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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210125

RESUMO

The rapid development of aerospace, automotive, and energy exploration industries urgently requires high-temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMAs) which are utilized as compact solid-state actuators, sensors, and energy conversion devices at elevated temperatures. However, the currently prevailing Ni-Ti-X (X = Pd, Pt, and Hf) HTSMAs are very expensive owing to the high cost of Pd, Pt, and Hf elements, which greatly limits their widespread applications. Here, we have developed an inexpensive (Ni50Mn35.5Ti14.5)99.8B0.2 bulk polycrystalline HTSMA with extraordinary high-temperature superelasticity and a giant two-way shape memory effect (TWSME). This alloy exhibits perfect superelasticity with a fully recoverable strain of as high as 7.1% over a wide temperature range from 150 to 280 °C. Furthermore, it shows a giant TWSME with a remarkably high recoverable strain of 6.0%. Both the recoverable strain of superelasticity and the two-way shape memory strain of the present alloy are the highest among the bulk polycrystalline HTSMAs. The theoretical maximum transformation strain was calculated with energy-minimization theory using the crystal structure information of martensite and austenite obtained from in situ synchrotron high-energy X-ray diffraction experiments to help understand the superelastic behavior of the present alloy. Combining the advantages of low cost and easy fabrication, the present bulk polycrystalline (Ni50Mn35.5Ti14.5)99.8B0.2 alloy shows great potential for high-temperature shape memory applications. This work is instructive for developing cost-effective high-performance HTSMAs.

2.
Surg Endosc ; 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic thyroidectomy is widely performed as it does not result in neck scar. However, there is a paucity of reports pertaining to completely endoscopic lateral neck dissection (LND). In this study, we introduce our step-wise approach for performing endoscopic selective LND via the chest-breast approach. We refer to this approach as Qin's seven steps. METHODS: The Qin's seven steps are: (1) establishment of working space range; (2) dissection of lymph nodes between the SCM and the sternohyoid muscle (level IV) and exposure of omohyoid; (3) dissection of lymph nodes at level IV; (4) dissection of lymph nodes at level III; (5) dissection of lymph nodes at carotid triangle (level III); (6) exposure of accessory nerve and dissection of lymph nodes at level II a; (7) dissection of lymph nodes at level II b. We reviewed the clinical data of 35 patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) who were operated using the Qin's seven steps. RESULTS: All 35 patients successfully underwent LND; bilateral LND was performed in 5 patients. The mean tumor size was 1.8 ± 1.0 cm; seven patients had multiple lesions. The mean number of retrieved lymph nodes in level II, III and IV were 8.8 ± 5.6, 6.1 ± 4.0 and 9.3 ± 5.1, respectively. As for complications, there were 3 cases of accessory nerve injury and 1 case of hypoglossal nerve injury. Internal jugular vein injury, cervical plexus injury and lymphatic leakage occurred in 2, 7, and 1 patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: The Qin's seven steps for performing endoscopic selective LND could be safely used in PTC patients with lateral lymph node metastasis. Satisfactory results were achieved in the short-term follow-up period. We recommend the use of Qin's seven steps for PTC patients who are not desirous of neck scar.

3.
Virol Sin ; 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224110

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has precipitated multiple variants resistant to therapeutic antibodies. In this study, 12 high-affinity antibodies were generated from convalescent donors in early outbreaks using immune antibody phage display libraries. Of them, two RBD-binding antibodies (F61 and H121) showed high-affinity neutralization against SARS-CoV-2, whereas three S2-target antibodies failed to neutralize SARS-CoV-2. Following structure analysis, F61 identified a linear epitope located in residues G446-S494, which overlapped with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) binding sites, while H121 recognized a conformational epitope located on the side face of RBD, outside from ACE2 binding domain. Hence the cocktail of the two antibodies achieved better performance of neutralization to SARS-CoV-2. Importantly, these two antibodies also showed efficient neutralizing activities to the variants including B.1.1.7 and B.1.351, and reacted with mutations of N501Y, E484K, and L452R, indicated that it may also neutralize the recent India endemic strain B.1.617. The unchanged binding activity of F61 and H121 to RBD with multiple mutations revealed a broad neutralizing activity against variants, which mitigated the risk of viral escape. Our findings revealed the therapeutic basis of cocktail antibodies against constantly emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants and provided promising candidate antibodies to clinical treatment of COVID-19 patients infected with broad SARS-CoV-2 variants.

4.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(13): 7476-7491, 2021 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197614

RESUMO

Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor (PARPi)-based therapies initially reduce tumor burden but eventually lead to acquired resistance in cancer patients with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. To understand the potential PARPi resistance mechanisms, we performed whole-genome CRISPR screens to discover genetic alterations that change the gene essentiality in cells with inducible depletion of BRCA2. We identified that several RNA Polymerase II transcription Mediator complex components, especially Cyclin C (CCNC) as synthetic survival targets upon BRCA2 loss. Total mRNA sequencing demonstrated that loss of CCNC could activate the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta signaling pathway and extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction pathway, however the inhibition of these pathways could not reverse cell survival in BRCA2 depleted CCNC-knockout cells, indicating that the activation of these pathways is not required for the resistance. Moreover, we showed that the improved survival is not due to restoration of homologous recombination repair although decreased DNA damage signaling was observed. Interestingly, loss of CCNC could restore replication fork stability in BRCA2 deficient cells, which may contribute to PARPi resistance. Taken together, our data reveal CCNC as a critical genetic determinant upon BRCA2 loss of function, which may help the development of novel therapeutic strategies that overcome PARPi resistance.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209642

RESUMO

The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the mediating effects of individual affect and relationship satisfaction on the relationship between self-esteem and Problematic Internet Use (PIU). Affect was measured using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), relationship satisfaction was assessed using a positive and negative semantic dimension scale, self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and PIU was measured using the Problematic Internet Use scale with a sample of 507 Chinese university students (Mage = 20.41 years, SD = 2.49). The relationships between the variables were tested using structural equation modelling with a multiple mediation model. The results revealed that negative affect and the negative semantic dimensions of relationship satisfaction mediated the relationship between self-esteem and PIU. The implications of the results and the study's theoretical contributions are discussed.

6.
EMBO J ; : e107776, 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232536

RESUMO

Host-virus protein-protein interactions play key roles in the life cycle of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We conducted a comprehensive interactome study between the virus and host cells using tandem affinity purification and proximity-labeling strategies and identified 437 human proteins as the high-confidence interacting proteins. Further characterization of these interactions and comparison to other large-scale study of cellular responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection elucidated how distinct SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins participate in its life cycle. With these data mining, we discovered potential drug targets for the treatment of COVID-19. The interactomes of two key SARS-CoV-2-encoded viral proteins, NSP1 and N, were compared with the interactomes of their counterparts in other human coronaviruses. These comparisons not only revealed common host pathways these viruses manipulate for their survival, but also showed divergent protein-protein interactions that may explain differences in disease pathology. This comprehensive interactome of SARS-CoV-2 provides valuable resources for the understanding and treating of this disease.

7.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205604

RESUMO

Rutin (R) and quercetin (Q) are two widespread dietary flavonoids. Previous studies regarding the plasma cholesterol-lowering activity of R and Q generated inconsistent results. The present study was therefore carried out to investigate the effects of R and Q on cholesterol metabolism in both HepG2 cells and hypercholesterolemia hamsters. Results from HepG2 cell experiments demonstrate that both R and Q decreased cholesterol at doses of 5 and 10 µM. R and Q up-regulated both the mRNA and protein expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP2), low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), and liver X receptor alpha (LXRα). The immunofluorescence study revealed that R and Q increased the LDLR expression, while only Q improved LDL-C uptake in HepG2 cells. Results from hypercholesterolemia hamsters fed diets containing R (5.5 g/kg diet) and Q (2.5 g/kg diet) for 8 weeks demonstrate that both R and Q had no effect on plasma total cholesterol. In the liver, only Q reduced cholesterol significantly. The discrepancy between the in vitro and in vivo studies was probably due to a poor bioavailability of flavonoids in the intestine. It was therefore concluded that R and Q were effective in reducing cholesterol in HepG2 cells in vitro, whereas in vivo, the oral administration of the two flavonoids had little effect on plasma cholesterol in hamsters.


Assuntos
Colesterol/sangue , Colesterol/metabolismo , Quercetina/farmacologia , Rutina/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cricetinae , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipercolesterolemia/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Receptores X do Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores de LDL/sangue , Receptores de LDL/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 2/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Cancer Lett ; 519: 141-149, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245854

RESUMO

The promising therapeutic efficacy of the third generation EGFR inhibitor, osimertinib (AZD9291), for the treatment of patients with EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been demonstrated in the clinic both as first-line and second line therapy. However, inevitable acquired resistance limits its long-term benefit to patients and is thus a significant clinical challenge. The current study focuses on studying the potential role of targeting MEK5-ERK5 signaling in overcoming acquired resistance to osimertinib. Osimertinib and other third generation EGFR inhibitors exerted a rapid and sustained suppressive effect on ERK5 phosphorylation primarily in EGFR-mutant NSCLC cell lines and lost this activity in some osimertinib-resistant cell lines. Osimertinib combined with either ERK5 or MEK5 inhibitors synergistically decreased the survival of osimertinib-resistant cell lines with enhanced induction of apoptosis primarily via augmenting Bim expression. Moreover, the combination effectively inhibited the growth of osimertinib-resistant xenografts in vivo. Together, these findings suggest the potential role of MEK5-ERK5 signaling in modulating development of acquired resistance to osimertinib and value of targeting this signaling as a potential strategy in overcoming acquired resistance to osimertinib and possibly other third generation EGFR inhibitors.

9.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 674616, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34248843

RESUMO

Background: The risk factors of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) recurrence are meaningful for patients and clinicians. Tumor mutation burden (TMB) has been a biomarker for the effectiveness of immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) and prognosis in cancer. However, the role of TMB and its latent significance with immune cell infiltration in PTC are still unclear. Herein, we aimed to explore the effect of TMB on PTC prognosis. Material and Methods: RNA-seq and DNA-seq datasets of PTC patients were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. The Gene Ontology (GO) and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA 4.0.1) were applied further to explore potential differences in PTC patients' biological functions. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and immune microenvironment between the high and low TMB groups were determined. Results: TMB had the highest AUC score than other clinical indicators in ROC analysis on recurrence-free survival, and a higher TMB score was related to a worse prognosis. Further, GSEA showed a higher level of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in the high TMB group, and four genes correlated with recurrence-free survival rate were identified. The abundance of CD8+ T cells and M1 macrophages in the high TMB group was significantly lower than that in the low TMB group. Conclusions: Our study found that TMB was a better predictor variable at evaluating the risk of PTC recurrence. Moreover, TMB-related genes conferred dramatically correlated prognosis, which was worth exploring in guiding postoperative follow-up and predicting recurrence for PTC patients.

10.
mBio ; : e0106721, 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225491

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an ongoing global public crisis. Although viral RNA modification has been reported based on the transcriptome architecture, the types and functions of RNA modification are still unknown. In this study, we evaluated the roles of RNA N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification in SARS-CoV-2. Our methylated RNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeRIP-Seq) and Nanopore direct RNA sequencing (DRS) analysis showed that SARS-CoV-2 RNA contained m6A modification. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 infection not only increased the expression of methyltransferase-like 3 (METTL3) but also altered its distribution. Modification of METTL3 expression by short hairpin RNA or plasmid transfection for knockdown or overexpression, respectively, affected viral replication. Furthermore, the viral key protein RdRp interacted with METTL3, and METTL3 was distributed in both the nucleus and cytoplasm in the presence of RdRp. RdRp appeared to modulate the sumoylation and ubiquitination of METTL3 via an unknown mechanism. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that the host m6A modification complex interacted with viral proteins to modulate SARS-CoV-2 replication. IMPORTANCE Internal chemical modifications of viral RNA play key roles in the regulation of viral replication and gene expression. Although potential internal modifications have been reported in SARS-CoV-2 RNA, the function of the SARS-CoV-2 N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification in the viral life cycle is unclear. In the current study, we demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 RNA underwent m6A modification by host m6A machinery. SARS-CoV-2 infection altered the expression pattern of methyltransferases and demethylases, while the expression level of methyltransferase-like 3 (METTL3) and fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) was linked to the viral replication. Further study showed that METTL3 interacted with viral RNA polymerase RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), which influenced not only the distribution but also the posttranslational modification of METTL3. Our study provided evidence that host m6A components interacted with viral proteins to modulate viral replication.

11.
Zool Res ; 42(4): 469-477, 2021 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34213093

RESUMO

Mutations of PTEN-induced kinase I (PINK1) cause early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD) with selective neurodegeneration in humans. However, current PINK1 knockout mouse and pig models are unable to recapitulate the typical neurodegenerative phenotypes observed in PD patients. This suggests that generating PINK1 disease models in non-human primates (NHPs) that are close to humans is essential to investigate the unique function of PINK1 in primate brains. Paired single guide RNA (sgRNA)/Cas9-D10A nickases and truncated sgRNA/Cas9, both of which can reduce off-target effects without compromising on-target editing, are two optimized strategies in the CRISPR/Cas9 system for establishing disease animal models. Here, we combined the two strategies and injected Cas9-D10A mRNA and two truncated sgRNAs into one-cell-stage cynomolgus zygotes to target the PINK1 gene. We achieved precise and efficient gene editing of the target site in three newborn cynomolgus monkeys. The frame shift mutations of PINK1 in mutant fibroblasts led to a reduction in mRNA. However, western blotting and immunofluorescence staining confirmed the PINK1 protein levels were comparable to that in wild-type fibroblasts. We further reprogramed mutant fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which showed similar ability to differentiate into dopamine (DA) neurons. Taken together, our results showed that co-injection of Cas9-D10A nickase mRNA and sgRNA into one-cell-stage cynomolgus embryos enabled the generation of human disease models in NHPs and target editing by pair truncated sgRNA/Cas9-D10A in PINK1 gene exon 2 did not impact protein expression.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Macaca fascicularis/genética , Doença de Parkinson/veterinária , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/genética , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária , Transferência Embrionária , Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Macaca fascicularis/embriologia , Doenças dos Macacos/genética , Mutação , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Proteínas Quinases/genética , RNA Guia
12.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids ; 1866(11): 159006, 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274505

RESUMO

Hypercholesterolemia has strong heritability and about 40-60% of hypercholesterolemia is caused by genetic risk factors. A number of monogenic genes have been identified so far for familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). However, in the general population, more than 90% of individuals with LDL cholesterol over 190 mg/dL do not carry known FH mutations. Large scale whole-exome sequencing has identified thousands of variants that are predicted to be loss-of-function (LoF) and each individual has a median of about twenty rare LoF variants and several hundreds more common LoF variants. However, majority of those variants have not been characterized and their functional consequence remains largely unknown. Rs77542162 is a common missense variant in ABCA6 and is strongly associated with hypercholesterolemia in different populations. ABCA6 is a cholesterol responsive gene and has been suggested to play a role in lipid metabolism. However, whether and how rs77542162 and ABCA6 regulate lipoprotein metabolism remain unknown. In current study, we systemically characterized the function of rs77542162 and ABCA6 in cultured cells and in vivo of rodents. We found that Abca6 is specifically expressed on the basolateral surface of hepatocytes in mouse liver. The rs77542162 variant disrupts ABCA6 protein stability and results in loss of functional protein. However, we found no evidence that Abca6 plays a role in lipoprotein metabolism in either normal mice or hypercholesterolemia mice or hamsters. Thus, our results suggest that Abca6 does not regulate lipoprotein metabolism in rodents and highlight the challenge and importance of functional characterization of disease-associated variants in animal models.

13.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2021: 5522291, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34305453

RESUMO

Background: In patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), the damage of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) can be life-threatening. Mesenchymal stem cells are widely used in clinical research due to their pleiotropic properties. This study is aimed at exploring the effect of BMSCs regulating astrocytes on the BBB after SAH. Methods: The SAH model was established by perforating the blood vessels. BMSCs were transfected with TSG-6 inhibitor plasmid and cocultured with astrocytes. Intravenous transplantation of BMSCs was utilized to treat SAH rats. We performed ELISA, neurological scoring, Evans blue staining, NO measurement, immunofluorescence, BBB permeability, Western blot, HE staining, Nissl staining, and immunohistochemistry to evaluate the effect of BMSCs on astrocytes and BBB. Results: SAH rats showed BBB injury, increased BBB permeability, and brain histological damage. BMSCs will secrete TSG-6 after being activated by TNF-α. Under the influence of TSG-6, the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways of astrocytes were inhibited. The expression of iNOS was reduced, while occludin, claudin 3, and ZO-1 expression was increased. The production of harmful substances NO and ONOO- decreased. The level of inflammatory factors decreased. The apoptosis of astrocytes was weakened. TSG-6 secreted by BMSCs can relieve inflammation caused by SAH injury. The increase in BBB permeability of SAH rats was further reduced and the risk of rebleeding was reduced. Conclusion: BMSCs can regulate the activation of astrocytes through secreting TSG-6 in vivo and in vitro to protect BBB.

14.
ACS Synth Biol ; 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264647

RESUMO

1,3-Butanediol (1,3-BDO) is an important C4 platform chemical widely used as a solvent in cosmetics and a key intermediate for the synthesis of fragrances, pheromones, and pharmaceuticals. The development of sustainable bioprocesses to produce enantiopure 1,3-BDO from renewable bioresources by fermentation is a promising alternative to conventional chemical routes and has aroused great interest in recent years. Although two metabolic pathways have been previously established for the biosynthesis of (R)-1,3-PDO, the reported titer and yield are too low for cost-competitive production. In this study, we report the combination of different metabolic engineering strategies to improve the production of (R)-1,3-BDO by Escherichia coli, including (1) screening of key pathway enzymes; (2) increasing NADPH supply by cofactor engineering; (3) optimization of fermentation conditions to divert more flux into 1,3-BDO pathway; (4) reduction of byproducts formation by pathway engineering. With these efforts, the best engineered E. coli strain can efficiently produce (R)-1,3-BDO with a yield of 0.6 mol/mol glucose, corresponding to 60% of the theoretical yield. Besides, we also showed the feasibility of aerobically producing 1,3-BDO via a new pathway using 3-hydroxybutyrate as an intermediate.

15.
Biotechnol Biofuels ; 14(1): 163, 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a potential source of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), Schizochytrium sp. has been widely used in industry for PUFA production. Polyketide synthase (PKS) cluster is supposed to be the primary way of PUFA synthesis in Schizochytrium sp. As one of three open reading frames (ORF) in the PKS cluster, ORFC plays an essential role in fatty acid biosynthesis. However, the function of domains in ORFC in the fatty acid synthesis of Schizochytrium sp. remained unclear. RESULTS: In this study, heterologous expression and overexpression were carried out to study the role of ORFC and its domains in fatty acid accumulation. Firstly, ORFC was heterologously expressed in yeast which increased the PUFA content significantly. Then, the dehydratase (DH) and enoyl reductase (ER) domains located on ORFC were overexpressed in Schizochytrium limacinum SR21, respectively. Fatty acids profile analysis showed that the contents of PUFA and saturated fatty acid were increased in the DH and ER overexpression strains, respectively. This indicated that the DH and ER domains played distinct roles in lipid accumulation. Metabolic and transcriptomic analysis revealed that the pentose phosphate pathway and triacylglycerol biosynthesis were enhanced, while the tricarboxylic acid cycle and fatty acids oxidation were weakened in DH-overexpression strain. However, the opposite effect was found in the ER-overexpression strain. CONCLUSION: Therefore, ORFC was required for the biosynthesis of fatty acid. The DH domain played a crucial role in PUFA synthesis, whereas the ER domain might be related to saturated fatty acids (SFA) synthesis in Schizochytrium limacinum SR21. This research explored the role of ORFC in the PKS gene cluster in Schizochytrium limacinum and provided potential genetic modification strategies for improving lipid production and regulating PUFA and SFA content.

16.
Cancer Res ; 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289988

RESUMO

Osimertinib (AZD9291 or TAGRISSOTM) is a promising and approved third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) for treating patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring EGFR-activating mutations or the resistant T790M mutation. However, the inevitable emergence of acquired resistance limits its long-term efficacy. A fuller understanding of the mechanism of action of osimertinib and its linkage to acquired resistance will enable the development of more efficacious therapeutic strategies. Consequently, we have identified a novel connection between osimertinib or other EGFR TKI and c-Myc. Osimertinib rapidly and sustainably decreased c-Myc levels primarily via enhancing protein degradation in EGFR-mutant (EGFRm) NSCLC cell lines and xenograft tumors. c-Myc levels were substantially elevated in different EGFRm NSCLC cell lines with acquired resistance to osimertinib in comparison with their corresponding parental cell lines and could not be reduced any further by osimertinib. Consistently, c-Myc levels were elevated in the majority of EGFRm NSCLC tissues relapsed from EGFR-TKI treatment compared to their corresponding untreated baseline c-Myc levels. Suppression of c-Myc through knockdown or pharmacological targeting with BET inhibitors restored the response of resistant cell lines to osimertinib. These findings indicate that c-Myc modulation mediates the therapeutic efficacy of osimertinib and the development of osimertinib-acquired resistance. Furthermore, they establish c-Myc as a potential therapeutic target and warrant clinical testing of BET inhibition as a potential strategy to overcome acquired resistance to osimertinib or other EGFR inhibitors.

17.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 153, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210292

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung function is constantly changing over the life course. Although the relation of cross-sectional lung function measure and adverse outcomes has been reported, data on longitudinal change and subsequent cardiovascular (CV) events risks are scarce. Therefore, this study is to determine the association of longitudinal change in lung function and subsequent cardiovascular risks. METHODS: This study analyzed the data from four prospective cohorts. Subjects with at least two lung function tests were included. We calculated the rate of forced respiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) decline for each subject and categorized them into quartiles. The primary outcome was CV events, defined as a composite of coronary heart disease (CHD), chronic heart failure (CHF), stroke, and any CV death. Cox proportional hazards regression and restricted cubic spline models were applied. RESULTS: The final sample comprised 12,899 participants (mean age 48.58 years; 43.61% male). Following an average of 14.79 (10.69) years, 3950 CV events occurred. Compared with the highest FEV1 quartile (Q4), the multivariable HRs for the lowest (Q1), 2nd (Q2), and 3rd quartiles (Q3) were 1.33 (95%CI 1.19, 1.49), 1.30 (1.16, 1.46), and 1.07 (0.95, 1.21), respectively. Likewise, compared with the reference quartile (Q4), the group that experienced a faster decline in FVC had higher HRs for CV events (1.06 [95%CI 0.94-1.20] for Q3, 1.15 [1.02-1.30] for Q2, and 1.28 [1.14-1.44] for Q1). The association remained robust across a series of sensitivity analyses and nearly all subgroups but was more evident in subjects < 60 years. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a monotonic increase in risks of CV events with a faster decline in FEV1 and FVC. These findings emphasize the value of periodic evaluation of lung function and open new opportunities for disease prevention.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218376

RESUMO

Compared to fuel vehicles, new energy vehicles have the advantages of energy-saving and emission reduction and, hence, are widely accepted. As the policy has been withdrawn gradually, the development of new energy vehicles has slowed down. Under the double effect of positive factors, such as policy support and public opinion support and malpractice factors, this study explored the development status of new energy vehicles and the related problems. Based on the qualitative and quantitative perspective, the improved Lotka-Volterra model and the health assessment method are adopted, and the system dynamics, behavioral economics, and other methods are combined to establish the driving flow diagram of new energy vehicles to explore the source of the problem and the governance measures. The analysis results showed that the support strength of policy and public opinion decreases gradually. However, the primary factor restricting the development of new energy vehicles is still cost. Cadmium and chromium in the soil exceed the national heavy metal content standards of China, while the other five heavy metals in the analysis period did not exceed the national standards.

19.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol ; 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34223944

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) receiving insulin therapy commonly suffer from insulin-mediated hypoglycemia and require glucagon for glycemic control to achieve normal plasma glucose (PG) levels. Severe hypoglycemia will endanger the life of patients and require intervention. Stable glucagon analog dasiglucagon was approved for the treatment of patients with severe hypoglycemia and is administered via Zegalogue autoinjector/Zegalogue prefilled syringe. The main purpose of this review article is to review the basic properties and clinical effects of dasiglucagon. METHOD: We search related literature on CNKI, Web of Science and PubMed by keywords dasiglucagon, hypoglycemia, type 1 diabetes, glucagon. Carry out a careful review of the included literature. Dasiglucagon information on clinicaltrials.gov and https://www.fda.gov/ has been adopted. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Dasiglucagon is a novel peptide analog of human glucagon, which can effectively rescue insulin-induced severe hypoglycemia in patients with T1DM and rapidly increase glycemic levels in a small dose under normal and hypoglycemic conditions. It has been proven that dasiglucagon has definite stability and solubility in aqueous formulations. Dasiglucagon has a higher absorption rate and longer plasma elimination half-life than traditional reconstituted glucagon. In three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in children aged 6 to 17 years and adults with T1DM the median time to glycemic recovery in 10 min after dasiglucagon administration was significantly faster than placebo and 99% of patients recovered within 15 min after subcutaneous injection of dasiglucagon in the key phase 3 clinical trial. The most common adverse reactions in these phase 3 trials were vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, headache, and injection site pain.

20.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(13): 9285-9292, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130451

RESUMO

Here, we investigate competitive adsorption and photocatalytic reaction over TiO2@SiO2: NO conversion efficiency decreases by 29.1%, and the adsorption capacity decreases from 0.125 to 0.095 mmol/g due to the influence of SO2. According to identification and comparative analysis of the IR signal, SO2 has little effect on the NO conversion route and intermediates (adsorbed NO → nitrite → nitrate), but accelerates the deactivation of catalysts. The electronic interaction scheme from density functional theory (DFT) confirms that surface hydroxyls create an unsaturated coordination of neighboring Ti or O atoms, which is favorable for NO/SO2 adsorption on anatase (101). In addition, the lone pair electrons of N or S atoms prefer to be delocalized and form covalent bonds with active surface-O on the (101) facet with terminal hydroxyls. However, preadsorbed SO2 could offset the increase of hydroxyls and strongly inhibit NO adsorption, which is consistent with the result performance evaluation. A possible reaction mechanism characterized by oxygen vacancies and·O2- is proposed, while the essential reason of catalyst deactivation and regeneration is theoretically analyzed based on the experimental and DFT calculation.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Silício , Titânio , Adsorção , Oxirredução
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