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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3868, 2024 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38366048

RESUMO

If a dialogue system can predict the personality of a user from dialogue, it will enable the system to adapt to the user's personality, leading to better task success and user satisfaction. In a recent study, personality prediction was performed using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality traits with a task-oriented human-machine dialogue using an end-to-end (neural-based) system. However, it is still not clear whether such prediction is generally possible for other types of systems and user personality traits. To clarify this, we recruited 378 participants, asked them to fill out four personality questionnaires covering 25 personality traits, and had them perform three rounds of human-machine dialogue with a pipeline task-oriented dialogue system or an end-to-end task-oriented dialogue system. We also had another 186 participants do the same with an open-domain dialogue system. We then constructed BERT-based models to predict the personality traits of the participants from the dialogues. The results showed that prediction accuracy was generally better with open-domain dialogue than with task-oriented dialogue, although Extraversion (one of the Big Five personality traits) could be predicted equally well for both open-domain dialogue and pipeline task-oriented dialogue. We also examined the effect of utilizing different types of dialogue on personality prediction by conducting a cross-comparison of the models trained from the task-oriented and open-domain dialogues. As a result, we clarified that the open-domain dialogue cannot be used to predict personality traits from task-oriented dialogue, and vice versa. We further analyzed the effects of system utterances, task performance, and the round of dialogue with regard to the prediction accuracy.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade , Personalidade , Humanos , Inventário de Personalidade
2.
Physiother Theory Pract ; : 1-8, 2023 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36593735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: How the weight-bearing asymmetry pattern and related maximum lateral weight-bearing capacity, physical functions, balance, and mobility involved in weight-bearing asymmetry and lesions are related to weight-bearing asymmetry in patients with early-onset stroke remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the difference between weight-bearing in the early phase after stroke categorized as symmetrical or nonsymmetrical regarding impairments, balance, walking, and independence, and any lesion location difference. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 46 persons with hemiparetic stroke within 3 weeks from onset undergoing inpatient rehabilitation and classified into symmetrical, paretic, and non-paretic groups. We performed posturographic, functional, mobility, and lesion location assessments on participants once the evaluation was possible. RESULTS: The symmetrical, paretic, and non-paretic groups included 14, 11, and 21 patients, respectively. The non-paretic group had lesser mean % body weight in maximum lateral weight-bearing to the paretic direction (79% versus 55%, p < .001), motor function of the hip lower limb (64 versus 58, p = .003) per the Stroke Impairment Assessment Set, Trunk Impairment Scale (18 versus 15, p = .020), and Berg Balance Scale (42 versus 32, p = .047) than the paretic group with more lesions in the insula (55% versus 0%, p < .001) and parietal cortex (36% versus 0%, p = .009) than the non-paretic group. CONCLUSION: The non-paretic group had low dynamic balance, severe motor paresis, and trunk dysfunction. The paretic group had lesions in the insula or parietal cortex.

3.
J Pharm Sci ; 112(4): 1041-1051, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36462711

RESUMO

This study applied partial least squares (PLS) regression to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation curves to quantify the free base of an active pharmaceutical ingredient powder. We measured the T2 relaxation of intact and moisture-absorbed physical mixtures of tetracaine free base (TC) and its hydrochloride salt (TC·HCl). The obtained T2 relaxation curves were analyzed by two methods, one using a previously reported T2 relaxation time (T2), and the other using PLS regression. The accuracy of estimating TC was inadequate when using previous T2 values because the moisture-absorbed physical mixtures showed biphasic T2 relaxation curves. By contrast, the entire measured whole of the T2 relaxation curves was used as input variables and analyzed by PLS regression to quantify the content of TC in the moisture-absorbed TC/TC·HCl. Based on scatterplots of theoretical versus predicted TC, the obtained PLS model exhibited acceptable coefficients of determination and relatively low root mean squared error values for calibration and validation data. The statistical values confirmed that an accurate and reliable PLS model was created to quantify TC in even moisture-absorbed TC/TC·HCl. The bench-top low-field NMR instrument used to apply PLS regression to the T2 relaxation curve may be a promising tool in process analytical technology.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Pós , Calibragem
4.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 70(2): 162-168, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35110437

RESUMO

NMR relaxometry measurement by time domain NMR (TD-NMR) is a promising technique for characterizing the properties of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). This study is dedicated to identifying the salt and free base of APIs by NMR relaxometry measured by the TD-NMR technique. Procaine (PC) and tetracaine (TC) were selected as model APIs to be tested. By using conventional methods including powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry, this study first confirmed that the salt and free base of the tested APIs differ from each other in their crystalline form. Subsequently, measurements of T1 and T2 relaxation were performed on the tested APIs using TD-NMR. The results demonstrated that these NMR relaxometry measurements have sufficient capacity to distinguish the difference between the free base and salt of the tested APIs. Furthermore, quantification of the composition of the binary powder blends consisting of salt and free bases was conducted by analyzing the acquired T1 and T2 relaxation curves. The analysis of the T1 relaxation curves provided a partly acceptable estimation: a good estimation of the composition was observed from PC powders, whereas for TC powders the estimation accuracy changed with the free base content in the binary blends. For the analysis on T2 relaxation curves, a precise estimation of the composition was observed from all the samples. From these findings, the NMR relaxometry measurement by TD-NMR, in particular the T2 relaxation measurement, is effective for evaluating the properties of APIs having different crystalline forms.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Sais/análise , Fatores de Tempo , Difração de Raios X
5.
Phys Ther ; 101(8)2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909896

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to clarify whether an exercise involving weight shifting to the nonparetic side while standing on an inclined surface improves standing balance in the early phase after stroke. METHODS: This assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial included people undergoing inpatient rehabilitation at a university hospital. Participants (N = 52) with hemiparesis caused by a stroke were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 26) or control group (n = 26). Participants performed a weight-shifting exercise to the nonparetic side using a goal-directed reaching strategy while standing on an inclined surface that was elevated 5 degrees to the nonparetic side in the experimental group or a flat surface in the control group. The reaching exercise was conducted 30 times per day for 5 days. Primary outcome was the Berg Balance Scale. Secondary outcomes were the posturographic examination (static standing and lateral weight shifting to the nonparetic and paretic sides), Trunk Control Test, Trunk Impairment Scale, Functional Ambulation Category, and Functional Independent Measure motor item scores. RESULTS: Through intention-to-treat analysis, no significant intervention effects were observed between groups on the Berg Balance Scale. A significant intervention effect was observed, however, with the experimental group on the lateral weight shifting to the nonparetic side in the mean percentage bodyweight values and center-of-pressure moving distance and to the paretic side in center-of-pressure moving distance and Functional Ambulation Category. There were no significant interaction effects concerning other outcomes. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that standing reaching exercises to the nonparetic side while standing on an inclined surface could improve lateral weight-shifting capacity and gait ability in participants in the early poststroke phase. IMPACT: This intervention should be incorporated into standard treatment programs focusing on the paretic side during early stroke rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/reabilitação , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Suporte de Carga/fisiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Método Simples-Cego , Posição Ortostática
6.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; (18): 1935-7, 2006 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16767241

RESUMO

A novel spin transition between S = 5/2 and S = 3/2 has been observed for the first time in five-coordinate, highly saddled iron(III) porphyrinates by EPR and SQUID measurements at extremely low temperatures.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Hemina/química , Enxofre/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Magnetismo , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular
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