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ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 15(23): 27941-27951, 2023 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37255346


The development of stable materials, processable on a large area, is a prerequisite for perovskite industrialization. Beyond the perovskite absorber itself, this should also guide the development of all other layers in the solar cell. In this regard, the use of NiOx as a hole transport material (HTM) offers several advantages, as it can be deposited with high throughput on large areas and on flat or textured surfaces via sputtering, a well-established industrial method. However, NiOx may trigger the degradation of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) when exposed to environmental stressors. Already after 100 h of damp heat stressing, a strong fill factor (FF) loss appears in conjunction with a characteristic S-shaped J-V curve. By performing a wide range of analysis on cells and materials, completed by device simulation, the cause of the degradation is pinpointed and mitigation strategies are proposed. When NiOx is heated in an air-tight environment, its free charge carrier density drops, resulting in a band misalignment at the NiOx/perovskite interface and in the formation of a barrier impeding hole extraction. Adding an organic layer between the NiOx and the perovskite enables higher performances but not long-term thermal stability, for which reducing the NiOx thickness is necessary.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 111(24): 8770-5, 2014 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24889642


Polariton condensates are macroscopic quantum states formed by half-matter half-light quasiparticles, thus connecting the phenomena of atomic Bose-Einstein condensation, superfluidity, and photon lasing. Here we report the spontaneous formation of such condensates in programmable potential landscapes generated by two concentric circles of light. The imposed geometry supports the emergence of annular states that extend up to 100 µm, yet are fully coherent and exhibit a spatial structure that remains stable for minutes at a time. These states exhibit a petal-like intensity distribution arising due to the interaction of two superfluids counterpropagating in the circular waveguide defined by the optical potential. In stark contrast to annular modes in conventional lasing systems, the resulting standing wave patterns exhibit only minimal overlap with the pump laser itself. We theoretically describe the system using a complex Ginzburg-Landau equation, which indicates why the condensate wants to rotate. Experimentally, we demonstrate the ability to precisely control the structure of the petal condensates both by carefully modifying the excitation geometry as well as perturbing the system on ultrafast timescales to reveal unexpected superfluid dynamics.

Science ; 336(6082): 704-7, 2012 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22491095


Tunneling of electrons through a potential barrier is fundamental to chemical reactions, electronic transport in semiconductors and superconductors, magnetism, and devices such as terahertz oscillators. Whereas tunneling is typically controlled by electric fields, a completely different approach is to bind electrons into bosonic quasiparticles with a photonic component. Quasiparticles made of such light-matter microcavity polaritons have recently been demonstrated to Bose-condense into superfluids, whereas spatially separated Coulomb-bound electrons and holes possess strong dipole interactions. We use tunneling polaritons to connect these two realms, producing bosonic quasiparticles with static dipole moments. Our resulting three-state system yields dark polaritons analogous to those in atomic systems or optical waveguides, thereby offering new possibilities for electromagnetically induced transparency, room-temperature condensation, and adiabatic photon-to-electron transfer.

J Am Chem Soc ; 133(9): 3158-64, 2011 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21322646


The condensation of linear diamine and dialdehyde subcomponents around copper(I) templates in the presence of bulky trioctylphosphine ancillary ligands gave a linear, conjugated polymeric material in DMSO solution. This polymer solution was observed to undergo sol-to-gel transition as the temperature was raised to 140 °C, in contrast with the behavior of most gel-forming polymers, which do so upon cooling. We attribute the sol-to-gel transition to the formation of Cu(I)N(4) cross-links as the equilibria 2[Cu(I)N(2)P(2)] ⇄ [Cu(I)N(4)] + [CuP(n)](+) + (4 - n)P favor the right-hand side at higher temperatures. The material was also observed to exhibit thermochromism and photoluminescence, with the color and intensity of both absorption and emission exhibiting temperature dependence. This material thus responds predictably to combinations of stimuli (heat, light, mechanical shear) in an interconnected way, as is required to generate complex function.