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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38851427

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Limited information is currently available on the prevalence of and risk factors for tuberculosis infection (TBI) among close contacts of pulmonary TB (PTB) patients in China. In this study, we estimated the burden of TBI among close contacts using QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) and identified factors associated with TB transmission among this high-risk population. METHODS: Between January 1 2018 and August 31 2020, we identified laboratory-confirmed PTB patients from a population-based, multicentered, cluster-randomized control trial for tuberculosis preventive treatment (TPT). Close contacts of these patients were identified, interviewed and tested using QFT. We estimated TBI prevalence and calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for TBI risk factors. RESULTS: A total of 3,138 index cases and 8,117 close contacts were identified. Of these contacts, 36 contacts had PTB (prevalence of 443.51 cases/100,000 population). Among the remaining 7,986 close-contacts, 3,124 (39.12%) had a positive QFT result. QFT positivity was significantly associated with older age [adjusted OR: 1.77 (95% CI 1.27-2.47), 2.20 (95% CI 1.59-3.05) and 2.74 (95% CI 1.96-3.82) for the age groups of "35-44", "45-54" and "55-64" respectively, compared with the age group "5-14"], longer contact duration (adjusted OR 1.44; 95% CI 1.22-1.69), and sharing bedroom (adjusted OR 1.39; 95% CI 1.18-1.65). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate a high TBI burden among the close contacts of PTB. The results also highlighted that contacts tracing and investigation for TBI are necessary and beneficial, particularly for those who are older, have longer contact duration - including sharing a bedroom.

2.
Cell Biochem Biophys ; 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38717641

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer (OC) ranks as the fifth leading cause of cancer-related death in women. The main contributors to the poor prognosis of ovarian cancer are the high rates of recurrence and metastasis. Studies have indicated a crucial role for hepatitis B virus X Ag-Transactivated Protein 8 (XTP8), a protein containing the DEP domain, in various cellular processes, including cell growth, movement, and differentiation, across several types of cancers. However, the role of XTP8 in ovarian cancer remains unclear. We observed elevated expression of XTP8 in ovarian cancer. Silencing XTP8 inhibited cell proliferation, promoted apoptosis, and yielded contrasting results in cells overexpressing XTP8. Furthermore, XTP8 facilitated ovarian cancer invasion and migration, triggering epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Mechanistically, XTP8 silencing led to reduced phosphorylation levels of AKT, increased p-AMPK levels, and decreased p-mTOR levels, while XTP8 overexpression exerted the opposite effects. Additionally, the activation of p-AMPK rescued the promoting effect of XTP8 on EMT in ovarian cancer cell lines, indicating that XTP8 acts as an oncogene by modulating the AKT/AMPK/mTOR pathway. Through transcriptome sequencing to identify downstream targets of XTP8, we found that XTP8 influences the expression of Caldesmon (CALD1) at both transcriptional and translational levels. CALD1 can be considered a downstream target of XTP8. The collaborative action of XTP8 and CALD1 activates the AKT/AMPK/mTOR pathway, regulating EMT to promote ovarian cancer progression. Inhibiting this signaling axis might represent a potential therapeutic target for ovarian cancer.

3.
Comput Biol Med ; 175: 108386, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38691915

RESUMO

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a commonly used retina imaging technique, and it is capable of revealing the morphology of the choroid. However, the segmentation and quantitative analysis of the sublayers and vessels in choroid are rarely explored, primarily due to the indistinct boundaries of choroidal sublayers, and imbalanced distribution of vessels observed in OCT imagery. In this paper, we propose a novel two-stage architecture called Choroidal Layer Analysis network (CLA), that may be considered the first attempt in this research community for joint segmentation of choroidal sublayers and choroidal vessels in OCT images. CLA employs the encoder-decoder network with the residual U-shape module as the backbone. In order to empower the ability of the segmentation model to identify the inconspicuous boundaries of choroidal sublayers, we introduce an Ambiguous Boundary Attention block (ABA) into the bottleneck of the encoder-decoder network in the first stage. For more accurate segmentation of large choroidal vessels with ambiguous contours and imbalanced spatial distribution, the second stage introduces an active contour-based loss to refine the contours of choroidal vessels simultaneously with precise identification of each vessel via contextual modeling. To train, test and validate the proposed model, we conducted a choroidal segmentation dataset containing 800 OCT images, with their sublayers and large choroidal vessels manually annotated. Experimental results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed approach compared with other state-of-the-art segmentation networks in large margins. It is worth noting that we also reconstructed the large choroidal vessels in three-dimensional (3D) based on the segmentation results, and multiple 3D morphological parameters were calculated. The statistical analysis of these parameters demonstrates significant differences between the healthy control and high myopia group, and this further confirms the proposed work may facilitate subsequent disease understanding and clinical decision-making.


Assuntos
Corioide , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Humanos , Corioide/diagnóstico por imagem , Corioide/irrigação sanguínea , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Algoritmos
4.
Heliyon ; 10(9): e29899, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38699020

RESUMO

While the 5-year survival rate of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has seen some improvement, the majority of NSCLC patients fail to respond to immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). It is critical to identify effective biomarkers that can enhance the efficacy of immunotherapy. The clinical data in the current study were collected from NSCLC patients treated with ICIs, and two groups were classified according to treatment effect: good group with consistent efficacy, poor group with only progressiveness. Differences in intestinal microbiota between the two groups were analyzed using 16s rRNA sequencing. Beta diversity analysis indicated differences between the two groups that were available for differentiation. Comparison of the number of common or unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) among different groups suggested that there were 53 unique OTUs in the good group and 51 unique OTUs in the poor group. At the phylum level, there was a difference between the two groups for several bacterial groups with the highest abundance values, among which Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria were more abundant in the good group. Members of the genera Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus were abundant in the good group, while the abundance of Bacteroides was low. Biomarkers in the poor group included Bacteroides, Bacteroidetes, Bacteroidia, Bacteroidales, Bacteroidaceae and Veillonellaceae. The intestinal microbiota composition affected the immunotherapy process for NSCLC, which might offer more rational instructions for the clinical application of ICIs in NSCLC patients.

5.
Molecules ; 29(10)2024 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38792209

RESUMO

Ganoderma lucidum spore powder, valued for its nutritional and medicinal properties, contains polysaccharides crucial for its efficacy. However, the complex structural nature of these polysaccharides necessitates further investigation to fully realize their potential. This study aimed to investigate the effects of acid heat treatment on Ganoderma lucidum spore polysaccharides (GLSPs) to enhance their properties and application in antitumor activity. The GLSP was obtained via acid heat treatment, concentration, and centrifugal separation. This process led to a notable reduction in polysaccharide molecular weight, increasing water solubility and bioavailability. Analytical techniques including NMR spectroscopy and methylation analysis revealed a polysaccharide composition comprising four distinct monosaccharides, with molecular weights of 3291 Da (Mw) and 3216 Da (Mn). Six different linkage modes were identified, with a molar ratio of 1:5:2:3:4:3. In vivo experiments demonstrated the GLSP's significant inhibitory effect on the growth of four tumor models (sarcoma S180, Lewis lung cancer, liver cancer H22, and colon cancer C26) in mice, with no observed toxicity. These findings suggest the GLSP's potential as an antitumor therapeutic agent for clinical use.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Reishi , Esporos Fúngicos , Animais , Reishi/química , Camundongos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Peso Molecular
6.
Food Chem ; 454: 139753, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38795625

RESUMO

The utilization of cold plasma (CP) treatment to promote covalent conjugation of ovalbumin (OVA) and gallic acid (GA), as well as its functionality, were investigated. Results demonstrated that CP significantly enhanced the covalent grafting of OVA and GA. The maximum conjugation of GA, 24.33 ± 2.24 mg/g, was achieved following 45 s of CP treatment. Covalent conjugation between GA and OVA were confirmed through analyses of total sulfhydryl (-SH) group, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Unfolding of the OVA molecule occurred upon conjugation with GA, as evidenced by multiple spectroscopy analyses. Additionally, conjugation with GA resulted in significant improvements in the antioxidant activity and emulsifying properties of OVA. This study demonstrated that CP is a robust and sustainable technique for promoting the covalent conjugate of polyphenols and proteins, offering a novel approach to enhance the functional properties of proteins.

7.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 271(Pt 2): 132642, 2024 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38821300

RESUMO

This study utilized 1,2,4-triaminobenzene dihydrochloride and NaOH as precursors to prepare the pH optical sensor based on carbon dots (CDs). By incorporating CDs into pineapple peel cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) matrix, an intelligent label (CNF/CDs label) with colorimetric and fluorescent dual responsiveness was created for real-time monitoring of food freshness. The CNF/CDs labels exhibited remarkable sensitivity and recognizability towards pH changes from 1 to 12. They also demonstrated excellent reversibility during acid-alkali cycling. Moreover, these labels exhibited exceptional responsiveness to the alkaline and acidic gas environments formed by ammonium hydroxide and acetic acid solutions, respectively. These responses were visually distinguishable through visible color changes and ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence alterations. Encouragingly, the developed labels were successfully applied to monitor the freshness of prawns and fruits, enabling timely assessment of food freshness levels. The dual-mode response of color and fluorescence provided double assurance for the accuracy of the results.

8.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 247: 116257, 2024 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38815520

RESUMO

Zhi-Ke-Bao pills (ZKB), a traditional Chinese medicine preparation composed of 13 herbs, is generally used to treat cough caused by external wind cold, phlegm, etc in clinical applications, and it plays a core role in relieving cough caused by COVID-19 and influenza in China. Till now, the understanding of its chemical constituents was dramatically limited due to its chemical complexity, restricting its clinical application or development. In this work, a developed ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF MS) method, a targeted and non-targeted strategy and network pharmacology were used to comprehensively characterize the chemical compositions in ZKB and predict its mechanism against cough. A total of 164 compounds (148 targeted compounds and 16 non-targeted ones) were identified or tentatively characterized in ZKB, including 65 flavonoids, 25 alkaloids, 19 organic acids, 41 saponins, 9 coumarins, 2 phenylpropanoids, 2 anthraquinones, and 1 other types. Among them, 37 compounds were unambiguously identified by comparison to reference standards. Meanwhile, the fragmentation behaviors of five main chemical structure types were also summarized. 309 targets and two core signaling pathways of ZKB against cough were predicted by network pharmacology, including MAPK and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways. It was the first time to characterize the chemical compounds of ZKB and reveal its potential mechanism against cough, providing the material basis for further quality control or pharmacodynamic evaluation of ZKB.

9.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 16(10): 9047-9071, 2024 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38787389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liver hepatocellular carcinoma (LIHC) ranks among the malignancies with the highest mortality rates, primarily due to chemoresistance culminating in treatment failure. Despite its impact, predictive models addressing disease progression, tumor microenvironment, and drug sensitivity remain elusive for LIHC patients. Recognizing the significant influence of various programmed cell death (PCD) modes on tumor evolution, this study investigates PCD genes to elucidate their implications on the prognosis and immune landscape of LIHC. METHODS: To develop the classification and model, we employed a total of 17 genes associated with PCD patterns. To collect data, we acquired gene expression profiles, somatic mutation information, copy number variation data, and corresponding clinical data from the TCGA database, specifically from LIHC patients. Moreover, we obtained spatial transcriptome data and additional bulk datasets from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database to conduct further analysis. Various experiments were conducted to validate the role of the PCD gene PRKDC in proliferation, migration, invasion, EMT, cell cycle, therapeutic sensitivity, and antitumor immunity. RESULTS: A novel LIHC classification based on these genes divided patients into two clusters, C1 and C2. The C2 cluster exhibited characteristics indicative of poor prognosis and an immune-activated microenvironment. This group showed greater response potential to immune checkpoint inhibitors, displaying higher levels of certain immune signatures and receptors. A programmed cell death index (PCDI) was constructed using 17 selected PCD genes. This index could effectively predict patient prognosis, with higher PCDI indicating poorer survival rates and a more pro-tumor microenvironment. Immune landscapes revealed varying interactions with PCDI, suggesting therapeutic targets and insights into treatment resistance. Moreover, experiments results suggested that PRKDC can augment the invasive nature and growth of malignant cells and it can serve as a potential target for therapy, offering hope for ameliorating the prognosis of LIHC patients. CONCLUSIONS: The study uncovers the insights of programmed cell death in the prognosis and potential therapeutic interventions. And we found that PRKDC can serve as a target for enhancing the efficacy of antitumor immunity while sensitizing chemotherapy and targeted therapy in liver hepatocellular carcinoma.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Microambiente Tumoral , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/imunologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Proliferação de Células , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Prognóstico , Animais
10.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 16(9): 8171-8197, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38738999

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: LRRC59 is a leucine-rich repeats-containing protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), it serves as a prognostic marker in several cancers. However, there has been no systematic analysis of its role in the tumor immune microenvironment, nor its predictive value of prognosis and immunotherapy response in different cancers. METHODS: A comprehensive pan-cancer analysis of LRRC59 was conducted from various databases to elucidate the associations between its expression and the prognosis of cancer, genetic alterations, tumor metabolism, and tumor immunity. Additionally, further functional assays were performed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to study its biological role in regulating cell proliferation, migration, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and sensitivity to immunotherapy. RESULTS: The pan-cancer analysis reveals a significant upregulation of LRRC59 in pan-cancer, and its overexpression is correlated with unfavorable prognosis in cancer patients. LRRC59 is negatively correlated with immune cell infiltration, tumor purity estimation, and immune checkpoint genes. Finally, the validation in HCC demonstrates LRRC59 is significantly overexpressed in cancer tissue and cell lines, and its knockdown inhibits cell proliferation and migration, promotes cell apoptosis, induces cell cycle arrest, and enhances the sensitivity to immunotherapy in HCC cells. CONCLUSIONS: LRRC59 emerges as a novel potential prognostic biomarker across malignancies, offering promise for anti-cancer drugs and immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Humanos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/imunologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Prognóstico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Apoptose/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Movimento Celular/genética , Imunoterapia
11.
Clin Nutr ; 43(6): 1524-1531, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cachexia is prevalent in cancer patients. The conventional diagnostic criteria for cachexia are often based on Western evidence, lacking consensus for Asian populations. This study aims to compare Asian Working Group for Cachexia (AWGC) criteria with Fearon's criteria, assessing their differences in population characteristics and prognostic impact. METHODS: The clinical data of patients who underwent radical gastrectomy between 2013 and 2019 were prospectively collected. Cachexia diagnosis involves the utilization of either AWGC criteria and the previous international consensus proposed by Fearon et al. A scoring model is established based on the optional criteria according to the AWGC criteria. Univariate and multivariate logistic and Cox regression analysis were conducted to determine the independent effect factors for postoperative complications and overall survival. RESULTS: In a total of 1330 patients, 461 met AWGC cachexia criteria and 311 met Fearon's criteria. Excluding 262 overlapping cases, those diagnosed solely with AWGC-cachexia had higher age and lower BMI, albumin, hemoglobin, and handgrip strength compared to those by Fearon's criteria alone. AWGC-cachexia independently increased the risk of postoperative complications, whereas Fearon's criteria did not. Patients with AWGC-cachexia also exhibited shorter overall survival than Fearon's criteria. The AWGC-based cachexia grading system effectively stratifies the risks of postoperative complications and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The AWGC criteria is more effective in diagnosing cancer cachexia in the Asian population and provide better prognostic indicators.


Assuntos
Caquexia , Gastrectomia , Neoplasias Gástricas , Humanos , Caquexia/diagnóstico , Caquexia/etiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/complicações , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Masculino , Feminino , Prognóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Gastrectomia/mortalidade , Consenso , Estudos Prospectivos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Povo Asiático , Força da Mão
12.
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 38(5): 535-541, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38752238

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of using titanium alloy trabecular bone three-dimensional (3D) printed artificial vertebral body in treating cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on clinical data from 45 patients with cervical OPLL admitted between September 2019 and August 2021 and meeting the selection criteria. All patients underwent anterior cervical corpectomy and decompression, interbody bone graft fusion, and titanium plate internal fixation. During operation, 21 patients in the study group received titanium alloy trabecular bone 3D printed artificial vertebral bodies, while 24 patients in the control group received titanium cages. There was no significant difference in baseline data such as gender, age, disease duration, affected segments, or preoperative pain visual analogue scale (VAS) score, Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score, Neck Disability Index (NDI), vertebral height, and C 2-7Cobb angle ( P>0.05). Operation time, intraoperative blood loss, and occurrence of complications were recorded for both groups. Preoperatively and at 3 and 12 months postoperatively, the functionality and symptom relief were assessed using JOA scores, VAS scores, and NDI evaluations. The vertebral height and C 2-7 Cobb angle were detected by imaging examinations and the implant subsidence and intervertebral fusion were observed. Results: The operation time and incidence of complications were significantly lower in the study group than in the control group ( P<0.05), while the difference in intraoperative blood loss between the two groups was not significant ( P>0.05). All patients were followed up 12-18 months, with the follow-up time of (14.28±4.34) months in the study group and (15.23±3.54) months in the control group, showing no significant difference ( t=0.809, P=0.423). The JOA score, VAS score, and NDI of the two groups improved after operation, and further improved at 12 months compared to 3 months, with significant differences ( P<0.05). At each time point, the study group exhibited significantly higher JOA scores and improvement rate compared to the control group ( P<0.05); but there was no significantly difference in VAS score and NDI between the two groups ( P>0.05). Imaging re-examination showed that the vertebral height and C 2-7Cobb angle of the two groups significantly increased at 3 and 12 months after operation ( P<0.05), and there was no significant difference between 3 and 12 months after operation ( P>0.05). At each time point, the vertebral height and C 2-7Cobb angle of the study group were significantly higher than those of the control group ( P<0.05), and the implant subsidence rate was significantly lower than that of the control group ( P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in intervertebral fusion rate between the two groups ( P>0.05). Conclusion: Compared to traditional titanium cages, the use of titanium alloy trabecular bone 3D-printed artificial vertebral bodies for treating cervical OPLL results in shorter operative time, fewer postoperative complications, and lower implant subsidence rates, making it superior in vertebral reconstruction.


Assuntos
Ligas , Vértebras Cervicais , Ossificação do Ligamento Longitudinal Posterior , Impressão Tridimensional , Fusão Vertebral , Titânio , Humanos , Ossificação do Ligamento Longitudinal Posterior/cirurgia , Vértebras Cervicais/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fusão Vertebral/métodos , Fusão Vertebral/instrumentação , Descompressão Cirúrgica/métodos , Osso Esponjoso , Resultado do Tratamento , Corpo Vertebral/cirurgia , Feminino , Masculino , Placas Ósseas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 933: 173120, 2024 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38750765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although it is widely acknowledged that long-term exposure to ambient air pollution is closely related to the risk of mortality, there were inconsistencies in terms of cause-specific mortality and it is still unknown whether lifestyle and genetic susceptibility could modify the association. METHODS: This population-based prospective cohort study involved 461,112 participants from the UK Biobank. The land-use regression model was used to estimate the concentrations of particulate matter (PM2.5, PMcoarse, PM10), and nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx). The association between air pollution and mortality was evaluated using Cox proportional hazard models. Furthermore, a lifestyle score incorporated with smoking status, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and diet behaviors, and polygenic risk score using 12 genetic variants, were developed to assess the modifying effect of air pollution on mortality outcomes. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 14.0 years, 33,903 deaths were recorded, including 17,083 (2835; 14,248), 6970, 2429, and 1287 deaths due to cancer (lung cancer, non-lung cancer), cardiovascular disease (CVD), respiratory and digestive disease, respectively. Each interquartile range (IQR) increase in PM2.5, NO2 and NOx was associated with 7 %, 6 % and 5 % higher risk of all-cause mortality, respectively. Specifically, for cause-specific mortality, each IQR increase in PM2.5, NO2 and NOx was also linked to mortality due to cancer (lung cancer and non-lung cancer), CVD, respiratory and digestive disease. Furthermore, additive and multiplicative interactions were identified between high ambient air pollution and unhealthy lifestyle on mortality. In addition, associations between air pollution and mortality were modified by lifestyle behaviors. CONCLUSION: Long-term exposure to air pollutants increased the risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality, which was modified by lifestyle behaviors. In addition, we also revealed a synergistically detrimental effect between air pollution and an unhealthy lifestyle, suggesting the significance of joint air pollution management and adherence to a healthy lifestyle on public health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estilo de Vida , Material Particulado , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Idoso , Adulto , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte
14.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 150(5): 225, 2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38695944

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Primary lung cancer is extremely rare in children and adolescents. The aim of this study is to clarify clinical features and outcomes of primary lung cancer in children and adolescents. METHODS: Young patients (aged ≤ 20 years) diagnosed as primary lung cancer between 2012 and 2023 were retrospective reviewed. According to radiological appearance of the nodules, they were divided into solid nodule (SN) group and ground glass opacity (GGO) group. RESULTS: A total of 74 patients were identified, with a median age at diagnosis of 18 years old (range: 11-20), including 7 patients in SN group and 67 patients in GGO group. In the GGO group, none of the nodules enlarged or changed during an average surveillance period of 10.8 months before surgery, except one. Wedge resection was the most common procedure (82.1%), followed by segmentectomy (16.4%) and lobectomy (1.5%). Histopathological analysis revealed that 64.2% of GGO nodules were adenocarcinoma in situ and minimally invasive adenocarcinomas, while the remaining 35.8% were invasive adenocarcinomas. Mutational analysis was performed in nine patients, with mutations identified in all cases. After a mean follow-up period of 1.73 ± 1.62 years, two patients in the SN group died due to multiple distant metastases, while all patients in the GGO group survived without recurrence. The overall survival (100%) of the GGO group was significantly higher than SN group (66.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Primary lung cancer in children and adolescents are rare and histopathological heterogeneous. Persistent GGO nodules may indicate early-stage lung adenocarcinoma in children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Adolescente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Criança , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Toxics ; 12(5)2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38787108

RESUMO

The contamination of food by microplastics has garnered widespread attention, particularly concerning the health risks associated with small-sized microplastics. However, detecting these smaller microplastics in food poses challenges attributed to the complexity of food matrices and instrumental and method limitations. Here, we employed Raman imaging for visualization and identification of polystyrene particles synthesized in polymerization reactions, ranging from 400 to 2600 nm. We successfully developed a quantitative model of particle size and concentration for polystyrene, exhibiting excellent fit (R2 of 0.9946). We established procedures for spiked flavored yogurt using synthesized polystyrene, providing fresh insights into microplastic extraction efficiency. Recovery rates calculated from models validated the method's feasibility. In practical applications, the assessment of the size, type, shape, and quantity of microplastics in unspiked flavored yogurt was conducted. The most common polymers found were polystyrene, polypropylene, and polyethylene, with the smallest polystyrene sizes ranging from 1 to 10 µm. Additionally, we conducted exposure assessments of microplastics in branded flavored yogurt. This study established a foundation for developing a universal method to quantify microplastics in food, covering synthesis of standards, method development, validation, and application.

16.
ISA Trans ; 2024 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38816326

RESUMO

The issues of stability and sliding mode control (SMC) for time-varying delay Markov jump systems (MJSs) with structured perturbations constrained by fractional Brownian motion (fBm) are explored. First, constructing a novel Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional (LKF) with exponential terms that contain the double-integral term, the pth moment exponential stability conditions are derived by utilizing the generalized fractional Itoˆ formula and conditional mathematical expectation. Subsequently, by designing the innovative integral sliding mode surface (SMS) associated with time-varying delay and the SMC law, the state trajectories of the dynamic systems can reach the designed SMS within a finite time. Ultimately, the numerical experiment is executed to confirm and ensure the accuracy and reliability of the obtained results.

17.
Mol Cell ; 84(10): 1964-1979.e6, 2024 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38759628

RESUMO

The role of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) in regulating ferroptosis is not fully elucidated. Here, we reveal that pharmacological inhibition of the ETC complex I reduces ubiquinol levels while decreasing ATP levels and activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the two effects known for their roles in promoting and suppressing ferroptosis, respectively. Consequently, the impact of complex I inhibitors on ferroptosis induced by glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) inhibition is limited. The pharmacological inhibition of complex I in LKB1-AMPK-inactivated cells, or genetic ablation of complex I (which does not trigger apparent AMPK activation), abrogates the AMPK-mediated ferroptosis-suppressive effect and sensitizes cancer cells to GPX4-inactivation-induced ferroptosis. Furthermore, complex I inhibition synergizes with radiotherapy (RT) to selectively suppress the growth of LKB1-deficient tumors by inducing ferroptosis in mouse models. Our data demonstrate a multifaceted role of complex I in regulating ferroptosis and propose a ferroptosis-inducing therapeutic strategy for LKB1-deficient cancers.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons , Ferroptose , Fosfolipídeo Hidroperóxido Glutationa Peroxidase , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases , Ferroptose/genética , Ferroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Humanos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Camundongos , Fosfolipídeo Hidroperóxido Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeo Hidroperóxido Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Quinases Proteína-Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Transdução de Sinais , Feminino
18.
Foods ; 13(7)2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38611437

RESUMO

The postharvest softening and corresponding quality deterioration of blueberry fruits are crucial factors that hinder long-distance sales and long-term storage. Cold plasma (CP) is an effective technology to solve this, but the specific mechanism of delaying fruit softening remains to be revealed. Here, this study found that CP significantly improved blueberry hardness. Physiological analysis showed that CP regulated the dynamic balance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to maintain hardness by increasing antioxidant content and antioxidant enzyme activity, resulting in a 12.1% decrease in the H2O2 content. Transcriptome analysis revealed that CP inhibited the expression of cell wall degradation-related genes such as the pectin hydrolase gene and cellulase gene, but up-regulated the genes of the ROS-scavenging system. In addition, the resistance genes in the MAPK signaling pathway were also activated by CP in response to fruit ripening and softening and exhibited positive response characteristics. These results indicate that CP can effectively regulate the physiological characteristics of blueberries at a genetic level and delay the softening process, which is of great significance to the storage of blueberries.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38662561

RESUMO

In a clinical setting, the acquisition of certain medical image modality is often unavailable due to various considerations such as cost, radiation, etc. Therefore, unpaired cross-modality translation techniques, which involve training on the unpaired data and synthesizing the target modality with the guidance of the acquired source modality, are of great interest. Previous methods for synthesizing target medical images are to establish one-shot mapping through generative adversarial networks (GANs). As promising alternatives to GANs, diffusion models have recently received wide interests in generative tasks. In this paper, we propose a target-guided diffusion model (TGDM) for unpaired cross-modality medical image translation. For training, to encourage our diffusion model to learn more visual concepts, we adopted a perception prioritized weight scheme (P2W) to the training objectives. For sampling, a pre-trained classifier is adopted in the reverse process to relieve modality-specific remnants from source data. Experiments on both brain MRI-CT and prostate MRI-US datasets demonstrate that the proposed method achieves a visually realistic result that mimics a vivid anatomical section of the target organ. In addition, we have also conducted a subjective assessment based on the synthesized samples to further validate the clinical value of TGDM.

20.
Skin Res Technol ; 30(4): e13713, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38634160

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Alopecia areata (AA) is often characterized by sudden onset of patchy hair loss. Topical corticosteroid injection is the most common treatment. This study retrospectively observed the clinical efficacy of microneedle minoxidil combined with triamcinolone acetonide in the treatment of AA. METHODS: A total of 230 patients with AA were selected. The experimental group (n = 120) received physician training and home microneedle treatment with minoxidil combined with triamcinolone acetonide once a week. Topical minoxidil and triamcinolone acetonide were used twice daily at other times. The control group (n = 110) was treated with minoxidil combined with triamcinolone acetonide, twice a day. Cure rate, response rate, SALT, dermatological Quality of Life Index (DLQI), visual analogue (VAS), and cost were assessed at weeks 4 and 12. RESULTS: Treated group SALT score(Severity of Alopecia Tool) remarkable lower than control group after treated 4 and 12 weeks. After 12 weeks treatment, DLQI score of the treated group (1.8 ± 1.67) were significantly lower than those of the control group (2.45 ± 1.88) (p < 0.05). VAS score and adverse reaction between two group showed no significant different (p = 0.823, p = 0.484 respectively). The total cost was 53.93 ± 15.85 in the treatment group and 53.26 ± 11.51 in the control group. There was no significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.72). In the treated group, the complete response rate (CR: 78.33%) and total effective rate (CR+PR: 95%) were significantly higher than those in the control group (CR: 40.91% and CR+PR: 51.82%), with statistically significant differences (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Microneedle introduction of minoxidil and triamcinolone acetonide in the treatment of AA is a safe, effective, economical, and convenient method, with few adverse reactions, and has a good application prospect.


Assuntos
Alopecia em Áreas , Humanos , Alopecia em Áreas/tratamento farmacológico , Triancinolona Acetonida/uso terapêutico , Minoxidil/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Alopecia/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
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