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1.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 10: e47453, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cough is a common symptom during and after COVID-19 infection; however, few studies have described the cough profiles of COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, severity, and associated risk factors of severe and persistent cough in individuals with COVID-19 during the latest wave of the Omicron variant in China. METHODS: In this nationwide cross-sectional study, we collected information of the characteristics of cough from individuals with infection of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant using an online questionnaire sent between December 31, 2022, and January 11, 2023. RESULTS: There were 11,718 (n=7978, 68.1% female) nonhospitalized responders, with a median age of 37 (IQR 30-47) years who responded at a median of 16 (IQR 12-20) days from infection onset to the time of the survey. Cough was the most common symptom, occurring in 91.7% of participants, followed by fever, fatigue, and nasal congestion (68.8%-87.4%). The median cough visual analog scale (VAS) score was 70 (IQR 50-80) mm. Being female (odds ratio [OR] 1.31, 95% CI 1.20-1.43), having a COVID-19 vaccination history (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.37-2.12), current smoking (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.41-0.58), chronic cough (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.69-2.45), coronary heart disease (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.17-2.52), asthma (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.02-1.46), and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.01-1.45) were independent factors for severe cough (VAS>70, 37.4%). Among all respondents, 35.0% indicated having a productive cough, which was associated with risk factors of being female (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.31-1.57), having asthma (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.52-2.22), chronic cough (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.19-1.74), and GERD (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.01-1.47). Persistent cough (>3 weeks) occurred in 13.0% of individuals, which was associated with the risk factors of having diabetes (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.30-3.85), asthma (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.11-2.62), and chronic cough (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.32-2.94). CONCLUSIONS: Cough is the most common symptom in nonhospitalized individuals with Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant infection. Being female, having asthma, chronic cough, GERD, coronary heart disease, diabetes, and a COVID-19 vaccination history emerged as independent factors associated with severe cough, productive cough, and persistent cough.


Assuntos
Asma , COVID-19 , Doença das Coronárias , Diabetes Mellitus , Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Transversais , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Tosse/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , China/epidemiologia , Asma/complicações , Asma/epidemiologia
2.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 66, 2024 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38216986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effective stakeholder engagement in health research is increasingly being recognised and promoted as an important pathway to closing the gap between knowledge production and its use in health systems. However, little is known about its process and impacts, particularly in low-and middle-income countries. This opinion piece draws on the stakeholder engagement experiences from a global health research programme on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) led by clinician researchers in Brazil, China, Georgia and North Macedonia, and presents the process, outcomes and lessons learned. MAIN BODY: Each country team was supported with an overarching engagement protocol and mentored to develop a tailored plan. Patient involvement in research was previously limited in all countries, requiring intensive efforts through personal communication, meetings, advisory groups and social media. Accredited training programmes were effective incentives for participation from healthcare providers; and aligning research findings with competing policy priorities enabled interest and dialogue with decision-makers. The COVID-19 pandemic severely limited possibilities for planned engagement, although remote methods were used where possible. Planned and persistent engagement contributed to shared knowledge and commitment to change, including raised patient and public awareness about COPD, improved skills and practice of healthcare providers, increased interest and support from clinical leaders, and dialogue for integrating COPD services into national policy and practice. CONCLUSION: Stakeholder engagement enabled relevant local actors to produce and utilise knowledge for small wins such as improving day-to-day practice and for long-term goals of equitable access to COPD care. For it to be successful and sustained, stakeholder engagement needs to be valued and integrated throughout the research and knowledge generation process, complete with dedicated resources, contextualised and flexible planning, and commitment.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Pandemias , Humanos , Brasil , República da Macedônia do Norte , República da Geórgia
4.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 1887, 2023 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37773124

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In 2019, smoking prevalence in North Macedonia was one of the world's highest at around 46% in adults. However, access to smoking cessation treatment is limited and no co-ordinated smoking cessation programmes are provided in primary care. METHODS: We conducted a three parallel-armed randomised controlled trial (n = 1368) to investigate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of lung age (LA) or exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) feedback combined with very brief advice (VBA) to prompt smoking cessation compared with VBA alone, delivered by GPs in primary care in North Macedonia. All participants who decided to attempt to quit smoking were advised about accessing smoking cessation medications and were also offered behavioural support as part of the "ACT" component of VBA. Participants were aged ≥ 35 years, smoked ≥ 10 cigarettes per day, were recruited from 31 GP practices regardless of motivation to quit and were randomised (1:1:1) using a sequence generated before the start of recruitment. The primary outcome was biochemically validated 7-day point prevalence abstinence at 4 weeks (wks). Participants and GPs were not blinded to allocation after randomisation, however outcome assessors were blind to treatment allocation. RESULTS: There was no evidence of a difference in biochemically confirmed quitting between intervention and control at 4wks (VBA + LA RR 0.90 (97.5%CI: 0.35, 2.27); VBA + CO RR 1.04 (97.5%CI: 0.44, 2.44)), however the absolute number of quitters was small (VBA + LA 1.6%, VBA + CO 1.8%, VBA 1.8%). A similar lack of effect was observed at 12 and 26wks, apart from in the VBA + LA arm where the point estimate was significant but the confidence intervals were very wide. In both treatment arms, a larger proportion reported a reduction in cigarettes smoked per day at 4wks (VBA + LA 1.30 (1.10, 1.54); VBA + CO 1.23 (1.03, 1.49)) compared with VBA. The point estimates indicated a similar direction of effect at 12wks and 26wks, but differences were not statistically significant. Quantitative process measures indicated high fidelity to the intervention delivery protocols, but low uptake of behavioural and pharmacological support. VBA was the dominant intervention in the health economic analyses. CONCLUSION: Overall, there was no evidence that adding LA or CO to VBA increased quit rates. However, a small effect cannot be ruled out as the proportion quitting was low and therefore estimates were imprecise. There was some evidence that participants in the intervention arms were more likely to reduce the amount smoked, at least in the short term. More research is needed to find effective ways to support quitting in settings like North Macedonia where a strong smoking culture persists. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered at http://www.isrctn.com (ISRCTN54228638) on the 07/09/2018.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Adulto , Humanos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Intervenção na Crise , Retroalimentação , República da Macedônia do Norte/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/terapia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36822665

RESUMO

The popularity of teleconsultation during the COVID-19 pandemic enabled increased accessibility for individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, previous studies did not distinguish between synchronous and asynchronous teleconsultation. We evaluated the effectiveness of synchronous teleconsultation for patients with T2DM. We searched Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Library and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform databases from inception to July 2021. All included studies were randomized controlled trials of synchronous teleconsultation for adults with T2DM compared with usual care. Reviewers independently extracted data and used the Cochrane tool to evaluate risk of bias. Meta-analyses were conducted using random-effects models. A pooled mean difference for both HbA1c (%) and body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2), systolic blood pressure (SBP) (mm Hg), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (mm Hg), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol) (mg/dL) were calculated. Patient-reported outcomes, such as depression, medication adherence, and quality of life, were also assessed. A total of 9807 abstracts were identified and 27 trials were included. Synchronous teleconsultation significantly resulted in greater decrease in HbA1c compared with usual care group (n=8746, 0.35, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.49, I2=73%, p<0.001). No significant effects on BMI (n=699, 0.08 kg/m2, 95% CI -0.54 to 0.69), SBP (n=5512, 1.32 mm Hg, 95% CI -0.09 to 2.73), DBP (n=2898, 0.17 mm Hg, 95% CI -1.18 to 1.52), or LDL-cholesterol (n=5276, 3.21 mg/dL, 95% CI -1.75 to 8.17) were found. The effect of teleconsultation in improving patient-reported outcomes was uncertain. Thus, synchronous teleconsultation could be an alternative to usual care. Systematic review registration is PROSPERO CRD42021267019.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Consulta Remota , Adulto , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Hemoglobinas Glicadas , Pandemias , LDL-Colesterol , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
6.
Soc Sci Med ; 314: 115458, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36279792

RESUMO

A key step to the establishment of a tiered healthcare system is equitable access to basic primary healthcare services for all. However, no quantitative research on the national status quo of primary healthcare accessibility in China exists. We filled this gap by estimating spatial accessibility to primary healthcare centers (PHCs) and mapping its inequality across the mainland China. Four national datasets during 2015-2018, including administrative boundaries, residential communities, points-of-interest (including PHCs), and road networks, were collected to calculate the distance to the nearest PHC for each community. Five other national datasets including census, elevation, land use, vegetation, and nightlight, were collected to model 100m × 100 m population grids, based on which geographical modeling was used to calculate PHC accessibility of each community. Inequalities in PHC accessibility across China were described with concentration indices. About 44% of communities across China representing approximately 30% of the overall population had no access to PHCs within their 6-km catchment areas; about 78% of communities across China representing approximately 68.4% of the overall population had no access to PHCs within their 1.5-km catchment areas. Some municipalities/provinces like Shanghai, Beijing, Tianjin, Jiangsu, Shandong, and Zhejiang generally had higher proximity to the nearest PHCs, while others like Tibet, Guizhou, and Guangxi had lower proximity to the nearest PHCs. However, assuming similar basic service capacity across all PHCs, Shanghai, Tianjin, and Chongqing showed the lowest PHC accessibility due to high population density. Variations in PHC accessibility existed, with more inequalities observed in the north and northeastern provinces and less inequalities in southwestern and south-central provinces. This study demonstrates primary healthcare accessibility and inequality at province and city levels, and identifies communities with lower proximity and accessibility to PHCs in China. It would serve as a starting point to facilitate precise healthcare planning and preparedness for health emergencies in China.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , China/epidemiologia , Área Programática de Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde
7.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e056902, 2022 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36153030

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the feasibility of delivering a culturally tailored pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) programme and conducting a definitive randomised controlled trial (RCT). DESIGN: A two-arm, randomised feasibility trial with a mixed-methods process evaluation. SETTING: Secondary care setting in Georgia, Europe. PARTICIPANTS: People with symptomatic spirometry-confirmed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease recruited from primary and secondary care. INTERVENTIONS: Participants were randomised in a 1:1 ratio to a control group or intervention comprising 16 twice-weekly group PR sessions tailored to the Georgian setting. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Feasibility of the intervention and RCT were assessed according to: study recruitment, consent and follow-up, intervention fidelity, adherence and acceptability, using questionnaires and measurements at baseline, programme end and 6 months, and through qualitative interviews. RESULTS: The study recruited 60 participants (as planned): 54 (90%) were male, 10 (17%) had a forced expiratory volume in 1 second of ≤50% predicted. The mean MRC Dyspnoea Score was 3.3 (SD 0.5), and mean St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) 50.9 (SD 17.6). The rehabilitation specialists delivered the PR with fidelity. Thirteen (43.0%) participants attended at least 75% of the 16 planned sessions. Participants and rehabilitation specialists in the qualitative interviews reported that the programme was acceptable, but dropout rates were high in participants who lived outside Tbilisi and had to travel large distances. Outcome data were collected on 63.3% participants at 8 weeks and 88.0% participants at 6 months. Mean change in SGRQ total was -24.9 (95% CI -40.3 to -9.6) at programme end and -4.4 (95% CI -12.3 to 3.4) at 6 months follow-up for the intervention group and -0.5 (95% CI -8.1 to 7.0) and -8.1 (95% CI -16.5 to 0.3) for the usual care group at programme end and 6 months, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: It was feasible to deliver the tailored PR intervention. Approaches to improve uptake and adherence warrant further research. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN16184185.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Dispneia/reabilitação , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , República da Geórgia , Humanos , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida
8.
NPJ Prim Care Respir Med ; 32(1): 27, 2022 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35985992

RESUMO

COPD is increasingly common in China but is poorly understood by patients, medications are not used as prescribed and there is no access to recommended non-pharmacological treatment. We explored COPD patients' and general practitioners' (GPs) knowledge of COPD, views on its management and the acceptability of a flexible lung health service (LHS) offering health education, exercise, self-management, smoking cessation and mental health support. Using a convergent mixed methods design, data were collected from patients and GPs using focus groups (FGs) in four Chinese cities, questionnaires were also used to collect data from patients. FGs were audio-recorded and transcribed. Quantitative data were analysed descriptively, thematic framework analysis was used for the qualitative data. Two-hundred fifty-one patients completed the questionnaire; 39 patients and 30 GPs participated in ten separate FGs. Three overarching themes were identified: patients' lack of knowledge/understanding of COPD, current management of COPD not meeting patients' needs and LHS design, which was well received by patients and GPs. Participants wanted COPD education, TaiChi, psychological support and WeChat for social support. 39% of survey responders did not know what to do when their breathing worsened and 24% did not know how to use their inhalers. 36% of survey respondents requested guided relaxation. Overall, participants did not fully understand the implications of COPD and current treatment was sub-optimal. There was support for developing a culturally appropriate intervention meeting Chinese patients' needs, health beliefs, and local healthcare delivery. Further research should explore the feasibility of such a service.


Assuntos
Clínicos Gerais , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Pulmão , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/psicologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
NPJ Prim Care Respir Med ; 32(1): 28, 2022 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35986011

RESUMO

China has a huge population with respiratory diseases, these diseases should be managed well in primary care, however, primary care physicians' knowledge level of these diseases were unknown. The aim of the study was to assess primary care physicians' knowledge of asthma, CAP, COPD, and influenza in China. An e-questionnaire was distributed to attendees of respiratory diseases academic conferences in China from July, 2017 to December, 2018. 7391 questionnaires were returned and 4815 valid questionnaires were analyzed, 3802 (79.0%) from community health service centers and 1013 (21.0%) from township hospitals. The average score of the questionnaire was 83.3 (±20.397) and 72.1 (±20.898) in township and community hospitals, respectively (P < 0.05). 61.4%, 48.7%, and 42.5% of the primary care physicians were aware of clinical manifestations of COPD, asthma, and simple influenza. 85.7%, 8.1%, 16.1%, and 1.0% knew how to diagnose COPD, asthma, CAP and influenza, respectively. 94.4% of the physicians lacked the knowledge of treating COPD with bronchodilators; 53.7% knew non-pharmacological treatments for COPD. 73.6% were unable to deal with asthma attacks. 65.1% did not know what the most essential and important treatment for influenza was. 92% of physicians did not know the management for stable COPD; 3.0% knew all prevention and management measures for asthma. 37.9% knew all the preventive measures for CAP. 44.9% did not know the important role of influenza vaccine in preventing influenza and its complications. Primary care physicians in China had a poor knowledge of CAP, asthma, Influenza, COPD. There is a need for improved training of common respiratory diseases.


Assuntos
Asma , Influenza Humana , Médicos de Atenção Primária , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/terapia , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Chin Med ; 17(1): 39, 2022 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35346284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease that causes continuous mucosal inflammation. Anemonin is a natural molecule from the Ranunculaceae and Gramineae plants that exerts anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to explore the effects and mechanisms of anemonin on UC. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were administered dextran sulphate sodium (DSS; 3% [w/v]) to establish an animal model of UC. Mice were treated with an intraperitoneal injection of anemonin. Body weight and the disease activity index (DAI) were recorded. Haematoxylin and eosin staining, RT-qPCR, ELISA, and western blotting were performed to evaluate the histopathological changes and tissue inflammation. HT-29 cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and anemonin. Cell inflammation was evaluated using RT-qPCR and western blotting. The target proteins of anemonin were predicted using bioinformatics analysis and confirmed in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: Anemonin improved DSS-induced body weight loss, shortened colon length, increased DAI, and induced pathological changes in the colon tissue of mice. Anemonin inhibited DSS-induced colon tissue inflammation as the release of IL-1ß, TNF-α, and IL-6 was significantly suppressed. Additionally, anemonin attenuated LPS-induced cytokine production in HT-29 cells. PKC-θ was predicted as a target protein of anemonin. Anemonin did not affect PRKCQ gene transcription, but inhibited its translation. PRKCQ overexpression partially reversed the protective effects of anemonin on HT-29 cells. Adeno-associated virus delivery of the PRKCQ vector significantly reversed the protective effects of anemonin on the mouse colon. CONCLUSIONS: Anemonin has the potential to treat UC. The anti-inflammatory effects of anemonin may be mediated through targeting PKC-θ.

11.
Anticancer Drugs ; 33(1): e670-e679, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520435

RESUMO

This study aims to determine the mechanism of ISLR on the progression of colon cancer. TCGA database was used to analyze ISLR expression in colon cancer tumor tissues. QRT-PCR and western blotting were used to detect ISLR expression in colon cancer cells. CCK-8, colony formation, EDU, wound healing and transwell assays were used to measure cell viability, proliferation, migration and invasion of colon cancer cells, respectively. The signaling pathway enrichment analysis of ISLR was analyzed on the basis of the KEGG database. The protein expression of genes related to signaling pathway was measured by western blotting. Results of TCGA analysis, qRT-PC and western blotting showed that ISLR was upregulated in colon cancer tumor tissues and cells. High level of ISLR was related to low overall survival of patients with colon cancer. ISLR silence significantly inhibited cell viability, proliferation, migration and invasion of colon cancer cells. ISLR overexpression markedly enhanced the cell viability, proliferation, migration and invasion of colon cancer cells. KEGG database analyzed showed that ISLR can activate the EMT signaling pathway. Inhibition of the EMT signaling pathway can suppress the growth, migration, and invasion of colon cancer cells and eliminate the promoted effect of ISLR overexpression on colon cancer progression. ISLR promotes the progression of colon cancer by activating the EMT signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia , Imunoglobulinas/biossíntese , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Análise de Sobrevida
12.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 727381, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778289

RESUMO

Background and objective: To evaluate the awareness/knowledge and clinical practice for the treatment of atypical asthma among respiratory specialists and primary care practitioners (PCPs) in China. Methods: A total number of 1,997 physicians participated in the survey via WeChat. The questionnaire included six main items: physician demographic characteristics, awareness, diagnosis, medical prescription, assessment/education, and proposal. Results: Cough variant asthma (CVA) was recognized by 97.51% of physicians (1,166 respiratory specialists and 799 PCPs), followed by chest tightness variant asthma (CTVA, 83.72%) and occult asthma (73.54%). Specialists were more likely to follow diagnostic recommendations than PCPs (P < 0.01); however, 34.15% of physicians reported the utility of bronchodilation tests, airway provocation tests, and peak expiratory flow monitoring. A total of 91.70% and 92.01% of physicians prescribed inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) or ICS plus long-acting beta-agonists (LABA) for CVA and CTVA, respectively. Physicians prescribed an ICS or ICS/LABA for 4 (2-8) or 8 (4-12) weeks for CVA and 4 (2-8) or 5 (4-12) weeks for CTVA, and the prescription durations were significantly shorter for PCPs than for specialists (P < 0.01). Further, 52.42% and 35.78% reported good control of CVA and CTVA, respectively, with significantly lower control rates for PCPs than for specialists (P < 0.01). Additionally, specialists exhibited better assessment and educational habits than PCPs. Conclusion: While atypical asthma was identified by most specialists and PCPs, there remains a gap between management in real clinical practice and guideline recommendations, especially for PCPs. Further training of PCPs and clinical studies of atypical asthma are required to improve practice.

13.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e051811, 2021 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556515

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the accuracy and cost-effectiveness of various chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) screening tests and combinations within a Chinese primary care population. DESIGN: Screening test accuracy study. SETTING: Urban and rural community health centres in four municipalities of China: Beijing (north), Chengdu (southwest), Guangzhou (south) and Shenyang (northeast). PARTICIPANTS: Community residents aged 40 years and above who attended community health centres for any reason were invited to participate. 2445 participants (mean age 59.8 (SD 9.6) years, 39.1% (n=956) male) completed the study (February-December 2019), 68.9% (n=1684) were never-smokers and 3.6% (n=88) had an existing COPD diagnosis. 13.7% (n=333) of participants had spirometry-confirmed airflow obstruction. INTERVENTIONS: Participants completed six index tests (screening questionnaires (COPD Diagnostic Questionnaire, COPD Assessment in Primary Care To Identify Undiagnosed Respiratory Disease and Exacerbation Risk (CAPTURE), Chinese Symptom-Based Questionnaire (C-SBQ), COPD-SQ), microspirometry (COPD-6), peak flow (model of peak flow meters used in the study (USPE)) and the reference test (ndd Easy On-PC). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES: Cases were defined as those with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) below the lower limit of normal (LLN-GLI) on the reference test. Performance of individual screening tests and their combinations was evaluated, with cost-effectiveness analyses providing cost per additional true case detected. RESULTS: Airflow measurement devices (sensitivities 64.9% (95% CI 59.5% to 70.0%) and 67.3% (95% CI 61.9% to 72.3%), specificities 89.7% (95% CI 88.4% to 91.0%) and 82.6% (95% CI 80.9% to 84.2%) for microspirometry and peak flow, respectively) generally performed better than questionnaires, the most accurate of which was C-SBQ (sensitivity 63.1% (95% CI 57.6% to 68.3%) specificity 74.2% (95% CI 72.3% to 76.1%)). The combination of C-SBQ and microspirometry used in parallel maximised sensitivity (81.4%) (95% CI 76.8% to 85.4%) and had specificity of 68.0% (95% CI 66.0% to 70.0%), with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £64.20 (CNY385) per additional case detected compared with peak flow. CONCLUSIONS: Simple screening tests to identify undiagnosed COPD within the primary care setting in China is possible, and a combination of C-SBQ and microspirometry is the most sensitive and cost-effective. Further work is required to explore optimal cut-points and effectiveness of programme implementation. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN13357135.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , China , Análise Custo-Benefício , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico
14.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e035738, 2020 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247005

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The latest chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) epidemiology survey in China estimated that there were 99 million potential COPD patients in the country, the majority of whom are undiagnosed. Screening for COPD in primary care settings is of vital importance for China, but it is not known which strategy would be the most suitable for adoption in primary care. Studies have been conducted to test the accuracy of questionnaires, expiratory peak flow meters and microspirometers to screen for COPD, but no study has directly evaluated and compared the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these methods in the Chinese setting. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We present the protocol for a multicentre cross-sectional study, to be conducted in eight community hospitals from four cities among Chinese adults aged 40 years or older to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different case-finding methods for COPD, and determine the test performance of individual and combinations of screening tests and strategies in comparison with quality diagnostic spirometry. Index tests are screening questionnaires (COPD Diagnostic Questionnaire (CDQ), COPD Assessment in Primary Care To Identify Undiagnosed Respiratory Disease and Exacerbation Risk Questionnaire (CAPTURE), symptom-based questionnaire, COPD Screening Questionnaire (COPD-SQ)), microspirometer and peak flow. Each participant will complete all of these tests in one assessment. The primary analysis will compare the performance of a screening questionnaire with a handheld device. Secondary analyses will include the comparative performance of each index test, as well as a comparison of strategies where we use a screening questionnaire and a handheld device. Approximately 2000 participants will be recruited over 9 to 12 months. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has been approved by Peking University Hospital and University of Birmingham. All study participants will provide written informed consent. Study results will be published in appropriate journal and presented at national and international conferences, as well as relevant social media and various community/stakeholder engagement activities. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN13357135.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Análise Custo-Benefício , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e038173, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994246

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Since 2010, the Chinese government has gradually increased its investment in the training of general practitioners (GPs) to support their role as 'gatekeepers' in the healthcare system. However, this training is still organised from the perspective of specialist care. We aimed to assess the appropriateness of the principal GP admission training programme curricula in China, including Residents Training for GPs (RTGP), Residents Training for Assistant GPs (RTAGP) and Training for Specialists with General Practice interest (TSGP). SETTING: The study focussed on GP training programmes in Shanghai, China. PARTICIPANTS: Data on disease competences developed in three GP clinical training programmes (RTGP, RTAGP and TSGP) were derived from official programme training manuals. Data on the proportion of outpatient visits for each disease were taken from the Shanghai community healthcare centres grassroots outpatient database. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: We first conducted a quantitative analysis by comparing the structure of current training curricula with actual outpatient utilisation patterns across all community healthcare institutions in Shanghai from 2014 to 2018. Qualitative analysis was then conducted to evaluate GP training programmes based on Donabedian's model. RESULTS: Quantitative analysis showed that the distribution of diseases for which competences were taught did not match the composition of outpatient visits in community healthcare institutions. Concerns identified through qualitative analysis included teachers who were mostly specialists, lack of equipment for differential diagnosis in community healthcare institutions, insufficient teaching of referral standards and GP training in large hospitals that consistently neglected communication skills. CONCLUSIONS: The establishment and implementation of admission training programmes for GPs in China lacks a focus on general practice training and may be improved by adopting an evidence-based general perspective aligned with the medical needs of the community.


Assuntos
Medicina Geral , Clínicos Gerais , China , Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Humanos , Políticas
17.
BMC Fam Pract ; 21(1): 74, 2020 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since 2000, China has been developing primary care institutions to serve as the gateway to the healthcare system. However, the investment of resources in primary care institutions is not based on the actual medical demands of the public. This study analysed primary care utilization to provide targeted guidance for the improvement of primary healthcare delivery in China. METHODS: We extracted outpatient visit data from all community healthcare centres in Shanghai from 2014 to 2018. Diseases were then classified according to ICD-10 codes. The disease spectrum (frequency, proportion, rank) was stratified by sex, age, and region. RESULTS: Most primary care outpatients were female (58.20%), 60-79 years old (57.91%), and in suburban regions (62.18%). Chronic diseases accounted for the majority (91.41%). Hypertension, chronic ischaemic heart disease, diabetes, and acute upper respiratory tract infections were the top four disorders for primary care visits regardless of sex. In the group aged 0-18 years, symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings not elsewhere classified accounted for 37.96% of the top 20 reasons. Acute upper respiratory tract infections were the most common diseases in the groups aged 0-18 (11.20%) and 19-39 (11.14%) years. However, hypertension was the most common disease in the group aged > 39 years old (> 20%). There were more outpatients with respiratory and digestive diseases in suburban areas than in urban areas. In addition, problems associated with medical equipment and other healthcare deficiencies were relatively more common in suburban areas (suburban: 4.13%, rank 5; urban: 2.29%, rank 10). CONCLUSIONS: To meet the patients' needs and to develop the primary care system, the Shanghai government should focus on diseases with regionally high proportions. Disease diagnosis and treatment should be improved in the younger and suburban populations.


Assuntos
Epidemiologia , Medicina Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Adulto Jovem
18.
Oncogene ; 39(15): 3075-3088, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066878

RESUMO

Accumulating evidences indicate that 3'UTR of the coding gene can act as crucial regulators in gastric cancer (GC). However, the detailed mechanisms and responsive targets are not well established. Here, we found that acvr1b gene 3'UTR (acv3UTR) was elevated in GC tissue, the expression of which was significantly correlated with advanced pTNM-stage and poor outcome in clinical patients. Forced expression of acv3UTR promoted GC cells growth in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, our results suggested that acv3UTR functioned as an oncogenic competing endogenous RNA via sponging miR-590-5p and enhancing YAP1 level. Tumor suppressor miR-590-5p was a molecular module in acv3UTR regulatory axis, the forced expression of which led to impairing of oncogenic potential of acv3UTR. The positive correlation of acv3UTR and YAP1 expression, and the negative correlation of acv3UTR and miR-590-5p expression, were verified in GC patients. Moreover, CFIm25 was identified as a key regulator contributing to acv3UTR aberrant expression in GC binding to UGUA-264 motif. Overall, our finding defines a mechanism for understanding the potential role of acv3UTR transcription in GC tumorigenesis, and indicates a correlation between 3'UTR trans-regulatory effect and GC development.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Fator de Especificidade de Clivagem e Poliadenilação/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Receptores de Ativinas Tipo I/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Estômago/patologia , Transcrição Gênica , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Proteínas de Sinalização YAP
19.
Oncol Lett ; 18(1): 63-71, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289473

RESUMO

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors and DNA alkylators are effective components used in combination chemotherapy. In the present study, the effects of HDAC inhibitors on the expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters were investigated. It was observed that HDAC inhibitors induced the expression of multidrug-resistant ABC transporters differently in lung cancer A549 cells than in colorectal cancer HCT116 cells. In these two cell lines, the HDAC inhibitors suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and trichostatin A (TSA) significantly increased ABCB1 expression at the mRNA and protein levels, whereas they had no evident effect on ABCG2 protein expression. SAHA and TSA decreased ABCG2 mRNA expression in A549 cells and had no evident effect on ABCG2 mRNA expression in HCT116 cells. Notably, SAHA and TSA increased the mRNA expression levels of ABCC5, ABCC6, ABCC10, ABCC11 and ABCC12, as well as the protein expression levels of ABCC2, ABCC10 and ABCC12. By contrast, these inhibitors decreased the mRNA expression levels of ABCC1, ABCC2, ABCC3 and ABCC4, as well as the expression of ABCC1 and ABCC3 proteins. Furthermore, SAHA and TSA were found to downregulate HDAC3 and HDAC4, but not HDAC1 and HDAC2. Taken together, the results suggested that HDAC inhibitors work synergistically with DNA alkylators, in part, due to the inhibitory effect of these inhibitors on ABCC1 expression, which translocates these alkylators from inside to outside of cancer cells. These results further suggested the possibility of antagonism when HDAC inhibitors are combined with anthracyclines and other ABCB1 drug ligands in chemotherapy.

20.
Fam Med ; 51(3): 262-270, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30861081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To achieve the goal of 300,000 general practitioners by 2020-an increase of 215,200 in a decade-China is utilizing multiple training pathways. To comprehensively illustrate general practitioner training strategies in China, this article introduces and describes these pathways. METHODS: We used descriptive policy analysis. This involved taking an inventory of existing literature and source documents and developing a model to illustrate pathways for training general practice physicians. RESULTS: The rural doctor pathway represents rural clinicians who had only basic training and practiced multiple years prior to training reforms. The 3+2 pathway to assistant general practitioners requires 3 years of junior college and 2 years of clinical training. The transfer pathway for current physicians requires 1-2 years of training. The 5+3 pathway comprises 5 years of bachelor of science degree training in clinical medicine and 3 years of standardized residency training. Despite the development of advanced degree programs, their use remains limited. CONCLUSIONS: These pathways illustrate significant heterogeneity in training of general practitioners. Training ranges from a 2-year technical degree to a doctorate with research. Emphasis on the 5+3 track shows promise for China's goals of improved quality and new goal of 500,000 additional general practitioners by 2030.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Medicina Geral/educação , Clínicos Gerais/provisão & distribuição , Internato e Residência , Melhoria de Qualidade , Serviços de Saúde Rural , Humanos , População Rural
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