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1.
ACS Nano ; 16(3): 3573-3581, 2022 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35156797

RESUMO

The f-driven temperature scales at the surfaces of strongly correlated materials have increasingly come into the focus of research efforts. Here, we unveil the emergence of a two-dimensional Ce Kondo lattice, which couples ferromagnetically to the ordered Co lattice below the P-terminated surface of the antiferromagnet CeCo2P2. In its bulk, Ce is passive and behaves tetravalently. However, because of symmetry breaking and an effective magnetic field caused by an uncompensated ferromagnetic Co layer, the Ce 4f states become partially occupied and spin-polarized near the surface. The momentum-resolved photoemission measurements indicate a strong admixture of the Ce 4f states to the itinerant bands near the Fermi level including surface states that are split by exchange interaction with Co. The temperature-dependent measurements reveal strong changes of the 4f intensity at the Fermi level in accordance with the Kondo scenario. Our findings show how rich and diverse the f-driven properties can be at the surface of materials without f-physics in the bulk.

2.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 12(37): 9068-9075, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516738

RESUMO

We report on structural and electronic properties of superconducting nanohybrids made of Pb grown in the ultrahigh vacuum on the atomically clean surface of single crystals of topological Bi2Te3. In situ scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy demonstrated that the resulting network is composed of Pb-nanoislands dispersed on the surface and linked together by an amorphous atomic layer of Pb, which wets Bi2Te3. As a result, the superconducting state of the system is characterized by a thickness-dependent superconducting gap of Pb-islands and by a very unusual position-independent proximity gap between them. Furthermore, the data analysis and DFT calculations demonstrate that the Pb-wetting layer leads to significant modifications of both topological and trivial electronic states of Bi2Te3, which are responsible for the observed long-range proximity effect.

3.
Adv Mater ; 33(42): e2102935, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469013

RESUMO

Ferromagnetic topological insulators exhibit the quantum anomalous Hall effect, which is potentially useful for high-precision metrology, edge channel spintronics, and topological qubits.  The stable 2+ state of Mn enables intrinsic magnetic topological insulators. MnBi2 Te4 is, however, antiferromagnetic with 25 K Néel temperature and is strongly n-doped. In this work, p-type MnSb2 Te4 , previously considered topologically trivial, is shown to be a ferromagnetic topological insulator for a few percent Mn excess. i) Ferromagnetic hysteresis with record Curie temperature of 45-50 K, ii) out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy, iii) a 2D Dirac cone with the Dirac point close to the Fermi level, iv) out-of-plane spin polarization as revealed by photoelectron spectroscopy, and v) a magnetically induced bandgap closing at the Curie temperature, demonstrated by scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS), are shown. Moreover, a critical exponent of the magnetization ß ≈ 1 is found, indicating the vicinity of a quantum critical point. Ab initio calculations reveal that Mn-Sb site exchange provides the ferromagnetic interlayer coupling and the slight excess of Mn nearly doubles the Curie temperature. Remaining deviations from the ferromagnetic order open the inverted bulk bandgap and render MnSb2 Te4 a robust topological insulator and new benchmark for magnetic topological insulators.

4.
Materials (Basel) ; 13(20)2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050359

RESUMO

Based on first-principles calculations, we study electronic structure of interfaces between a Z2 topological insulator (TI) SnBi2Te4 and a topological crystalline insulator (TCI) SnTe. We consider two interface models characterized by the different atomic structure on the contact of the SnTe(111) and SnBi2Te4(0001) slabs: the model when two materials are connected without intermixing (abrupt type of interface) and the interface model predicted to be realized at epitaxial immersion growth on topological insulator substrates (smooth interface). We find that a strong potential gradient at the abrupt interface leads to the redistribution of the topological states deeper from the interface plane which prevents the annihilation of the Γ¯ Dirac states, predicted earlier. In contrast, a smooth interface is characterized by minor charge transfer, which promotes the strong interplay between TI and TCI Γ¯ Dirac cones leading to their complete annihilation.The M¯ topologically protected Dirac state of SnTe(111) survives irrespective of the interface structure.

5.
ACS Nano ; 14(7): 9059-9065, 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628444

RESUMO

Chalcogenide phase-change materials show strikingly contrasting optical and electrical properties, which has led to their extensive implementation in various memory devices. By performing spin-, time-, and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy combined with the first-principles calculation, we report the experimental results that the crystalline phase of GeSb2Te4 is topologically nontrivial in the vicinity of the Dirac semimetal phase. The resulting linearly dispersive bulk Dirac-like bands that cross the Fermi level and are thus responsible for conductivity in the stable crystalline phase of GeSb2Te4 can be viewed as a 3D analogue of graphene. Our finding provides us with the possibility of realizing inertia-free Dirac currents in phase-change materials.

6.
Materials (Basel) ; 11(12)2018 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30562975

RESUMO

We present a first-principles fully-relativistic study of surface and interface states in the n one monolayer (ML) Au/Pt(111) heterostructures. The modification of an unoccupied s - p -type surface state existing on a Pt(111) surface at the surface Brillouin zone center upon deposition of a few atomic Au layers is investigated. In particular, we find that the transformation process of such a surface state upon variation of the Au adlayer thickness crucially depends on the nature of the relevant quantum state in the adsorbate. When the Au adlayer consists of one or two monolayers and this relevant state has energy above the Pt(111) surface state position, the latter shifts downward upon approaching the Au adlayer. As a result, in the 1 ML Au/Pt(111) and 2 ML Au/Pt(111) heterostructures at the equilibrium adlayer position, the Pt-derived surface state experiences strong hybridization with the bulk electronic states and becomes a strong occupied resonance. In contrast, when the number n of atomic layers in the Au films increases to three or more, the Pt(111) surface state shifts upward upon reduction of the distance between the Pt(111) surface and the Au adlayer. At equilibrium, the Pt-derived surface state transforms into an unoccupied quantum-well state of the Au adlayer. This change is explained by the fact that the relevant electronic state in free-standing Au films with n ≥ 3 has lower energy in comparison to the Pt(111) surface state.

7.
Nano Lett ; 18(10): 6521-6529, 2018 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30260648

RESUMO

Magnetic proximity effect at the interface between magnetic and topological insulators (MIs and TIs) is considered to have great potential in spintronics as, in principle, it allows realizing the quantum anomalous Hall and topological magneto-electric effects (QAHE and TME). Although an out-of-plane magnetization induced in a TI by the proximity effect was successfully probed in experiments, first-principles calculations reveal that a strong electrostatic potential mismatch at abrupt MI/TI interfaces creates harmful trivial states rendering both the QAHE and TME unfeasible in practice. Here on the basis of recent progress in formation of planar self-assembled single layer MI/TI heterostructure (T. Hirahara et al. Nano Lett. 2017 , 17 , 3493 - 3500 ), we propose a conceptually new type of the MI/TI interfaces by means of density functional theory calculations. By considering MnSe/Bi2Se3, MnTe/Bi2Te3, and EuS/Bi2Se3 we demonstrate that, instead of a sharp MI/TI interface clearly separating the two subsystems, it is energetically far more favorable to form a built-in interface via insertion of the MI film inside the TI's surface quintuple layer (e.g., Se-Bi-Se-[MnSe]-Bi-Se) where it forms a bulk-like MI structure. This results in a smooth MI-to-TI connection that yields the interface electronic structure essentially free of trivial states. Our findings open a new direction in studies of the MI/TI interfaces and restore their potential for the QAHE and TME observation.

8.
Chemphyschem ; 19(18): 2405-2410, 2018 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29847012

RESUMO

Topological insulators are promising candidates for spintronic applications due to their topologically protected, spin-momentum locked and gapless surface states. The breaking of the time-reversal symmetry after the introduction of magnetic impurities, such as 3d transition metal atoms embedded in two-dimensional molecular networks, could lead to several phenomena interesting for device fabrication. The first step towards the fabrication of metal-organic coordination networks on the surface of a topological insulator is to investigate the adsorption of the pure molecular layer, which is the aim of this study. Here, the effect of the deposition of the electron acceptor 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) molecules on the surface of a prototypical topological insulator, bismuth selenide (Bi2 Se3 ), is investigated. Scanning tunneling microscope images at low-temperature reveal the formation of a highly ordered two-dimensional molecular network. The essentially unperturbed electronic structure of the topological insulator observed by photoemission spectroscopy measurements demonstrates a negligible charge transfer between the molecular layer and the substrate. Density functional theory calculations confirm the picture of a weakly interacting adsorbed molecular layer. These results reveal significant potential of TCNQ for the realization of metal-organic coordination networks on the topological insulator surface.

9.
Nano Lett ; 18(3): 1564-1574, 2018 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29365269

RESUMO

A rich class of spintronics-relevant phenomena require implementation of robust magnetism and/or strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC) to graphene, but both properties are completely alien to it. Here, we for the first time experimentally demonstrate that a quasi-freestanding character, strong exchange splitting and giant SOC are perfectly achievable in graphene at once. Using angle- and spin-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we show that the Dirac state in the Au-intercalated graphene on Co(0001) experiences giant splitting (up to 0.2 eV) while being by no means distorted due to interaction with the substrate. Our calculations, based on the density functional theory, reveal the splitting to stem from the combined action of the Co thin film in-plane exchange field and Au-induced Rashba SOC. Scanning tunneling microscopy data suggest that the peculiar reconstruction of the Au/Co(0001) interface is responsible for the exchange field transfer to graphene. The realization of this "magneto-spin-orbit" version of graphene opens new frontiers for both applied and fundamental studies using its unusual electronic bandstructure.

10.
Materials (Basel) ; 10(12)2017 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29232833

RESUMO

The electronic structure of the Pt/Au(111) heterostructures with a number of Pt monolayers n ranging from one to three is studied in the density-functional-theory framework. The calculations demonstrate that the deposition of the Pt atomic thin films on gold substrate results in strong modifications of the electronic structure at the surface. In particular, the Au(111) s-p-type Shockley surface state becomes completely unoccupied at deposition of any number of Pt monolayers. The Pt adlayer generates numerous quantum-well states in various energy gaps of Au(111) with strong spatial confinement at the surface. As a result, strong enhancement in the local density of state at the surface Pt atomic layer in comparison with clean Pt surface is obtained. The excess in the density of states has maximal magnitude in the case of one monolayer Pt adlayer and gradually reduces with increasing number of Pt atomic layers. The spin-orbit coupling produces strong modification of the energy dispersion of the electronic states generated by the Pt adlayer and gives rise to certain quantum states with a characteristic Dirac-cone shape.

12.
ACS Nano ; 11(6): 6336-6345, 2017 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28494148

RESUMO

Regardless of the widely accepted opinion that there is no Raman signal from single-layer graphene when it is strongly bonded to a metal surface, we present Raman spectra of a graphene monolayer on Ni(111) and Co(0001) substrates. The high binding energy of carbon to these surfaces allows formation of lattice-matched (1 × 1) structures where graphene is significantly stretched. This is reflected in a record-breaking shift of the Raman G band by more than 100 cm-1 relative to the case of freestanding graphene. Using electron diffraction and photoemission spectroscopy, we explore the aforementioned systems together with polycrystalline graphene on Co and analyze possible intercalation of oxygen at ambient conditions. The results obtained are fully supported by Raman spectroscopy. Performing a theoretical investigation of the phonon dispersions of freestanding graphene and stretched graphene on the strongly interacting Co surface, we explain the main features of the Raman spectra. Our results create a reliable platform for application of Raman spectroscopy in diagnostics of chemisorbed graphene and related materials.

13.
Nano Lett ; 17(6): 3493-3500, 2017 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28545300

RESUMO

Inducing magnetism into topological insulators is intriguing for utilizing exotic phenomena such as the quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) for technological applications. While most studies have focused on doping magnetic impurities to open a gap at the surface-state Dirac point, many undesirable effects have been reported to appear in some cases that makes it difficult to determine whether the gap opening is due to the time-reversal symmetry breaking or not. Furthermore, the realization of the QAHE has been limited to low temperatures. Here we have succeeded in generating a massive Dirac cone in a MnBi2Se4/Bi2Se3 heterostructure, which was fabricated by self-assembling a MnBi2Se4 layer on top of the Bi2Se3 surface as a result of the codeposition of Mn and Se. Our experimental results, supported by relativistic ab initio calculations, demonstrate that the fabricated MnBi2Se4/Bi2Se3 heterostructure shows ferromagnetism up to room temperature and a clear Dirac cone gap opening of ∼100 meV without any other significant changes in the rest of the band structure. It can be considered as a result of the direct interaction of the surface Dirac cone and the magnetic layer rather than a magnetic proximity effect. This spontaneously formed self-assembled heterostructure with a massive Dirac spectrum, characterized by a nontrivial Chern number C = -1, has a potential to realize the QAHE at significantly higher temperatures than reported up to now and can serve as a platform for developing future "topotronics" devices.

14.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 1095, 2017 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28439125

RESUMO

The use of topological edge states for spintronic applications could be severely hampered by limited lifetimes due to intrinsic many-body interactions, in particular electron-phonon coupling. Previous works to determine the intrinsic coupling strength did not provide a coherent answer. Here, the electron-phonon interaction in the metallic surface state of 3D topological insulators is revised within a first principles framework. For the archetypical cases of Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3, we find an overall weak coupling constant of less than 0.15, but with a characteristic energy dependence. Derived electronic self-energies compare favorably with previous angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy results. The prevailing coupling is carried by optical modes of polar character, which is weakly screened by the metallic surface state and can be reduced by doping into bulk bands. We do not find any indication of a strong coupling to the A1g mode or the presence of a Kohn anomaly in the surface phonon spectrum. The weak intrinsic electron-phonon coupling guarantees long-lived quasiparticles at elevated temperatures.

15.
ACS Nano ; 11(1): 368-374, 2017 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28005333

RESUMO

Graphene is one of the most promising materials for nanoelectronics owing to its unique Dirac cone-like dispersion of the electronic state and high mobility of the charge carriers. However, to facilitate the implementation of the graphene-based devices, an essential change of its electronic structure, a creation of the band gap should controllably be done. Brought about by two fundamentally different mechanisms, a sublattice symmetry breaking or an induced strong spin-orbit interaction, the band gap appearance can drive graphene into a narrow-gap semiconductor or a 2D topological insulator phase, respectively, with both cases being technologically relevant. The later case, characterized by a spin-orbit gap between the valence and conduction bands, can give rise to the spin-polarized topologically protected edge states. Here, we study the effect of the spin-orbit interaction enhancement in graphene placed in contact with a lead monolayer. By means of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we show that intercalation of the Pb interlayer between the graphene sheet and the Pt(111) surface leads to formation of a gap of ∼200 meV at the Dirac point of graphene. Spin-resolved measurements confirm the splitting to be of a spin-orbit nature, and the measured near-gap spin structure resembles that of the quantum spin Hall state in graphene, proposed by Kane and Mele [ Phys. Rev. Lett. 2005 , 95 , 226801 ]. With a bandstructure tuned in this way, graphene acquires a functionality going beyond its intrinsic properties and becomes more attractive for possible spintronic applications.

16.
Nano Lett ; 17(2): 811-820, 2017 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28032768

RESUMO

Finding ways to create and control the spin-dependent properties of two-dimensional electron states (2DESs) is a major challenge for the elaboration of novel spin-based devices. Spin-orbit and exchange-magnetic interactions (SOI and EMI) are two fundamental mechanisms that enable access to the tunability of spin-dependent properties of carriers. The silicon surface of HoRh2Si2 appears to be a unique model system, where concurrent SOI and EMI can be visualized and controlled by varying the temperature. The beauty and simplicity of this system lie in the 4f moments, which act as a multiple tuning instrument on the 2DESs, as the 4f projections parallel and perpendicular to the surface order at essentially different temperatures. Here we show that the SOI locks the spins of the 2DESs exclusively in the surface plane when the 4f moments are disordered: the Rashba-Bychkov effect. When the temperature is gradually lowered and the system experiences magnetic order, the rising EMI progressively competes with the SOI leading to a fundamental change in the spin-dependent properties of the 2DESs. The spins rotate and reorient toward the out-of-plane Ho 4f moments. Our findings show that the direction of the spins and the spin-splitting of the two-dimensional electrons at the surface can be manipulated in a controlled way by using only one parameter: the temperature.

17.
Nano Lett ; 16(7): 4535-43, 2016 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27248659

RESUMO

The implementation of future graphene-based electronics is essentially restricted by the absence of a band gap in the electronic structure of graphene. Options of how to create a band gap in a reproducible and processing compatible manner are very limited at the moment. A promising approach for the graphene band gap engineering is to introduce a large-scale sublattice asymmetry. Using photoelectron diffraction and spectroscopy we have demonstrated a selective incorporation of boron impurities into only one of the two graphene sublattices. We have shown that in the well-oriented graphene on the Co(0001) surface the carbon atoms occupy two nonequivalent positions with respect to the Co lattice, namely top and hollow sites. Boron impurities embedded into the graphene lattice preferably occupy the hollow sites due to a site-specific interaction with the Co pattern. Our theoretical calculations predict that such boron-doped graphene possesses a band gap that can be precisely controlled by the dopant concentration. B-graphene with doping asymmetry is, thus, a novel material, which is worth considering as a good candidate for electronic applications.

18.
Nat Commun ; 7: 11621, 2016 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27188584

RESUMO

Semiconductors with strong spin-orbit interaction as the underlying mechanism for the generation of spin-polarized electrons are showing potential for applications in spintronic devices. Unveiling the full spin texture in momentum space for such materials and its relation to the microscopic structure of the electronic wave functions is experimentally challenging and yet essential for exploiting spin-orbit effects for spin manipulation. Here we employ a state-of-the-art photoelectron momentum microscope with a multichannel spin filter to directly image the spin texture of the layered polar semiconductor BiTeI within the full two-dimensional momentum plane. Our experimental results, supported by relativistic ab initio calculations, demonstrate that the valence and conduction band electrons in BiTeI have spin textures of opposite chirality and of pronounced orbital dependence beyond the standard Rashba model, the latter giving rise to strong optical selection-rule effects on the photoelectron spin polarization. These observations open avenues for spin-texture manipulation by atomic-layer and charge carrier control in polar semiconductors.

19.
Nano Lett ; 16(6): 3409-14, 2016 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27010705

RESUMO

Topological insulators are a promising class of materials for applications in the field of spintronics. New perspectives in this field can arise from interfacing metal-organic molecules with the topological insulator spin-momentum locked surface states, which can be perturbed enhancing or suppressing spintronics-relevant properties such as spin coherence. Here we show results from an angle-resolved photemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) study of the prototypical cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc)/Bi2Se3 interface. We demonstrate that that the hybrid interface can act on the topological protection of the surface and bury the Dirac cone below the first quintuple layer.

20.
ACS Nano ; 10(3): 3518-24, 2016 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26895427

RESUMO

By means of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) measurements, we unveil the electronic band structure of three-dimensional PbBi6Te10 topological insulator. ARPES investigations evidence multiple coexisting Dirac surface states at the zone-center of the reciprocal space, displaying distinct electronic band dispersion, different constant energy contours, and Dirac point energies. We also provide evidence of Rashba-like split states close to the Fermi level, and deeper M- and V-shaped bands coexisting with the topological surface states. The experimental findings are in agreement with scanning tunneling microscopy measurements revealing different surface terminations according to the crystal structure of PbBi6Te10. Our experimental results are supported by density functional theory calculations predicting multiple topological surface states according to different surface cleavage planes.

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