level effects, or (c) the association of trial-level effects with the corresponding behavior data. The typical strategy for condition-level modeling is to create one regressor per condition at the subject level with the underlying assumption that responses do not change across trials. In this methodology of complete pooling, all cross-trial variability is ignored and dismissed as random noise that is swept under the rug of model residuals. Unfortunately, this framework invalidates the generalizability from the confine of specific trials (e.g., particular faces) to the associated stimulus category ("face"), and may inflate the statistical evidence when the trial sample size is not large enough. Here we propose an adaptive and computationally tractable framework that meshes well with the current two-level pipeline and explicitly accounts for trial-by-trial variability. The trial-level effects are first estimated per subject through no pooling. To allow generalizing beyond the particular stimulus set employed, the cross-trial variability is modeled at the population level through partial pooling in a multilevel model, which permits accurate effect estimation and characterization. Alternatively, trial-level estimates can be used to investigate, for example, brain-behavior associations or correlations between brain regions. Furthermore, our approach allows appropriate accounting for serial correlation, handling outliers, adapting to data skew, and capturing nonlinear brain-behavior relationships. By applying a Bayesian multilevel model framework at the level of regions of interest to an experimental dataset, we show how multiple testing can be addressed and full results reported without arbitrary dichotomization. Our approach revealed important differences compared to the conventional method at the condition level, including how the latter can distort effect magnitude and precision. Notably, in some cases our approach led to increased statistical sensitivity. In summary, our proposed framework provides an effective strategy to capture trial-by-trial responses that should be of interest to a wide community of experimentalists.

8.
Obes Surg ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Complications including staple-line leakage and bleeding may occur after sleeve gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. In this meta-analysis, the efficacy of fibrin sealant in strengthening the staple line and reducing complication risk after bariatric surgery was evaluated. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published up to October 2020. Pooled estimates of the outcomes were computed using a random effects model. The primary outcomes were bleeding and leakage; secondary outcomes were gastric stricture, length of hospital stay, reoperation rate, and total operation time. RESULTS: In total, 9 RCTs including 2136 patients were reviewed. Our meta-analysis revealed that compared with controls, fibrin sealants decreased incidence of bleeding significantly (risk ratio [RR] = 0.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18-0.97), but did not demonstrate significant differences in reducing the incidence of leakage (RR = 0.62; 95% CI, 0.23-1.73), gastric stricture (RR = 1.16; 95% CI, 0.46-2.91), reoperation rate (RR = 0.85; CI, 0.14-5.14), or length of hospital stay (weighted mean difference = 0.62; 95% CI, - 0.31 to 1.55). Compared with oversewing, fibrin sealant use reduced the operation time; however, their efficacies in reducing the incidence of postoperative bleeding and leakage did not differ significantly. CONCLUSIONS: Although applying fibrin sealants to the staple line in bariatric surgery may provide favorable results, but it may not reduce postoperative leakage and stricture incidence significantly. Nevertheless, the application of fibrin sealants as a method for reducing risks of complications after bariatric surgery warrant further investigation.

9.
BMC Microbiol ; 20(1): 333, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An effective environmental sampling method involves the use of a transport/neutralizing broth with the ability to neutralize sanitizer residues that are collected during sampling and to maintain viability of stressed Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) cells. RESULTS: We applied Lm onto stainless steel surfaces and then subjected Lm to desiccation stress for 16-18 h at room temperature (RT, 21-24 °C). This was followed by the subsequent application of Whisper™ V, a quaternary ammonium compound (QAC)-based sanitizer, diluted to 400 ppm and 8000 ppm of active quat, for 6 h. We then sampled Lm with sponges pre-moistened in three transport broths, Dey/Engley (D/E) broth, Letheen broth and HiCap™ broth, to generate environmental samples that contained sanitizer residues and low levels of stressed Lm, which were subsequently analyzed by an enrichment-based method. This scheme conformed with validation guidelines of AOAC International by using 20 environmental test portions per broth that contained low levels of Lm such that not all test portions were positive (i.e., fractional positive). We showed that D/E broth, Letheen broth and HiCap™ broth performed similarly when no quat or 400 ppm of quat was applied to the Lm contaminating stainless steel surfaces. However, when 8000 ppm of quat was applied, Letheen broth did not effectively neutralize the QAC in the samples. These comparisons were performed on samples stored under three conditions after collection to replicate scenarios of sample transport, RT for 2 h, 4 °C for 24 h and 4 °C for 72 h. Comparisons under the three different scenarios generally reached the same conclusions. In addition, we further demonstrated that storing Letheen and HiCap™ broths at RT for two months before sampling did not reduce their capacity to neutralize sanitizers. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a scheme to evaluate the ability of transport broths to neutralize QAC sanitizers. The three transport broths performed similarly with a commonly used concentration of quat, but Letheen broth could not effectively neutralize a very high concentration of QAC. The performance of transport broths was not significantly affected under the assessed pre-sampling and post-sampling storage conditions.

10.
Mol Oncol ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152171

RESUMO

Recent studies revealed the role of dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1), encoded by the DNM1L gene, in regulating the growth of cancer cells of various origins. However, the regulation, function and clinical significance of DRP1 remain undetermined in lung adenocarcinoma. Our study shows that the expression and activation of DRP1 are significantly correlated with proliferation and disease extent, as well as an increased risk of post-operative recurrence in stage I to IIIA lung adenocarcinoma. Loss of DRP1 in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines leads to an altered mitochondrial morphology, fewer copies of mitochondrial DNA, decreased respiratory complexes, and impaired oxidative phosphorylation. Additionally, proliferation and invasion are both suppressed in DRP1-depleted lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. Our data further revealed that DRP1 activation through serine 616 phosphorylation is regulated by ERK/AKT and CDK2 in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. Collectively, we propose the multi-kinase framework in activating DRP1 in lung adenocarcinoma to promote the malignant properties. Biomarkers related to mitochondrial reprogramming, such as DRP1, can be used to evaluate the risk of post-operative recurrence in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma.

11.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155600

RESUMO

A cinchona alkaloid squaramide promoted enantioselective [4+2] cyclization between hydroxymaleimides and ortho-hydroxyphenyl p-QMs has been disclosed, and a wide range of chiral hemiketals containing chromane and succinimide frameworks with two adjacent quaternary stereogenic centers have been prepared for the first time with excellent results (up to 99% yield, up to 99 : 1 dr, up to >99% ee) under mild conditions.

12.
Am J Prev Med ; 59(6): 904-913, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220759

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In malaria-endemic countries, malaria during pregnancy is associated with adverse birth outcomes, including low birth weight (i.e., <2.5 kg). However, the effects of the widely promoted and recommended approaches of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy and insecticide-treated nets for pregnant women on low birth weight have been insufficiently examined. This analysis investigates the independent and combined effects of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy and insecticide-treated nets on low birth weight among Malawian children. METHODS: Using pooled data sets from 2004, 2010, and 2015-2016 Malawi Demographic and Health Surveys, a total of 18,285 births were analyzed between August and December 2019. Binomial generalized linear regression models with a log-link function explored the associations under consideration. RESULTS: The overall low birth weight prevalence was 10.3%. Prevalence was lower in children whose mothers used adequate intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy (adjusted prevalence ratio=0.88, 95% CI=0.79, 0.99) or used insecticide-treated nets (adjusted prevalence ratio=0.89, 95% CI=0.79, 0.99) than their respective counterparts. Low birth weight was 20.0% lower among children whose mothers adequately used both intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy and insecticide-treated nets than those without these approaches (adjusted prevalence ratio=0.80, 95% CI=0.68, 0.93). Iron supplement consumption and survey year were significant effect modifiers on the relationship between intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy and low birth weight. CONCLUSIONS: There were evident benefits of independent and combined use of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy and insecticide-treated nets on low birth weight, thereby supporting the use of these interventions during pregnancy. The reduced protective effects of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy over time highlight the need for innovative preventive methods against malaria in pregnancy.

13.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 122020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221762

RESUMO

Sarcopenia is a serious public health problem associated with the loss of muscle mass and function. The purpose of this study was to identify molecular markers and construct a ceRNA pathway as a significant predictor of sarcopenia. We designed a prediction model to select important differentially expressed mRNAs (DEMs), and constructed a sarcopenia associated ceRNA network. After correlation analysis of each element in the ceRNA network based on clinical samples and GTEX database, C2C12 mouse myoblasts were used as a model to verify the identified ceRNA pathways. A new model for predicting sarcopenia based on four molecular markers SEPP1, SV2A, GOT1, and GFOD1 was developed. The model was used to construct a ceRNA network and showed high accuracy. Correlation analysis showed that the expression levels of lncDLEU2, SEPP1, and miR-181a were closely associated with a high risk of sarcopenia. lncDLEU2 inhibits muscle differentiation and regeneration by acting as a miR-181a sponge regulating SEPP1 expression. In this study, a highly accurate prediction tool was developed to improve the prediction outcomes of sarcopenia. These findings suggest that the lncDLEU2-miR-181a-SEPP1 pathway inhibits muscle differentiation and regeneration. This pathway may be a new therapeutic target for the treatment of sarcopenia.

15.
Phytochemistry ; 181: 112569, 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130374

RESUMO

Phytochemical investigation of the ethyl acetate fraction of Pseudocaryopteris paniculata C.B.Clarke P.D.Cantino resulted in the identification of 26 undescribed iridoid glucosides (paniculosides A-Z), along with 7 known iridoid glucosides. Their structures were elucidated via two-dimensional nuclear-magnetic-resonance (2D-NMR) spectroscopy, high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (HR-ESI-MS), and chemical-hydrolysis methods. All isolated substances were analyzed for their cytoprotective effects against t-BHP-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells. Among the tested compounds, paniculoside A, paniculoside I, paniculoside T, and paniculoside U exhibited moderate cytoprotective activities with IC50 values in the range of 11.72-34.22 µM against t-BHP-induced toxicity.

16.
Neoplasia ; 22(12): 702-713, 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33142236

RESUMO

Altered alternative splicing (AS) events are considered pervasive causes that result in the development of carcinogenesis. Herein, we identified reprogrammed expression and splicing profiles of Muscle blind-like protein 1 (MBNL1) transcripts in tumorous tissues compared to those of adjacent normal tissues dissected from individual colorectal cancer (CRC) patients using whole-transcriptome analyses. MBNL1 transcript 8 (MBNL18) containing exons 5 and 7 was majorly generated by cancerous tissues and CRC-derived cell lines compared with those of the normal counterparts. Interplay between the exonic CA-rich element and upregulated SRSF3 facilitated the inclusion of MBNL1 exons 5 and 7, which encode a bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) and conformational NLS. Moreover, abundant SRSF3 interfered with the autoregulatory mechanism involved in utilization of MBNL1 exons 5 and 7, resulting in enrichment of the MBNL18 isoform in cultured CRC cell lines. Subsequently, an increase in the MBNL18 isoform drove a shift in the apoptotic chromatin condensation inducer in nucleus 1-S (Acin1-S) isoform to the Acin1-L isoform, leading to diminished DNA fragmentation in cultured CRC cells under oxidative stress. Taken together, SRSF3-MBNL1-Acin1 was demonstrated to constitute an emerging axis which is relevant to proapoptotic signatures and post-transcriptional events of CRC cells.

17.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33201949

RESUMO

We report the synthesis of silver-based Janus micromotors that self-propel at 3.5 µm s-1 and speed up to 45 µm s-1 in 0.044 and 1.5 mM of H2O2, respectively, via ionic diffusiophoresis. Morphology optimization further accelerates the speed to 90 µm s-1, which leads to a force of 1 pN and a power of 0.1 fW, similar to biomolecular motors. Their efficiency reaches 10-5, at least two orders of magnitude higher than other chemically-driven micromotors. These micromotors hold great promises in various applications.

18.
Am J Chin Med ; : 1-19, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202151

RESUMO

Autophagic defects are a hallmark of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disorder (PD). Enhancing autophagy to remove impaired mitochondria and toxic protein aggregation is an essential component of PD treatment. In particular, activation of autophagy confers neuroprotection in cellular and preclinical models of neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic mechanisms of electroacupuncture (EA) treatment in mice with established PD and evaluated the relationship between EA, autophagy, and different neurons in the mouse brain. We report that EA improves PD motor symptoms in mice and enhances (1) autophagy initiation (increased Beclin 1), (2) autophagosome biogenesis (increased Atg5, Atg7, Atg9A, Atg12, Atg16L, Atg3, and LC3-II), (3) autophagy flux/substrate degradation (decreased p62), and (4) mitophagy (increased PINK1 and DJ-1) in neurons of the substantia nigra, striatum, hippocampus, and cortex (affected brain areas of PD, Huntington disease, and Alzheimer's disease). EA enhances autophagy initiation, autophagosome biogenesis, mitophagy, and autophagy flux/substrate degradation in certain brain areas. Our findings are the first to show that EA regulates neuronal autophagy and suggest that this convenient, inexpensive treatment has exciting therapeutic potential in neurodegenerative disorders.

19.
Opt Lett ; 45(22): 6206-6209, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186951

RESUMO

A white-lighting and wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM)-visible light communication (VLC) system with over 20 m of free-space distance and 3 m of lighting distance is demonstrated via a red/green/blue (R/G/B) triple-source polarization-multiplexing scheme, transmission gratings, and an engineered diffuser with a double-convex lens. Integrating four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4) with a triple-source polarization-multiplexing scheme, the aggregate transmission rate is noticeably enhanced to 300 Gb/s [50Gb/sPAM4/source×3sources×2polarizations (p- and s-polarizations)]. White-light is produced by multiplexing the R/G/B lights with two transmission gratings and separated by demultiplexing them using the other two transmission gratings. By adopting an engineered diffuser with a double-convex lens, the white-light is diffused over 3 m of free-space distance to provide general white-light illumination (>100lux). This demonstrated white-lighting and WDM-VLC system meets a high aggregate transmission rate with a qualified indoor lighting target. It opens up a new category for lighting and communication.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147728

RESUMO

We greatly appreciate Idrovo's comments on our research and wish to specifically respond to his comments. Idrovo indicates that rapid increases in the number of confirmed cases in the past few weeks were observed in Latin America, where some countries had implemented stringent lockdowns for more than three months since the second half of March 2020. In his comments, Idrovo expresses his suspicion on the reality of lockdowns implemented in Latin America and worries about the negative impacts of lockdowns on economies. We thank the Editor for providing us with the opportunity to respond to Idrovo's comments and explain parts of our study.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Saúde Pública , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , América Latina
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