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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38721825

RESUMO

Cr(VI) has been a carcinogen for organisms and a hazard to human health throughout the food chain. To explore a cost-effective and efficient method for removing Cr(VI), a Cr-resistant strain named LBA108 was isolated from the soil of a molybdenum-lead mining area. It was identified as Microbacterium through biochemical tests and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Following 48 hours of incubation in LB culture medium containing 60 mg L-1 Cr(VI), the LBA108 strain exhibited reduction and adsorption rates for Cr(VI) at 96.64% and 15.86%, respectively. The removal mechanism was subsequently confirmed through Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. In an experimental setup, radish seedlings were cultivated as test crops under varying levels of Cr stress (ranging from 0 to 7 mg L-1) in a hydroponic experiment. With the inoculation of the LBA108 strain, the fresh weight of radish seedlings increased by 2.05 times and plant length increased by 34.5% under 7 mg L-1 Cr stress. In addition, the plant produced more antioxidant enzymes/enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase and catalase to prevent oxidative stress. Under Cr stress (6 mg L-1), the accumulation of Cr in rhizomes of radish seedlings increased compared to the control group by 91.44%, while the absorption of Cr by leaves decreased by 52.10%. These findings suggest that the LBA108 strain possesses bioremediation capabilities as a microbial-phytoremediation option for Cr-contaminated soil.

4.
J Diabetes Investig ; 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38727884

RESUMO

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Diabetes has been related to an increased risk of oral cancer. Nevertheless, the impact of diabetes on the outcome of individuals with oral and oropharyngeal cancer is not clear. In this study, a meta-analysis was carried out to assess the link between diabetes and the survival of individuals with oral and oropharyngeal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Relevant cohort studies for the meta-analysis objective were obtained through searching electronic databases, such as PubMed, Web of Science and Embase. The data were combined using a random effects model that accounted for differences between studies. RESULTS: A total of 10 cohorts involving 21,871 patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancer were included. Pooled results suggest that compared with those with normoglycemia, oral and oropharyngeal cancer patients with diabetes were associated with a poor overall survival (hazard ratio 1.69, 95% confidence interval 1.29-2.22, P < 0.001; I2 = 69%). Subgroup analysis suggested a stronger association between diabetes and poor overall survival in patients aged ≥52 years as compared with those aged <52 years (hazard ratio 2.08 vs 1.34, P = 0.03). Other study characteristics, such as study country, tumor stage or follow-up duration, did not seem to significantly affect the association (P for subgroup difference all >0.05). In addition, diabetes was also associated with a poor progression-free survival of patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancer (hazard ratio 1.61, 95% confidence interval 1.30-1.99, P < 0.001; I2 = 9%). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancer might have a poor survival if they have pre-existing diabetes.

6.
NPJ Precis Oncol ; 8(1): 100, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38740834

RESUMO

Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion-positive colorectal cancer (CRC) is a rare and chemotherapy-refractory subtype that lacks established and effective treatment strategies. Additionally, the efficacy and safety of ALK inhibitors (ALKi) in CRC remain undetermined. Herein, we examined a series of ALK-positive CRC patients who underwent various lines of ALKi treatment. Notably, we detected an ALK 1196M resistance mutation in a CRC patient who received multiple lines of chemotherapy and ALKi treatment. Importantly, we found that Brigatinib and Lorlatinib demonstrated some efficacy in managing this patient, although the observed effectiveness was not as pronounced as in non-small cell lung cancer cases. Furthermore, based on our preliminary analyses, we surmise that ALK-positive CRC patients are likely to exhibit inner resistance to Cetuximab. Taken together, our findings have important implications for the treatment of ALK-positive CRC patients.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38716221

RESUMO

Background: Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease with significant morbidity, affecting millions worldwide. The intricacies of immune responses in CD, especially post-treatment, remain a vital area of exploration. While memory T (Tm)-cell subsets play a pivotal role in adaptive immunity, their specific function in patients with CD after treatment is not well-understood. This study aims to investigate the effect and function of Tm-cell subsets in these patients, addressing a crucial knowledge gap in the context of CD therapeutics. Methods: A total of eight patients diagnosed with CD were selected based on predefined inclusion criteria. All patients were treated with either anti-inflammatory agents, immunosuppressive drugs, or a combination of both. For comparison, healthy donors were enrolled based on exclusion of autoimmune or inflammatory diseases. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and lymphocytes were isolated from blood and lymph node tissue respectively. The phenotype and cytokine production of T lymphocytes from both CD patients and healthy donors were analyzed using flow cytometry. Statistical comparisons of the outcomes between CD patients and healthy donors were made using Mann-Whitney test (two-tailed) and Student t-test. Results: Post-treatment CD patients exhibited an altered T cell distribution with a notable increase in CD8+ T cells in PBMCs (P=0.0005), and altered frequencies of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs). Tm cells showed decreased interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production, with significant alterations in the frequency of IFN-γ-producing CD8+ stem cell-like Tm (Tscm) cells in lesions of the MLNs from patients with CD (CD-M-Lys) compared to healthy MLNs from patients with CD (N-M-Lys) (P=0.0152). Differences in tissue-resident Tm (Trm)-cell subset frequencies were observed between the MLNs and small intestinal mucosa in CD patients. Conclusions: The treatments with anti-inflammatory agents and/or immunosuppressive drugs have a significant effect on the frequency and function of Tm-cell subsets. Clinically, these findings suggest a potential therapeutic avenue in modulating Tm-cell responses, which might be particularly beneficial for conditions where immune response modulation is crucial. Further clinical studies are warranted to explore the full therapeutic implications of these findings.

8.
Adv Mater ; : e2404493, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718355

RESUMO

Optical waveguides fabricated in single crystals offer crucial passive/active optical components for photonic integrated circuits. Single crystals possess inherent advantages over their amorphous counterpart, such as lower optical losses in visible-to-mid-infrared band, larger peak emission cross-section, higher doping concentration. However, the writing of Type-I positive refractive index modified waveguides in single crystals using femtosecond laser technology presents significant challenges. Herein, we introduce a novel femtosecond laser direct writing technique that combines slit-shaping with an immersion oil objective to fabricate low-loss Type-I waveguides in single crystals. This approach allows for precise control of waveguide shape, size, mode-field and refractive index distribution, with a spatial resolution as high as 700 nm and a high positive refractive index variation on the order of 10-2, introducing new degrees of freedom to design and fabricate passive/active optical waveguide devices. As a proof-of-concept, we successfully produced a 7 mm-long circular-shaped gain waveguide (∼10 µm in diameter) in an Er3+-doped YAG single crystal, exhibiting a propagation loss as low as 0.23 dB/cm, a net gain of ∼3 dB and a polarization-insensitive character. The newly-developed technique is theoretically applicable to arbitrary single crystals, holding promising potential for various applications in integrated optics, optical communication, and photonic quantum circuits. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

9.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719955

RESUMO

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a progressive fatal disease with no cure. Canagliflozin (CANA), a novel medication for diabetes, has been found to have remarkable cardiovascular benefits. However, few studies have addressed the effect and pharmacological mechanism of CANA in the treatment of PH. Therefore, our study aimed to investigate the effect and pharmacological mechanism of CANA in treating PH. First, CANA suppressed increased pulmonary artery pressure, right ventricular hypertrophy, and vascular remodeling in both mouse and rat PH models. Network pharmacology, transcriptomics, and biological results suggested that CANA could ameliorate PH by suppressing excessive oxidative stress and pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation partially through the activation of PPARγ. Further studies demonstrated that CANA inhibited phosphorylation of PPARγ at Ser225 (a novel serine phosphorylation site in PPARγ), thereby promoting the nuclear translocation of PPARγ and increasing its ability to resist oxidative stress and proliferation. Taken together, our study not only highlighted the potential pharmacological effect of CANA on PH but also revealed that CANA-induced inhibition of PPARγ Ser225 phosphorylation increases its capacity to counteract oxidative stress and inhibits proliferation. These findings may stimulate further research and encourage future clinical trials exploring the therapeutic potential of CANA in PH treatment.

10.
J Immunother Cancer ; 12(5)2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CD276 (B7-H3), a pivotal immune checkpoint, facilitates tumorigenicity, invasiveness, and metastasis by escaping immune surveillance in a variety of tumors; however, the underlying mechanisms facilitating immune escape in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remain enigmatic. METHODS: We investigated the expression of CD276 in ESCC tissues from patients by using immunohistochemistry (IHC) assays. In vivo, we established a 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO)-induced CD276 knockout (CD276wKO) and K14cre; CD276 conditional knockout (CD276cKO) mouse model of ESCC to study the functional role of CD276 in ESCC. Furthermore, we used the 4NQO-induced mouse model to evaluate the effects of anti-CXCL1 antibodies, anti-Ly6G antibodies, anti-NK1.1 antibodies, and GSK484 inhibitors on tumor growth. Moreover, IHC, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence techniques were employed to measure immune cell proportions in ESCC. In addition, we conducted single-cell RNA sequencing analysis to examine the alterations in tumor microenvironment following CD276 depletion. RESULTS: In this study, we elucidate that CD276 is markedly upregulated in ESCC, correlating with poor prognosis. In vivo, our results indicate that depletion of CD276 inhibits tumorigenesis and progression of ESCC. Furthermore, conditional knockout of CD276 in epithelial cells engenders a significant downregulation of CXCL1, consequently reducing the formation of neutrophil extracellular trap networks (NETs) via the CXCL1-CXCR2 signaling axis, while simultaneously augmenting natural killer (NK) cells. In addition, overexpression of CD276 promotes tumorigenesis via increasing NETs' formation and reducing NK cells in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: This study successfully elucidates the functional role of CD276 in ESCC. Our comprehensive analysis uncovers the significant role of CD276 in modulating immune surveillance mechanisms in ESCC, thereby suggesting that targeting CD276 might serve as a potential therapeutic approach for ESCC treatment.


Assuntos
Antígenos B7 , Quimiocina CXCL1 , Neoplasias Esofágicas , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago , Receptores de Interleucina-8B , Animais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/metabolismo , Camundongos , Humanos , Receptores de Interleucina-8B/metabolismo , Neoplasias Esofágicas/imunologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Antígenos B7/metabolismo , Quimiocina CXCL1/metabolismo , Armadilhas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Evasão Tumoral , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos Knockout , Microambiente Tumoral
11.
Exp Eye Res ; 244: 109919, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729254

RESUMO

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss among the elderly, which is primarily attributed to oxidative stress-induced damage to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSC) were considered to be one of the most promising stem cells for clinical application due to their low immunogenicity, tissue repair ability, pluripotent potential and potent paracrine effects. The conditional medium (hAMSC-CM) and exosomes (hAMSC-exo) derived from hAMSC, as mediators of intercellular communication, play an important role in the treatment of retinal diseases, but their effect and mechanism on oxidative stress-induced retinal degeneration are not explored. Here, we reported that hAMSC-CM alleviated H2O2-induced ARPE-19 cell death through inhibiting mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis pathway in vitro. The overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), alteration in mitochondrial morphology, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and elevation of Bax/Bcl2 ratio in ARPE-19 cells under oxidative stress were efficiently reversed by hAMSC-CM. Moreover, it was found that hAMSC-CM protected cells against oxidative injury via PI3K/Akt/FoxO3 signaling. Intriguingly, exosome inhibitor GW4869 alleviated the inhibitory effect of hAMSC-CM on H2O2-induced decrease in cell viability of ARPE-19 cells. We further demonstrated that hAMSC-exo exerted the similar protective effect on ARPE-19 cells against oxidative damage as hAMSC-CM. Additionally, both hAMSC-CM and hAMSC-exo ameliorated sodium iodate-induced deterioration of RPE and retinal damage in vivo. These results first indicate that hAMSC-CM and hAMSC-exo protect RPE cells from oxidative damage by regulating PI3K/Akt/FoxO3 pathway, suggesting hAMSC-CM and hAMSC-exo will be a promising cell-free therapy for the treatment of AMD in the future.

12.
Fitoterapia ; : 106000, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729248

RESUMO

Five new characteristic cembrane-type diterpenoids (olibacartiols A-E, 1-5) were acquired from the gum resin of Boswellia carterii. The structures of these diterpenoids were characterized by detailed spectroscopic analysis, and compounds 1-3 were unambiguously confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments. The anti-inflammatory activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated using LPS-induced BV2 cell model and compounds 2-5 showed moderate NO inhibitory effects with IC50 values of 8.84 ±â€¯1.02, 9.82 ±â€¯1.95, 9.75 ±â€¯2.24, and 7.39 ±â€¯1.24 µM, respectively.

13.
eNeuro ; 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729764

RESUMO

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), the most common subtype of hemorrhagic stroke, leads to cognitive impairment and imposes significant psychological burdens on patients. Hippocampal neurogenesis has been shown to play an essential role in cognitive function. Our previous study has shown that tetrahydrofolate (THF) promotes the proliferation of neural stem cells (NSCs). However, the effect of THF on cognition after ICH and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated that administration of THF could restore cognition after ICH. Using Nestin-GFP mice, we further revealed that THF enhanced the proliferation of hippocampal NSCs and neurogenesis after ICH. Mechanistically, we found that THF could prevent ICH-induced elevated level of PTEN and decreased expressions of phosphorylated AKT and mTOR. Furthermore, conditional deletion of PTEN in NSCs of hippocampus attenuated the inhibitory effect of ICH on the proliferation of NSCs and abnormal neurogenesis. Taken together, these results provide molecular insights into ICH-induced cognitive impairment and suggest translational clinical therapeutic strategy for hemorrhagic stroke.Significance Statement Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has been associated with cognitive dysfunction, yet its underlying mechanism remains elusive. Tetrahydrofolate (THF) has shown potential in promoting the proliferation of neural stem cells (NSCs), but its specific impact on cognitive recovery following ICH is still to be confirmed. Through the utilization of the Nestin-GFP genetic marker to track endogenous NSCs in mice, our study revealed that THF could regulate PTEN pathway to ameliorate cognitive impairment post-ICH by enhancing the proliferation of NSCs and sustaining neurogenesis. These findings contribute to valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms involved and suggest potential clinical applications for enhancing cognitive function recovery after ICH.

14.
EBioMedicine ; 104: 105165, 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38776596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the impact of CYP2D6 metabolism on paroxetine, a widely used antidepressant, is essential for precision dosing. METHODS: We conducted an 8-week, multi-center, single-drug, 2-week wash period prospective cohort study in 921 Chinese Han patients with depressive or anxiety disorders (ChiCTR2000038462). We performed CYP2D6 genotyping (single nucleotide variant and copy number variant) to derive the CYP2D6 activity score and evaluated paroxetine treatment outcomes including steady-state concentration, treatment efficacy, and adverse reaction. CYP2D6 metabolizer status was categorized into poor metabolizers (PMs), intermediate metabolizers (IMs), extensive metabolizers (EMs), and ultrarapid metabolizers (UMs). The influence of CYP2D6 metabolic phenotype on paroxetine treatment outcomes was examined using multiple regression analysis and cross-ethnic meta-analysis. The therapeutic reference range of paroxetine was estimated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. FINDINGS: After adjusting for demographic factors, the steady-state concentrations of paroxetine in PMs, IMs, and UMs were 2.50, 1.12, and 0.39 times that of EMs, with PM and UM effects being statistically significant (multiple linear regression, P = 0.03 and P = 0.04). Sex and ethnicity influenced the comparison between IMs and EMs. Moreover, poor efficacy of paroxetine was associated with UM, and a higher risk of developing adverse reactions was associated with lower CYP2D6 activity score. Lastly, cross-ethnic meta-analysis suggested dose adjustments for PMs, IMs, EMs, and UMs in the East Asian population to be 35%, 40%, 143%, and 241% of the manufacturer's recommended dose, and 62%, 68%, 131%, and 159% in the non-East Asian population. INTERPRETATION: Our findings advocate for precision dosing based on the CYP2D6 metabolic phenotype, with sex and ethnicity being crucial considerations in this approach. FUNDING: National Natural Science Foundation of China; Academy of Medical Sciences Research Unit.

15.
Sci Total Environ ; : 173343, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38777069

RESUMO

Niche convergence or conservatism have been proposed as essential mechanisms underlying elevational plant community assembly in tropical mountain ecosystems. Subtropical mountains at higher latitudes, compared to tropical mountains, are likely to be shaped by a mixing of different geographic affinities of species and remain somehow unclear. Here, we used 31 0.1-ha permanent plots distributed in subtropical forests on the eastern and western slopes of the Gaoligong Mountains, southwest China between 1498 m and 3204 m a.sl. to evaluate how niche-based and biogeographic processes shape tree community assembly along elevational gradients. We analyzed the elevational patterns of taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity, as well as of individual traits, and assessed the relative importance of environmental effects on these diversity measures. We then classified tree species as being either tropical affiliated or temperate affiliated and estimated their contribution to the composition of biogeographic affinities. Species richness decreased with elevation, and species composition showed apparent turnover across the aspects and elevations. Most traits exhibited convergent patterns across the entire elevational gradient. Phylogenetic and functional diversity showed opposing patterns, with phylogenetic diversity increasing and functional diversity decreasing with elevation. Soil nutrients, especially phosphorus and nitrogen, appeared to be the main abiotic variables driving the elevational diversity patterns. Communities at lower elevations were occupied by tropical genera, while highlands contained species of tropical and temperate biogeographic affinities. Moreover, the high phylogenetic diversity at highlands were likely due to differences in evolutionary history between temperate and tropical species. Our results highlight the importance of niche convergence of tropical species and the legacy of biogeographic history on the composition and structure of subtropical mountain forests. Furthermore, limited soil phosphorus caused traits divergence and the partitioning for different forms of phosphorus may explain the high biodiversity found in phosphorus-limited subtropical forests.

16.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2024 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38781401

RESUMO

Unactivated aliphatic alkenes are particularly desirable as starting materials because they are readily accessible in large quantities, but the enantioselective intermolecular reductive coupling of unactivated alkenes with imines is challenging. In this paper, we report a method for nickel-catalyzed intermolecular reductive coupling reactions between aliphatic alkenes and imines to yield chiral amines with excellent enantioselectivities and good linear selectivities. The reaction conditions are compatible with a broad range of aliphatic alkenes, including those derived from bioactive molecules. The success of this method can be attributed to the use of newly developed monodentate chiral spiro phosphine ligands.

17.
Am J Infect Control ; 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38782211

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate genetic relatedness and antibiotic resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae from retail meat samples, clinical source samples, and hospital environmental samples in Wuhan, China. METHODS: The hypermucoviscosity phenotypes and biofilm formation ability of K. pneumoniae were determined by string test and crystalline violet staining. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of 18 antimicrobial agents were determined by the broth microdilution test, and PCR assays were performed to detect 14 genes associated with antibiotic resistance. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis was used to assess the genetic relatedness and clonal dissemination. RESULTS: Among the 5730 samples analyzed, 46 tested positive for K. pneumoniae, with higher rates observed in meat (23.4%, CI: 12.8-38.4%) than in clinical samples (0.6%, CI: 0.4-0.8%) and hospital environmental samples (8.0%, CI: 2.6-20.1%). Meat-derived isolates showed high resistance to tetracycline (36.4%, 4/11, CI: 12.4-68.4%), sulphonamide (27.3%, 3/11, CI: 7.3-60.7%), and gentamicin (27.3%, 3/11, CI: 7.3-60.7%), whereas clinical isolates exhibited significant resistance to ampicillin-sulbactam (32.3%, 10/31, CI: 17.3-51.5%). Multidrug resistance was observed in 17.4% (8/46, CI:8.3-32.0%) of the isolates, particularly in hospital environmental samples (3/4, CI: 21.9-98.7%). Biofilm production was observed in 88.1% (37/42, CI: 73.6-95.6%) of K. pneumoniae, with varying degrees of strength. PFGE analysis revealed patient-to-patient K. pneumoniae transmission, transmission between patients and hospital environment, as well as cross-contamination between markets. CONCLUSION: The findings underscore the importance of comprehensive surveillance, infection control and judicious antibiotic use in mitigating the impact of K. pneumoniae on public health, especially in food chain and healthcare settings.

18.
PeerJ ; 12: e17263, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38784395

RESUMO

Background: This study aimed to investigate the effect and mechanism of Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) on myocardial injury in sepsis. Methods: Thirty male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to Groups A, B, or C. Mice in Groups A and B were injected with unloaded lentivirus, while mice in Group C were injected with lentivirus encoding PTX3 overexpression. Seven days after injection, septic myocardial injury mouse models were constructed following intraperitoneal injection with LPS in Groups B and C, and mice in Group A were intraperitoneally injected with normal saline. Cardiac function was examined using echocardiography; pathological variation of myocardial cells was measured through HE staining, transmission electron microscopy, and TUNEL staining; and Western blot was used to measure the expression of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway-related, autophagy-related, and apoptosis-related proteins in mice myocardial cells. Results: PTX3 significantly improved cardiac function and structure in sepsis-stricken mice, and PTX3 alleviated cardiac damage caused by sepsis. PTX3 reduced the relative protein expression of p-PI3K, p-AKT, mTOR, LC3I/II, Beclin, ATG5, Bax, Caspase-3, and Caspase-9 in septic mouse cardiomyocytes and increased the relative protein expression of Bcl-2. Conclusion: PTX3 can attenuate myocardial injury in sepsis due to the down-regulation of apoptosis and autophagy induced by the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Autofagia , Proteína C-Reativa , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Sepse , Transdução de Sinais , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR , Animais , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Sepse/metabolismo , Sepse/genética , Masculino , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo , Componente Amiloide P Sérico/genética , Componente Amiloide P Sérico/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo
19.
Pharm Biol ; 62(1): 436-446, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38755954

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Nine steaming and nine drying is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) processing method and it is widely used for processing tonifying herbs. Modern research reveals that the repeated steaming and drying process varies the composition and clinical efficacy of TCM. OBJECTIVE: This paper analyzes and explores the historical evolution, research progress, development strategies, and problems encountered in the nine steaming and nine drying process so as to provide a reasonable explanation for this method. METHODS: English and Chinese literature from 1986 to 2023 was collected from databases including Web of Science, PubMed, Elsevier, Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2020 (CP), and CNKI (Chinese). Nine steaming and nine drying, processing, TCM and pharmacological activity were used as the key words. RESULTS: Nine steaming and nine drying has undergone thousands of years of clinical practice. Under specific processing conditions of nine steaming and nine drying, the ingredients of the TCM have significant changes, which in turn altered clinical applications. CONCLUSIONS: This review provides sufficient evidence to prove the rationality and scientific value of nine steaming and nine drying and puts forward a development direction for future research.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/história , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/história , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Humanos , Dessecação/métodos , Vapor , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Composição de Medicamentos/história
20.
Hortic Res ; 11(5): uhae077, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38779140

RESUMO

How plants find a way to thrive in alpine habitats remains largely unknown. Here we present a chromosome-level genome assembly for an alpine medicinal herb, Triplostegia glandulifera (Caprifoliaceae), and 13 transcriptomes from other species of Dipsacales. We detected a whole-genome duplication event in T. glandulifera that occurred prior to the diversification of Dipsacales. Preferential gene retention after whole-genome duplication was found to contribute to increasing cold-related genes in T. glandulifera. A series of genes putatively associated with alpine adaptation (e.g. CBFs, ERF-VIIs, and RAD51C) exhibited higher expression levels in T. glandulifera than in its low-elevation relative, Lonicera japonica. Comparative genomic analysis among five pairs of high- vs low-elevation species, including a comparison of T. glandulifera and L. japonica, indicated that the gene families related to disease resistance experienced a significantly convergent contraction in alpine plants compared with their lowland relatives. The reduction in gene repertory size was largely concentrated in clades of genes for pathogen recognition (e.g. CNLs, prRLPs, and XII RLKs), while the clades for signal transduction and development remained nearly unchanged. This finding reflects an energy-saving strategy for survival in hostile alpine areas, where there is a tradeoff with less challenge from pathogens and limited resources for growth. We also identified candidate genes for alpine adaptation (e.g. RAD1, DMC1, and MSH3) that were under convergent positive selection or that exhibited a convergent acceleration in evolutionary rate in the investigated alpine plants. Overall, our study provides novel insights into the high-elevation adaptation strategies of this and other alpine plants.

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