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1.
Clin Transl Radiat Oncol ; 46: 100767, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38576855

RESUMO

Centrally located hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is difficult to be radically resected due to its special location close to major hepatic vessels. Thus, we aimed to assess whether stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) can be an effective and safe approach for centrally located HCC. This retrospective study included 172 patients with centrally located HCC who were treated with SBRT. Overall survival (OS) was analyzed as the primary endpoint. Rates of progression-free survival (PFS), local control, intrahepatic relapse, extrahepatic metastasis and toxicities were analyzed as secondary endpoints. The OS rates of 1-, 3-, and 5-year were 97.7%, 86.7%, and 76.3%, respectively. The PFS/local control rates of 1-, 3-, and 5-year were 94.1%/98.2%, 76.8%/94.9%, and 59.3%/92.3%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of intrahepatic relapse/extrahepatic metastases of 1-, 3-, and 5-year were 3.7%/2.9%, 25.0%/7.4%, and 33.3%/9.8%, respectively. Both univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that patients received BED10 at 100 Gy or more had better OS. Radiation-related adverse events were mild to moderate according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, and no toxicities over grade 3 were observed. Patients with centrally located HCC in our cohort who received SBRT had similar OS and PFS rates compared to those reported in literatures who received surgery with neoadjuvant or adjuvant intensity-modulated radiation therapy. These results indicate that SBRT is an effective and well-tolerated method for patients with centrally located HCC, suggesting that it may serve as a reasonable alternative treatment for these kind of patients.

2.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 63(15): e202319758, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38353649

RESUMO

Fluorinated small molecules are commonly used in functional small-molecule chemistry, and N-difluoromethyl (N-CF2H) compounds are particularly intriguing due to their unique and unexplored physiochemical properties. However, despite limited progress, a general methodological approach to the synthesis of N-CF2H compounds remains elusive. Here, guided by computation, we present a simple and practical protocol to access N-CF2H amides and related carbonyl derivatives. The protocol involves a one-pot conversion of thioformamides through desulfurization-fluorination and acylation, providing N-difluoromethylcarbamoyl fluoride building blocks that can be further diversified to a variety of unexplored N-CF2H carbonyl compounds with rich functionality. Additionally, preliminary studies on their properties and stability showcased their potential application in pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals.

3.
Adv Healthc Mater ; : e2304158, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38319101

RESUMO

The limited regulation strategies of the regeneration microenvironment significantly hinder bone defect repair effectiveness. One potential solution is using biomaterials capable of releasing bioactive ions and biomolecules. However, most existing biomaterials lack real-time control features, failing to meet high regulation requirements. Herein, a new Strontium (Sr) and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) based metal-phenolic network with polydopamine (PMPNs) modification is prepared. This material reinforces a biomimetic scaffold made of extracellular matrix (ECM) and hydroxyapatite nanowires (nHAW). The PMPNs@ECM/nHAW scaffold demonstrates exceptional scavenging of free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS), promoting HUVECs cell migration and angiogenesis, inducing stem cell osteogenic differentiation, and displaying high biocompatibility. Additionally, the PMPNs exhibit excellent photothermal properties, further enhancing the scaffold's bioactivities. In vivo studies confirm that PMPNs@ECM/nHAW with near-infrared (NIR) stimulation significantly promotes angiogenesis and osteogenesis, effectively regulating the microenvironment and facilitating bone tissue repair. This research not only provides a biomimetic scaffold for bone regeneration but also introduces a novel strategy for designing advanced biomaterials. The combination of real-time photothermal intervention and long-term chemical intervention, achieved through the release of bioactive molecules/ions, represents a promising direction for future biomaterial development.

4.
Sci Adv ; 10(1): eadi6799, 2024 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38181077

RESUMO

Electrical stimulation can effectively accelerate bone healing. However, the substantial size and weight of electrical stimulation devices result in reduced patient benefits and compliance. It remains a challenge to establish a flexible and lightweight implantable microelectronic stimulator for bone regeneration. Here, we use self-powered technology to develop an electric pulse stimulator without circuits and batteries, which removes the problems of weight, volume, and necessary rigid packaging. The fully implantable bone defect electrical stimulation (BD-ES) system combines a hybrid tribo/piezoelectric nanogenerator to provide biphasic electric pulses in response to rehabilitation exercise with a conductive bioactive hydrogel. BD-ES can enhance multiple osteogenesis-related biological processes, including calcium ion import and osteogenic differentiation. In a rat model of critical-sized femoral defects, the bone defect was reversed by electrical stimulation therapy with BD-ES and subsequent bone mineralization, and the femur completely healed within 6 weeks. This work is expected to advance the development of symbiotic electrical stimulation therapy devices without batteries and circuits.


Assuntos
Regeneração Óssea , Osteogênese , Humanos , Animais , Ratos , Terapia por Exercício , Calcificação Fisiológica , Estimulação Elétrica
5.
Plants (Basel) ; 13(2)2024 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38256754

RESUMO

The microRNA156 (miR156) family, one of the first miRNA families discovered in plants, plays various important roles in plant growth and resistance to various abiotic stresses. Previously, miR156s were shown to respond to drought stress, but miR156s in tea plants (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) have not been comprehensively identified and analyzed. Herein, we identify 47 mature sequences and 28 precursor sequences in tea plants. Our evolutionary analysis and multiple sequence alignment revealed that csn-miR156s were highly conserved during evolution and that the rates of the csn-miR156 members' evolution were different. The precursor sequences formed typical and stable stem-loop structures. The prediction of cis-acting elements in the CsMIR156s promoter region showed that the CsMIR156s had diverse cis-acting elements; of these, 12 CsMIR156s were found to be drought-responsive elements. The results of reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) testing showed that csn-miR156 family members respond to drought and demonstrate different expression patterns under the conditions of drought stress. This suggests that csn-miR156 family members may be significantly involved in the response of tea plants to drought stress. Csn-miR156f-2-5p knockdown significantly reduced the Fv/Fm value and chlorophyll content and led to the accumulation of more-reactive oxygen species and proline compared with the control. The results of target gene prediction showed that csn-miR156f-2-5p targeted SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein-like (SPL) genes. Further analyses showed that CsSPL14 was targeted by csn-miR156f-2-5p, as confirmed through RT-qPCR, 5' RLM-RACE, and antisense oligonucleotide validation. Our results demonstrate that csn-miR156f-2-5p and CsSPL14 are involved in drought response and represent a new strategy for increasing drought tolerance via the breeding of tea plants.

6.
Nat Immunol ; 24(11): 1854-1866, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37857825

RESUMO

Microglial involvement in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology has emerged as a risk-determining pathogenic event. While apolipoprotein E (APOE) is known to modify AD risk, it remains unclear how microglial apoE impacts brain cognition and AD pathology. Here, using conditional mouse models expressing apoE isoforms in microglia and central nervous system-associated macrophages (CAMs), we demonstrate a cell-autonomous effect of apoE3-mediated microglial activation and function, which are negated by apoE4. Expression of apoE3 in microglia/CAMs improves cognitive function, increases microglia surrounding amyloid plaque and reduces amyloid pathology and associated toxicity, whereas apoE4 expression either compromises or has no effects on these outcomes by impairing lipid metabolism. Single-cell transcriptomic profiling reveals increased antigen presentation and interferon pathways upon apoE3 expression. In contrast, apoE4 expression downregulates complement and lysosomal pathways, and promotes stress-related responses. Moreover, in the presence of mouse endogenous apoE, microglial apoE4 exacerbates amyloid pathology. Finally, we observed a reduction in Lgals3-positive responsive microglia surrounding amyloid plaque and an increased accumulation of lipid droplets in APOE4 human brains and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived microglia. Our findings establish critical isoform-dependent effects of microglia/CAM-expressed apoE in brain function and the development of amyloid pathology, providing new insight into how apoE4 vastly increases AD risk.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Camundongos , Animais , Humanos , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Apolipoproteína E4/metabolismo , Microglia/metabolismo , Apolipoproteína E3/genética , Apolipoproteína E3/metabolismo , Placa Amiloide/metabolismo , Placa Amiloide/patologia , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Apolipoproteínas E/metabolismo , Encéfalo , Homeostase , Camundongos Transgênicos
7.
World J Gastroenterol ; 29(24): 3871-3882, 2023 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37426321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) and programmed cell death 1 inhibitors have shown potential in treating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in retrospective studies. AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of combining SBRT with sintilimab for patients with recurrent or oligometastatic HCC. METHODS: This trial involved patients with recurrent or oligometastatic HCC intravenously treated with SBRT plus sintilimab every 3 wk for 12 mo or until disease progression. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). RESULTS: Twenty-five patients were enrolled from August 14, 2019, to August 23, 2021. The median treatment duration was 10.2 (range, 0.7-14.6) months. SBRT was delivered at a median dose of 54 (range, 48-60) Gy in 6 (range, 6-10) fractions. The median follow-up time was 21.9 (range, 10.3-39.7) mo, and 32 targeted lesions among 25 patients were evaluated for treatment response according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1. The median PFS was 19.7 mo [95% confidence interval (CI): 16.9-NA], with PFS rates of 68% (95%CI: 52-89) and 45.3% (95%CI: 28-73.4) at 12 and 24 mo, respectively. The median overall survival (OS) was not reached, with OS rates of 91.5% (95%CI: 80.8-100.0) and 83.2% (95%CI: 66.5-100.0) at 12 and 24 mo, respectively. The 1- and 2-year local control rate were 100% and 90.9% (95%CI: 75.4%-100.0%), respectively. The confirmed objective response rate and disease control rate was 96%, and 96%, respectively. Most adverse events were graded as 1 or 2, and grade 3 adverse events were observed in three patients. CONCLUSION: SBRT plus sintilimab is an effective, well-tolerated treatment regimen for patients with recurrent or oligometastatic HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Radiocirurgia , Humanos , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Build Simul ; : 1-15, 2023 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37359831

RESUMO

The building sector is facing a challenge in achieving carbon neutrality due to climate change and urbanization. Urban building energy modeling (UBEM) is an effective method to understand the energy use of building stocks at an urban scale and evaluate retrofit scenarios against future weather variations, supporting the implementation of carbon emission reduction policies. Currently, most studies focus on the energy performance of archetype buildings under climate change, which is hard to obtain refined results for individual buildings when scaling up to an urban area. Therefore, this study integrates future weather data with an UBEM approach to assess the impacts of climate change on the energy performance of urban areas, by taking two urban neighborhoods comprising 483 buildings in Geneva, Switzerland as case studies. In this regard, GIS datasets and Swiss building norms were collected to develop an archetype library. The building heating energy consumption was calculated by the UBEM tool-AutoBPS, which was then calibrated against annual metered data. A rapid UBEM calibration method was applied to achieve a percentage error of 2.7%. The calibrated models were then used to assess the impacts of climate change using four future weather datasets out of Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSP1-2.6, SSP2-4.5, SSP3-7.0, and SSP5-8.5). The results showed a decrease of 22%-31% and 21%-29% for heating energy consumption, an increase of 113%-173% and 95%-144% for cooling energy consumption in the two neighborhoods by 2050. The average annual heating intensity dropped from 81 kWh/m2 in the current typical climate to 57 kWh/m2 in the SSP5-8.5, while the cooling intensity rose from 12 kWh/m2 to 32 kWh/m2. The overall envelope system upgrade reduced the average heating and cooling energy consumption by 41.7% and 18.6%, respectively, in the SSP scenarios. The spatial and temporal distribution of energy consumption change can provide valuable information for future urban energy planning against climate change.

10.
Clin Transl Radiat Oncol ; 39: 100465, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36935858

RESUMO

Background and Purpose: To evaluate the different response patterns after Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) and their predictive value in local control and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and methods: Seventy-two HCC patients who were treated with SBRT during 2015-2020 were included in this retrospective study. The assessment was made using MRI, CT, and PET-CT. Local and systemic responses were determined according to modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (mRECIST) criteria during follow up. Patients were categorized as early responders (complete response during 6 months after radiotherapy) or non-early responders (the rest of the patients). Prognostic factors were determined using multivariate logistic models. Results: The median follow-up was 24.0 months (range, 7.7-74.5 months). We found that 84.7%(61/72) of patients achieved a complete response. Early responses occurred in 45 patients (45/72, 62.5%), and they had 1-, 2-, and 5- year intrahepatic outfield-free survival (OutFFS) rates of 86.2%, 80.3%, and 76.3% vs. 55.3%, 44.7%, and 33.5% in non-early responses patients, whereas the 1-, 2-, and 5- year distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) were 95.5%, 84.5% and 79.5% and 74.1%, 56.2% and 56.2%, respectively. The 1-, 2-, and 5-year overall survival (OS) were 97.7%, 92.1%, 79.1%, and 85.2%, 53.8%, and 40.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that early tumor response was an independent predictor of OutFFS, DMFS, and OS. Conclusions: Early complete tumor response within 6 months after radiotherapy predicted better intrahepatic outfield-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, and overall survival outcomes. Confirmation is warranted for early response on SBRT to guide decision making.

11.
Cancer Treat Res Commun ; 35: 100694, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36868002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. As the molecular mechanism for liver metastasis of CRC has not yet been completely discovered, identification of hub genes and pathways of this disease is of importance for revealing potential molecular mechanism of colorectal cancer progression. This study aimed to identify potential biomarkers and survival analysis of hub genes for CRC treatment. METHODS: The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between colorectal cancer liver metastasis and primary tumor were screened using microarray data from two datasets GSE179979, GSE144259 obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses were performed for DEGs using DAVID database, the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed using the Cytoscape software, and module analysis was performed using MCODE. Then, overall survival (OS), progression free interval (PFI) and disease specific survival (DSS) analysis of hub genes was performed by using TCGA database. The correlations between hub genes and clinical values were validated through CRN and immunohistochemistry (IHC) stain. RESULTS: A total of 64 DEGs were obtained, KEGG pathway analysis showed that the significant pathways included PPAR signaling pathway, Complement and coagulation cascades. Four hub genes (ITIH2, ALB, CPB2, HGFAC) and two biomarkers (CPB2, HGFAC) with significantly prognostic values were verified by Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort. CONCLUSIONS: CPB2 and HGFAC may serve as new biomarkers in diagnosing liver metastasis of CRC or potential drug target.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Humanos , Transcriptoma , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Biologia Computacional
12.
Mol Neurodegener ; 18(1): 8, 2023 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36721205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rare p.H157Y variant of TREM2 (Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells 2) was found to increase Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk. This mutation is located at the cleavage site of TREM2 extracellular domain. Ectopic expression of TREM2-H157Y in HEK293 cells resulted in increased TREM2 shedding. However, the physiological outcomes of the TREM2 H157Y mutation remain unknown in the absence and presence of AD related pathologies. METHODS: We generated a novel Trem2 H157Y knock-in mouse model through CRISPR/Cas9 technology and investigated the effects of Trem2 H157Y on TREM2 proteolytic processing, synaptic function, and AD-related amyloid pathologies by conducting biochemical assays, targeted mass spectrometry analysis of TREM2, hippocampal electrophysiology, immunofluorescent staining, in vivo micro-dialysis, and cortical bulk RNA sequencing. RESULTS: Consistent with previous in vitro findings, Trem2 H157Y increases TREM2 shedding with elevated soluble TREM2 levels in the brain and serum. Moreover, Trem2 H157Y enhances synaptic plasticity without affecting microglial density and morphology, or TREM2 signaling. In the presence of amyloid pathology, Trem2 H157Y accelerates amyloid-ß (Aß) clearance and reduces amyloid burden, dystrophic neurites, and gliosis in two independent founder lines. Targeted mass spectrometry analysis of TREM2 revealed higher ratios of soluble to full-length TREM2-H157Y compared to wild-type TREM2, indicating that the H157Y mutation promotes TREM2 shedding in the presence of Aß. TREM2 signaling was further found reduced in Trem2 H157Y homozygous mice. Transcriptomic profiling revealed that Trem2 H157Y downregulates neuroinflammation-related genes and an immune module correlated with the amyloid pathology. CONCLUSION: Taken together, our findings suggest beneficial effects of the Trem2 H157Y mutation in synaptic function and in mitigating amyloid pathology. Considering the genetic association of TREM2 p.H157Y with AD risk, we speculate TREM2 H157Y in humans might increase AD risk through an amyloid-independent pathway, such as its effects on tauopathy and neurodegeneration which merit further investigation.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides , Proteínas Amiloidogênicas , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Células HEK293 , Encéfalo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Receptores Imunológicos/genética
13.
Ann Neurol ; 93(4): 830-843, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36546684

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence supports a link between increased TDP-43 burden and the presence of an APOE4 gene allele in Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, it is difficult to conclude the direct effect of APOE on TDP-43 pathology due to the presence of mixed AD pathologies. The goal of this study is to address how APOE isoforms impact TDP-43 pathology and related neurodegeneration in the absence of typical AD pathologies. METHODS: We overexpressed human TDP-43 via viral transduction in humanized APOE2, APOE3, APOE4 mice, and murine Apoe-knockout (Apoe-KO) mice. Behavior tests were performed across ages. Animals were harvested at 11 months of age and TDP-43 overexpression-related neurodegeneration and gliosis were assessed. To further address the human relevance, we analyzed the association of APOE with TDP-43 pathology in 160 postmortem brains from autopsy-confirmed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with motor neuron disease (FTLD-MND) in the Mayo Clinic Brain Bank. RESULTS: We found that TDP-43 overexpression induced motor function deficits, neuronal loss, and gliosis in the motor cortex, especially in APOE2 mice, with much milder or absent effects in APOE3, APOE4, or Apoe-KO mice. In the motor cortex of the ALS and FTLD-MND postmortem human brains, we found that the APOE2 allele was associated with more severe TDP-43-positive dystrophic neurites. INTERPRETATION: Our data suggest a genotype-specific effect of APOE on TDP-43 proteinopathy and neurodegeneration in the absence of AD pathology, with the strongest association seen with APOE2. ANN NEUROL 2023;93:830-843.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Demência Frontotemporal , Degeneração Lobar Frontotemporal , Doença dos Neurônios Motores , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Apolipoproteína E2/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Apolipoproteína E3 , Gliose/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Degeneração Lobar Frontotemporal/patologia
14.
Transl Oncol ; 26: 101537, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our preclinical research reveals that radiotherapy (RT) promoted PD-L1 upregulation in tumor tissues and that higher PD-L1 after RT worsened the prognosis through immunosuppression. We sought to validate our experimental results in clinical cohorts and promote clinical application. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In cohort 1, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples were obtained from 46 HCC patients, 23 of whom received preoperative RT and the other 23 received direct surgery. A prospectively collected database contained 122 HCC patients treated with liver RT were enrolled in cohort 2. Blood samples were taken a day before and two weeks after RT. Patients in cohort 2 were further divided into two groups, exploration (73 patients) and validation (49 patients) groups. RESULTS: In cohort 1, RT increased the expression of PD-L1 in tumor tissues (p = 0.001), and PD-L1 levels were associated with decreased cytotoxic T-cell infiltration and a trend toward poor prognosis (p = 0.14). Moreover, PD-L1 expression in tumor tissue positively correlated with soluble (s) PD-L1 in serum (R = 0.421, p = 0.046). Then, in cohort 2, we revealed RT increased sPD-L1 in serum (p < 0.001), which was associated with the number of circulating CD8+ T cells (R = -0.24, p = 0.036), indicating poor survival. Furthermore, patients with higher rate of sPD-L1 increase after RT have better treatment response (p < 0.001), PFS (p = 0.032) and OS (p = 0.045). CONCLUSION: Higher post-RT serum sPD-L1, which may potentiate immune suppression effects, indicates a poor prognosis for HCC patients treated with RT.

15.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 13(9)2022 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36144052

RESUMO

Rigid sensors are a mature type of sensor, but their poor deformation and flexibility limit their application range. The appearance and development of flexible sensors provide an opportunity to solve this problem. In this paper, a resistive flexible sensor utilizes gallium-based liquid metal (eutectic gallium indium alloy, EGaIn) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and is fabricated using an injecting thin-line patterning technique based on soft lithography. Combining the scalable fabrication process and unique wire-shaped liquid metal design enables sensitive multifunctional measurement under stretching and bending loads. Furthermore, the flexible sensor is combined with the glove to demonstrate the application of the wearable sensor glove in the detection of finger joint angle and gesture control, which offers the ability of integration and multifunctional sensing of all-soft wearable physical microsystems for human-machine interfaces. It shows its application potential in medical rehabilitation, intelligent control, and so on.

16.
Gut Microbes ; 14(1): 2119055, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36093568

RESUMO

Studies of the gut-liver axis have enhanced our understanding of the pathophysiology of various liver diseases and the mechanisms underlying the regulation of the effectiveness of therapies. Radiotherapy (RT) is an important therapeutic option for patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the role of the microbiome in regulating the response to RT remains unclear. The present study characterizes the gut microbiome of patients responsive or non-responsive to RT and investigates the molecular mechanisms underlying the differences in patient response. We collected fecal samples for 16S rRNA sequencing from a prospective longitudinal trial of 24 HCC patients receiving RT. We used fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), flow cytometry, and transcriptome sequencing to explore the effects of dysbiosis on RT. We also examined the role of stimulator of interferon genes (STING) in RT-associated antitumor immune responses mediated by gut microbiota in STING- (Tmem173-/-) and cGAS-knockout (Mb21d1-/-) mouse models. We propose that primary resistance to RT could be attributed to the disruption of the gut microbiome. Mechanistically, gut microbiome dysbiosis impairs antitumor immune responses by suppressing antigen presentation and inhibiting effector T cell functions through the cGAS-STING-IFN-I pathway. Cyclic-di-AMP - an emerging second messenger of bacteria - may act as a STING agonist and is thus a potential target for the prediction and modulation of responses to RT in HCC patients. Our study highlights the therapeutic potential of modulating the gut microbiome in HCC patients receiving RT and provides a new strategy for the radiosensitization of liver cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/radioterapia , Disbiose/terapia , Imunidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/radioterapia , Camundongos , Nucleotidiltransferases/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
17.
J Exp Med ; 219(12)2022 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36107206

RESUMO

TREM2 is exclusively expressed by microglia in the brain and is strongly linked to the risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). As microglial responses modulated by TREM2 are central to AD pathogenesis, enhancing TREM2 signaling has been explored as an AD therapeutic strategy. However, the effective therapeutic window targeting TREM2 is unclear. Here, by using microglia-specific inducible mouse models overexpressing human wild-type TREM2 (TREM2-WT) or R47H risk variant (TREM2-R47H), we show that TREM2-WT expression reduces amyloid deposition and neuritic dystrophy only during the early amyloid seeding stage, whereas TREM2-R47H exacerbates amyloid burden during the middle amyloid rapid growth stage. Single-cell RNA sequencing reveals suppressed disease-associated microglia (DAM) signature and reduced DAM population upon TREM2-WT expression in the early stage, whereas upregulated antigen presentation pathway is detected with TREM2-R47H expression in the middle stage. Together, our findings highlight the dynamic effects of TREM2 in modulating AD pathogenesis and emphasize the beneficial effect of enhancing TREM2 function in the early stage of AD development.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Amiloidose , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Amiloide/metabolismo , Amiloidose/patologia , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Humanos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Microglia/metabolismo , Receptores Imunológicos/genética , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo
18.
Mol Neurodegener ; 17(1): 57, 2022 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aggregation and spread of α-synuclein (α-Syn) protein and related neuronal toxicity are the key pathological features of Parkinson's disease (PD) and Lewy body dementia (LBD). Studies have shown that pathological species of α-Syn and tau can spread in a prion-like manner between neurons, although these two proteins have distinct pathological roles and contribute to different neurodegenerative diseases. It is reported that the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) regulates the spread of tau proteins; however, the molecular regulatory mechanisms of α-Syn uptake and spread, and whether it is also regulated by LRP1, remain poorly understood. METHODS: We established LRP1 knockout (LRP1-KO) human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) isogenic lines using a CRISPR/Cas9 strategy and generated iPSC-derived neurons (iPSNs) to test the role of LRP1 in α-Syn uptake. We treated the iPSNs with fluorescently labeled α-Syn protein and measured the internalization of α-Syn using flow cytometry. Three forms of α-Syn species were tested: monomers, oligomers, and pre-formed fibrils (PFFs). To examine whether the lysine residues of α-Syn are involved in LRP1-mediated uptake, we capped the amines of lysines on α-Syn with sulfo-NHS acetate and then measured the internalization. We also tested whether the N-terminus of α-Syn is critical for LRP1-mediated internalization. Lastly, we investigated the role of Lrp1 in regulating α-Syn spread with a neuronal Lrp1 conditional knockout (Lrp1-nKO) mouse model. We generated adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) that allowed for distinguishing the α-Syn expression versus spread and injected them into the hippocampus of six-month-old Lrp1-nKO mice and the littermate wild type (WT) controls. The spread of α-Syn was evaluated three months after the injection. RESULTS: We found that the uptake of both monomeric and oligomeric α-Syn was significantly reduced in iPSNs with LRP1-KO compared with the WT controls. The uptake of α-Syn PFFs was also inhibited in LRP1-KO iPSNs, albeit to a much lesser extent compared to α-Syn monomers and oligomers. The blocking of lysine residues on α-Syn effectively decreased the uptake of α-Syn in iPSNs and the N-terminus of α-Syn was critical for LRP1-mediated α-Syn uptake. Finally, in the Lrp1-nKO mice, the spread of α-Syn was significantly reduced compared with the WT littermates. CONCLUSIONS: We identified LRP1 as a key regulator of α-Syn neuronal uptake, as well as an important mediator of α-Syn spread in the brain. This study provides new knowledge on the physiological and pathological role of LRP1 in α-Syn trafficking and pathology, offering insight for the treatment of synucleinopathies.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Proteína-1 Relacionada a Receptor de Lipoproteína de Baixa Densidade/metabolismo , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Lactente , Camundongos , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Sinapsinas , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
19.
Transl Oncol ; 25: 101492, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35944415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study aims to evaluate whether dosimetric parameters affect the intrahepatic out-field recurrence or distant metastasis-free survival following the stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 76 patients with HCC who were treated with SBRT from January 2015 to May 2020 were included in this retrospective study. The main clinical endpoints considered were intrahepatic out-field free survival (OutFFS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS). The target parameters and the liver were documented including tumor diameters, gross tumor volume (GTV), Liver minus GTV volume (LGV), and Liver minus GTV mean dose (LGD). Multivariable Cox regression with forward stepwise selection was performed to identify independent risk factors for OutFFS and DMFS. Maximally selected rank statistics were used to determine the most informative cut-off value for age and LGD. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 28.2 months (range, 7.7-74.5 months). LGD higher than 12.54 Gy [HR, 0.861(0.747-0.993); p = 0.040] and age greater than 67-year-old [HR, 0.966(0.937-0.997); p = 0.030] are two independent predictors of OutFFS, previous TACE treatment [HR, 0.117(0.015-0.891); p = 0.038] was an independent predictor of DMFS. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggested that the higher the dose received by the normal liver (greater than 12.54 Gy) the better the intrahepatic out-field recurrence-free survival (RFS) rate. Further study is warranted to confirm and to better understand this phenomenon.

20.
Nat Neurosci ; 25(8): 1020-1033, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35915180

RESUMO

The ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene, a genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, is abundantly expressed in both the brain and periphery. Here, we present evidence that peripheral apoE isoforms, separated from those in the brain by the blood-brain barrier, differentially impact Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis and cognition. To evaluate the function of peripheral apoE, we developed conditional mouse models expressing human APOE3 or APOE4 in the liver with no detectable apoE in the brain. Liver-expressed apoE4 compromised synaptic plasticity and cognition by impairing cerebrovascular functions. Plasma proteome profiling revealed apoE isoform-dependent functional pathways highlighting cell adhesion, lipoprotein metabolism and complement activation. ApoE3 plasma from young mice improved cognition and reduced vessel-associated gliosis when transfused into aged mice, whereas apoE4 compromised the beneficial effects of young plasma. A human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived endothelial cell model recapitulated the plasma apoE isoform-specific effect on endothelial integrity, further supporting a vascular-related mechanism. Upon breeding with amyloid model mice, liver-expressed apoE4 exacerbated brain amyloid pathology, whereas apoE3 reduced it. Our findings demonstrate pathogenic effects of peripheral apoE4, providing a strong rationale for targeting peripheral apoE to treat Alzheimer's disease.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Animais , Apolipoproteína E3/genética , Apolipoproteína E3/metabolismo , Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Apolipoproteína E4/metabolismo , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Cognição , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo
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