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1.
Neurosurg Focus ; 47(4): E20, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574475

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although laminae are not viewed as essential structures for spinal integrity, in the sacrum the anatomical weakness and gravity makes it a vulnerable area for CSF accumulation and expansion. The congenital or postoperative defects of sacral laminae, such as in patients with spina bifida, make this area more susceptible to forming progressive dural ectasia, pseudomeningocele, or expansile arachnoid cyst (Tarlov cyst). In addition, adhesions between the dura and surrounding soft tissue after laminectomy can cause some local symptoms, which are difficult to relieve. The authors propose that sacral laminoplasty with titanium mesh can provide a rigid support and barrier to resolve these sacral lesions and local symptoms. METHODS: From January 2016 to December 2017, patients with progressive CSF-containing lesions in the sacral area and defective sacral laminae were included in the study. After repair of the lesion, the authors performed sacral laminoplasty with titanium mesh in each patient. Subsequently, the soft tissue and skin were closed primarily. RESULTS: A total of 6 patients were included. Four patients with repaired myelomeningocele had progressive dural ectasia. One patient with lipomyelomeningocele previously underwent detethering surgery and developed postoperative pseudomeningocele. One patient had a symptomatic Tarlov cyst. Four of these 6 cases presented with low-back pain and local tenderness. During follow-up, ranging from 13 to 37 months, all 6 patients experienced no recurrence of dural ectasia or pseudomeningocele and were free from local symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Sacral laminoplasty with titanium mesh is a safe and effective procedure for treating progressive sacral dural ectasia and refractory pseudomeningocele, preventing CSF leakage as well as relieving local symptoms that may occur years after previous surgery for spina bifida.

2.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(10)2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597401

RESUMO

Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) plays an important role in lipid metabolism. Low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increase the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study investigated CETP gene variants to assess the risk of T2D and specific complications of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and diabetic retinopathy. Towards this, a total of 3023 Taiwanese individuals (1383 without T2D, 1640 with T2D) were enrolled in this study. T2D mice (+Leprdb/+Leprdb, db/db) were used to determine CETP expression in tissues. The A-alleles of rs3764261, rs4783961, and rs1800775 variants were found to be independently associated with 2.86, 1.71, and 0.91 mg/dL increase in HDL-C per allele, respectively. In addition, the A-allele of rs4783961 was significantly associated with a reduced T2D risk (odds ratio (OR), 0.82; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.71‒0.96)), and the A-allele of rs1800775 was significantly related to a lowered DKD risk (OR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.64‒0.96). CETP expression was significantly decreased in the T2D mice kidney compared to that in the control mice (T2D mice, 0.16 0.01 vs. control mice, 0.21 0.02; p = 0.02). These collective findings indicate that CETP variants in the promoter region may affect HDL-C levels. Taiwanese individuals possessing an allele associated with higher HDL-C levels had a lower risk of T2D and DKD.

3.
Molecules ; 24(19)2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597403

RESUMO

Novel 18ß-glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives possessing a carbamate moiety and structurally similar ester derivatives were developed and evaluated for their efficacy as antitumor inhibitors. In the cellular assays, most of the N-substituted carbamate derivatives at the C3-position exhibited potent activities. The results of SAR investigation revealed that the introduction of the morpholine group at the C30-COOH led to a significant loss of the inhibitory potency. Among the ester derivatives, the ester group at C3-position also determined a noticeable reduction in the efficacy. Compound 3j exhibited the most prominent antiproliferative activity against six human cancer cells (A549, HT29, HepG2, MCF-7, PC-3, and Karpas299). Furthermore, compound 3j exerted a moderate inhibiting effect on the ALK. The results of molecular docking analyses suggested that it could bind well to the active site of the receptor ALK, which was consistent with the biological data. These results might inspire further structural optimization of 18ß-glycyrrhetinic acid aiming at the development of potent antitumor agents. The structures 4d, 4g, 4h, 4j, and 4n were studied by X-ray crystallographic analyses.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597422

RESUMO

An individual nanoparticle-based plasmonic nanotechnology was used for real-time revealing lectin-sugar interactions, which could be designed as novel plasmonic nanobiosensors for detection of trace ConA with high sensitivity and selectivity. The LSPR spectra of the Au@Ag NCs are linearly shifted to long wavelength with the increasing of concentration of ConA. In fact, each Au@Ag NC can act as a nanobiosensor for quantified detection of trace ConA, which miniaturized the biosensor system to nanoscale. Furthermore, these results demonstrated the perfect biosensing ability with dual-channel of dark-field microscopy (DFM) images and LSPR spectra. We expect that this nanobiosensor system can provide alternative important method for the monitoring the lectin-sugar specific binding at a single nanoparticle surface.

5.
Nature ; 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597964

RESUMO

SF3B1 is the most commonly mutated RNA splicing factor in cancer1-4, but the mechanisms by which SF3B1 mutations promote malignancy are poorly understood. Here we integrated pan-cancer splicing analyses with a positive-enrichment CRISPR screen to prioritize splicing alterations that promote tumorigenesis. We report that diverse SF3B1 mutations converge on repression of BRD9, which is a core component of the recently described non-canonical BAF chromatin-remodelling complex that also contains GLTSCR1 and GLTSCR1L5-7. Mutant SF3B1 recognizes an aberrant, deep intronic branchpoint within BRD9 and thereby induces the inclusion of a poison exon that is derived from an endogenous retroviral element and subsequent degradation of BRD9 mRNA. Depletion of BRD9 causes the loss of non-canonical BAF at CTCF-associated loci and promotes melanomagenesis. BRD9 is a potent tumour suppressor in uveal melanoma, such that correcting mis-splicing of BRD9 in SF3B1-mutant cells using antisense oligonucleotides or CRISPR-directed mutagenesis suppresses tumour growth. Our results implicate the disruption of non-canonical BAF in the diverse cancer types that carry SF3B1 mutations and suggest a mechanism-based therapeutic approach for treating these malignancies.

6.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598735

RESUMO

The insect gustatory system senses taste information from environmental food substrates and processes it to control feeding behaviors. Drosophila melanogaster has been a powerful genetic model for investigating how various chemical cues are detected at the molecular and cellular levels. In addition to an understanding of how tastants belonging to five historically described taste modalities (sweet, bitter, acid, salt, and amino acid) are sensed, recent findings have identified taste neurons and receptors that recognize tastants of non-canonical modalities, including fatty acids, carbonated water, polyamines, H2O2, bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), ammonia, and calcium. Analyses of response profiles of taste neurons expressing different suites of chemosensory receptors have allowed exploration of taste coding mechanisms in primary sensory neurons. In this review, we present the current knowledge of the molecular and cellular basis of taste detection of various categories of tastants. We also summarize evidence for organotopic and multimodal functions of the taste system. Functional characterization of peripheral taste neurons in different organs has greatly increased our understanding of how insect behavior is regulated by the gustatory system, which may inform development of novel insect pest control strategies.

7.
Prog Community Health Partnersh ; 13(3): 283-291, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-quality, early caregiver-child interaction facilitates language, cognitive, and health outcomes. Children in low socioeconomic status households experience less frequent and lower-quality language interactions on average than their middle to high socioeconomic status peers. Early caregiver-implemented intervention may help to improve outcomes for these children. OBJECTIVES: This article describes how we used community-based participatory research (CBPR) to develop and implement a community-based, caregiver-implemented early language intervention, including the challenges, solutions, and lessons learned in the process of CBPR. METHODS: We adopted an ethnographic approach to document and analyze our CBPR experiences in multiple phases of the project, including intervention design, training, implementation, and evaluation. LESSONS LEARNED: Developing the CBPR partnership, co-designing and implementing the study, and managing systems- level concerns like obtaining funding were central challenges for the researcher-community team. CONCLUSIONS: The CBPR model enhances early language intervention research by facilitating understanding of families in underserved communities and increasing the cultural relevancy of intervention materials.

8.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-9, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566148

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown that the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet might contribute to managing risk factors of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but evidence is limited. We examined the association of DASH diet score (DASH-DS) with NAFLD, as well as the intermediary effects of serum retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4), serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), serum TAG, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and BMI. DESIGN: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of a population-based cohort study. Dietary data and lifestyle factors were assessed by face-to-face interviews and the DASH-DS was then calculated. We assessed serum RBP4, hs-CRP and TAG and calculated HOMA-IR. The presence and degree of NAFLD were determined by abdominal sonography. SETTING: Guangzhou, China. PARTICIPANTS: Guangzhou Nutrition and Health Study participants, aged 40-75 years at baseline (n 3051). RESULTS: After adjusting for potential covariates, we found an inverse association between DASH-DS and the presence of NAFLD (Ptrend = 0·009). The OR (95 % CI) of NAFLD for quintiles 2-5 were 0·78 (0·62, 0·98), 0·74 (0·59, 0·94), 0·69 (0·55, 0·86) and 0·77 (0·61, 0·97), respectively. Path analyses indicated that a higher DASH-DS was associated with lower serum RBP4, hs-CRP, TAG, HOMA-IR and BMI, which were positively associated with the degree of NAFLD. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to the DASH diet was independently associated with a marked lower prevalence of NAFLD in Chinese adults, especially in women and those without abdominal obesity, and might be mediated by reducing RBP4, hs-CRP, TAG, HOMA-IR and BMI.

9.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576841

RESUMO

A mitochondria-targeting hetero-binuclear Ir(iii)-Ru(ii) complex was developed as a photoactivated chemotherapy (PACT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) bifunctional agent to achieve a synergistic effective therapeutic outcome for the therapy of cisplatin-resistant tumour cells.

10.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(10): 741, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582745

RESUMO

Following publication of this article, the authors realized that there were 1) errors made in the author affiliations and that 2) a typo in a grant number needed to be corrected. The corrected author affiliations and grant numbers are listed below. We apologize for the inconvenience.

11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(38): e17202, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567970

RESUMO

A number of studies have reported on treatment outcomes of coronary stenting (PCI) for multivessel coronary artery diseases (MVD), and compared them with the conventional coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). However, the clinical outcomes of robot-assisted CABG (R-CABG) in comparison with PCI in MVD patients have not been investigated.We recruited retrospectively MVD patients receiving R-CABG and PCI with drug-eluting stents for all vessels in one stage between January 2005 and December 2013 at our institution with at least 3 years of outcomes were retrospectively recruited and analyzed.A total of 638 MVD patients were studied. Among them, 281 received R-CABG, and 357 received PCI. Similar complete revascularizations were achieved in both groups (R-CABG: 40.2%, PCI: 41.5%, P = .751). The residual stenosis was 4.1 ±â€Š4.4 in the R-CABG group, and comparably 3.5 ±â€Š3.7 in the PCI group (P = .077). Patients in the R-CABG group were younger, with more severe coronary artery disease (CAD) and had more background risk factors. The in-hospital and long-term mortalities as well as the incidence of TLR, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke were all similar between groups. But the incidence of TVR and any revascularization were lower in the R-CABG group. The long-term mortality was predicted by age, left ventricular ejection fraction, and chronic kidney disease, but not by the revascularization modality, completeness of revascularization, nor residual SYNTAX scores. The last 3 factors were not predictors of long-term TLR, TVR, MI, and stroke.The in-hospital and long-term survival rates of MVD were similar for both the R-CABG and PCI groups. But the R-CABG group had rates of TVR and any revascularization lower than PCI. Revascularization modality, completeness of revascularization, and residual SYNTAX scores were not predictors of in-hospital and long-term mortalities, MI, and stroke in real-world practice. R-CABG was associated with lower rates of TLR and TVR, and is likely a safe and effective treatment and an alternative choice of PCI for MVD patients who have low surgical risks.


Assuntos
Implante de Prótese Vascular , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Stents Farmacológicos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Idoso , Implante de Prótese Vascular/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0220615, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aim to examine the trend in the use of antimuscarinics and off-label alpha-adrenergic blockers for treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in a Taiwanese Women Cohort between 2007 and 2012. METHODS: This population-based National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) was used to examine the trends in the use of antimuscarinics or off-label alpha-adrenergic blockers in Taiwan. A sample of 1,000,000 individuals randomly drawn from the whole population of 23 million individuals who were registered in the NHI in 2005. From 2007 through 2012, women aged over 18 years whose claim record contained prescriptions of either of the two drugs for treatment of any of the LUTS-related diagnoses were identified and analyzed. The annual usage of the two drug classes were calculated by defined daily dose (DDD). RESULTS: From 2007-2012, there was a 0.80 fold (69676.8 to 125104.3) increase in DDD of antimuscarinics in our cohort. The overall healthcare seeking prevalence of LUTS was 7.33% in 2007 and 12.38% in 2012, in a rising trend. The prevalence of antimuscarinics-treated LUTS in our cohort increased from 2.53 in 2007 to 3.41 per 1000 women in 2012. The prevalence of LUTS treated by antimuscarinics increased especially for those older than 60 years during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: This 6-year observational study provided the epidemiologic information of clinically significant LUTS of Asian female population. Moreover, there was a rising trend in the use of antimuscarinics and off-label alpha-adrenergic blockers in the population-based cohort.

13.
Viruses ; 11(10)2019 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590347

RESUMO

During entry, a virus must be transported through the endomembrane system of the host cell, penetrate a cellular membrane, and undergo capsid disassembly, to reach the cytosol and often the nucleus in order to cause infection. To do so requires the virus to coordinately exploit the action of cellular membrane transport, penetration, and disassembly machineries. How this is accomplished remains enigmatic for many viruses, especially for viruses belonging to the nonenveloped virus family. In this review, we present the current model describing infectious entry of the nonenveloped polyomavirus (PyV) SV40. Insights from SV40 entry are likely to provide strategies to combat PyV-induced diseases, and to illuminate cellular trafficking, membrane transport, and disassembly mechanisms.

14.
J Food Drug Anal ; 27(4): 841-848, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590755

RESUMO

We investigated antibiotic resistance of staphylococci isolated from 1128 samples of high-circulating RTE foods in Taiwan. A total of 111 Staphylococcus aureus and 709 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) comprising 23 species were isolated. The prevalence of S. aureus differed in various category of RTE foods, highest in fresh-cut fruits/vegetables (20.5%) and lowest in low-water activity (LWA) foods (0.7%). The overall staphylococcal contamination was highest in fresh-cut fruits/vegetables (62.2%), in which multiple isolates (up to 10) or species (up to 6) in single sample were frequently found. Distinct distribution of species contributed to unique feature in each category. Prevalence of antibiotic-resistant S. aureus was higher in fresh-cut fruits/vegetables samples (14.2% in 127) compared to other food categories (0-7.1%). A total of 4 MRSA carrying SCCmec type IV or VT were identified (3.6% in 111), in which 3 belonged to sequence type ST59 and one was ST5. Among CoNS, S. epidermidis and S. warneri exhibited higher non-intrinsic antibiotic resistance than other species. Of 41 methicillin-resistant CoNS (5.8% in 709) isolates, SCCmec type IV (n = 16) and type VT (n = 6) were most frequent. Isolates of S. saprophyticus, S. xylosus and S. sciuri displayed high rates of resistance to fusidic acid. Novel fusB-family determinants were identified in S. xylosus, S. sciuri and S. kloosii, which may contribute to their intrinsic resistance to fusidic acid. Compared to other food categories, fresh-cut fruits/vegetables were more contaminated by staphylococci carrying non-intrinsic resistance determinants including methicillin resistance. This nation-wide study demonstrated that some categories may have potential risk for transmitting antibiotic resistance, in which S. epidermidis and S. warneri should be gotten more attention.

15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14369, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591412

RESUMO

Plasma volume, estimated by several indirect methods, has been viewed as a biological surrogate for intravascular fluid status. The clinical implication of estimated plasma volume status (ePVS) for long term outcomes in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) remains unclear. We investigate the prognostic value of ePVS calculated by Strauss formula and its association with cardiovascular events and mortality in a prospective HFpEF cohort. There were 449 individuals met the inclusion criteria of our cohort. Estimated plasma volume variation (ΔePVS) and its instantaneous derivatives were calculated by the Strauss formula. Our study endpoints were events of heart failure hospitalization and mortality. Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox regression analysis were applied to determine the power of ΔePVS and baseline ePVS in predicting long term cardiovascular outcomes. Both baseline ePVS and ΔePVS were independent predictors of heart failure hospitalization and mortality. Kaplan-Meier estimates of these outcomes stratified by optimal cut-off value showed that HFpEF individuals with higher baseline ePVS and ΔePVS were associated with elevated risk of composite endpoint of heart failure hospitalization and mortality. This study demonstrated the prognostic value of a novel biological surrogate, instantaneous derivatives ePVS, in predicting long term cardiovascular outcomes in HFpEF population. Monitoring instantaneous plasma volume may assist in identifying patients at high risk for future cardiovascular events. Further prospective studies validating the role of ePVS in predicting long-term prognosis in patients with HFpEF are warranted.

17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(38): e17123, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567950

RESUMO

To investigate the age, gender, time, and etiology differences of traumatic lower limb fractures (TLLFs) in a population of children (≤18 years old), we retrospectively reviewed 936 children who had TLLFs and who came to our university-affiliated hospitals from 2001 to 2010. This study enrolled 657 males (70.2%) and 279 females (29.8%) aged (11.6 ±â€Š4.9) years old. The most common etiologies and fracture sites were motor vehicle collisions (MVCs, 440, 47.0%) and tibias (376, 40.2%). A total of 126 (13.5%) patients suffered neurological deficits (NDs), 127 (13.6%) patients sustained associated injuries (ASOIs), and 78 (8.3%) patients sustained complications. During all periods the occurrence increased with increasing age group and a male preponderance was observed in all age groups. With increasing age, the proportion of injuries due to different etiologies increased and the proportion of femur fracture decreased from 65.2% to 34.5%. With increasing year of admission, the proportion of injuries due to MVCs decreased. The most common fracture sites were tibias in MVCs, femurs in low fall, high fall, and struck by object, feet in sprain. Male patients presented with significantly higher proportions of injuries due to struck by object and sprain, significantly lower proportions of pelvis fracture than the female patients. MVCs and tibias were the most common etiologies and fracture sites. Prevention and treatment should be taken according to the pattern of TLLFs which have specific annual, gender, and age characteristics.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Fêmur/epidemiologia , Fraturas da Tíbia/epidemiologia , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fraturas do Fêmur/etiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Extremidade Inferior/lesões , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Fraturas da Tíbia/etiologia
18.
Microb Pathog ; 137: 103767, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580956

RESUMO

Acute lung inflammation is one among the top of infectious diseases. It is a pulmonary dysfunctional disease. It breaks the physiological coordination in the structures and functions of respiratory system. There are a few effective treatments to minimize the mortality of acute lung inflammation. It was induced by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) via nasal instillation of mice. The common ivy (Hedera helix) is the most significant medicinal plant and considered as a traditional medicinal plant. The most active ingredient in the extract of ivy plant was Hederacoside-C (HDC). The purpose of this study was to investigate its anti-inflammatory effects on induced acute lung inflammation in vivo and (RAW 264.7 cells) in vitro and to elucidate its anti-inflammatory mechanisms. HDC was administered intraperitoneally 1 h after infection until 24 h. The dose was repeated every 8 h for three successful doses. Mice treated with HDC significantly reduced the pulmonary edema, white blood cells, wet-dry ratio (W/D) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. HDC attenuated protein expression levels of MAPKs including p38, ERK, JNK and NF-κB including p65 and IκB-α pathways analyzed by ELISA. HDC also suppressed the protein expressions of TLR2 & TLR4 detected by Western blot. HDC also downregulated the gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-6, IL-1ß and TNF-α, but upregulated the gene expression of an anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 analyzed by qRT-PCR. In conclusion, our results stated that HDC could inhibit the S. aureus induced acute lung inflammation and it may be a potential therapeutic drug against acute lung inflammation.

19.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 94: 792-799, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585244

RESUMO

The caspase is an essential module in the Drosophila immune deficiency (IMD) pathway, which plays a crucial role in countering pathogen infection. In this study, a gene named PcCaspase-3C was found in Procambarus clarkia with a full-length of 4684 bp, including a 1572 bp opening reading frame, which encoded a putative protein of 523 amino acids. PcCaspase-3C contained a CASc domain constituted of 237 amino acids. The PcCaspase-3C gene was primarily expressed in heart, stomach, and intestine, while less in gonad, hepatopancreas, gills, and hemocytes, with the least expression in muscle. Infection with Staphyloccocus aureus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus or white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) induced an up-regulated expression of PcCaspase-3C in intestine or stomach to varying degrees. When PcCaspase-3C was silenced by double-stranded RNA, the expression of some antimicrobial peptides such as ALF2, ALF5, ALF6, Cru3, Cru4, and Lys was significantly inhibited. In addition, silencing of PcCaspase-3C accelerated infection with WSSV in vivo. According to these results, we suggest that PcCaspase-3C might play a crucial role in the immune response of P. clarkia against pathogenic bacterial and viral infections.

20.
Anal Chem ; 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601098

RESUMO

Despite recent advances in cancer treatment, developing better therapeutic reagents remains an essential task for oncologists. To accurately characterize drug efficacy, 3D cell culture holds great promise as opposed to conventional 2D mono-layer culture. Due to the advantages of cell manipulation in high-throughput, various microfluidic platforms have been developed for drug screening with 3D models. However, the dissemination of microfluidic technology is overall slow, and one missing part is fast and low-cost assay readout. In this work, we developed a microfluidic chip forming 1,920 tumor spheres for drug testing, and the platform is supported by automatic image collection and cropping for analysis. Using conventional LIVE/DEAD staining as ground truth of sphere viability, we trained a convolutional neural network to estimate sphere viability based on its brightfield image. The estimated sphere viability was highly correlated with the ground truth (R-value > 0.84). In this manner, we precisely estimated drug efficacy of three chemotherapy drugs, Doxorubicin, Oxaliplatin, and Irinotecan. We also cross-validated the trained networks of Doxorubicin and Oxaliplatin and found common brightfield morphological features indicating sphere viability. The discovery suggests the potential to train a generic network using some representative drugs and apply to many different drugs in large-scale screening. The brightfield estimation of sphere viability saves LIVE/DEAD staining reagent cost and fluorescence imaging time. More importantly, the presented method allows viability estimation in a label-free and non-destructive manner. In short, with image processing and machine learning, the presented method provides a fast, low-cost, and label-free method to assess tumor sphere viability for large-scale drug screening in microfluidics.

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