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1.
Allergy ; 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563695

RESUMO

The EAACI Guidelines on the impact of short-term exposure to outdoor pollutants on asthma-related outcomes provide recommendations for prevention, patient care and mitigation in a framework supporting rational decisions for healthcare professionals and patients to individualize and improve asthma management and for policymakers and regulators as an evidence-informed reference to help setting legally binding standards and goals for outdoor air quality at international, national and local levels. The Guideline was developed using the GRADE approach and evaluated outdoor pollutants referenced in the current Air Quality Guideline of the World Health Organization as single or mixed pollutants and outdoor pesticides. Short-term exposure to all pollutants evaluated increases the risk of asthma-related adverse outcomes, especially hospital admissions and emergency department visits (moderate certainty of evidence at specific lag days). There is limited evidence for the impact of traffic-related air pollution and outdoor pesticides exposure as well as for the interventions to reduce emissions. Due to the quality of evidence, conditional recommendations were formulated for all pollutants and for the interventions reducing outdoor air pollution. Asthma management counselled by the current EAACI guidelines can improve asthma-related outcomes but global measures for clean air are needed to achieve significant impact.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 924: 171534, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38453064

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to examine the association between the lung lobe-deposited dose of inhaled fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and chest X-ray abnormalities in different lung lobes of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), and non-tuberculosis mycobacteria infections (NTM). A cross-sectional study was conducted between 2014 and 2022, comprising 1073 patients who were recruited from chest department clinic in a tertial refer hospital in Taipei City, Taiwan. Ambient 1-, 7-, and 30-day PM2.5 exposure and the deposition of PM2.5 in different lung lobes were estimated in each subject. The ß coefficient for PM2.5 and deposited PM2.5 in lungs with the outcome variables (pulmonary TB, MDR-TB, and NTM infection) was derived through regression analysis and adjusted for age, gender, BMI, smoking status, and family income. We observed that a 1 µg/m3 increase in ambient PM2.5 was associated with an increase of MDR-TB infections of 0.004 times (95%CI: 0.001-0.007). A 1 µg/m3 increase in 1-day and 7-day PM2.5 deposition in left upper lobe and left lower lobe was associated with an increase in chest X-ray abnormalities of 9.19 % and 1.18 % (95%CI: 0.87-17.51 and 95%CI: 0.08-2.28), and 4.52 % and 5.20 % (95%CI: 0.66-8.38 and 95%CI: 0.51-9.89) in left lung of TB patients, respectively. A 1 µg/m3 increase in 30-day PM2.5 deposition in alveolar region was associated with an increase in percent abnormality of 2.50 % (95%CI: 0.65-4.35) in left upper lobe and 3.33 % (95%CI: 0.65-6.01) in right middle lobe, while in total lung was 0.63 % (95%CI: 0.01-1.27) in right upper lobe and 0.37 % (95%CI, 0.06-0.81) in right lung of MDR-TB patients. Inhaled PM2.5 deposition in lungs was associated with an exacerbation of the radiographic severity of pulmonary TB, particularly in pulmonary MDR-TB patients in upper and middle lobes. Particulate air pollution may potentially exacerbate the radiographic severity and treatment resistance in individuals with pulmonary TB.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Tuberculose , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/análise
3.
Respirology ; 2024 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38494828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Nicotine metabolic ratio (NMR) has been associated with nicotine metabolism and smoking characteristics. However, there are few studies on the potential association between NMR and smoking cessation efficacy in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in China or elsewhere. METHODS: This study was a stratified block randomized controlled trial for smoking cessation in Chinese smokers with COPD. NMR was used as a stratification factor; slow metabolizers were defined as those with NMR <0.31, and normal metabolizers as those with NMR ≥0.31. Participants were randomly assigned to the varenicline or bupropion group. Follow-up visits were conducted at 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, 12 and 24 weeks. RESULTS: Two hundred twenty-four participants were recruited and analysed from February 2019 to June 2022. In normal metabolizers, the 9-12 weeks continuous abstinence rate of varenicline (43.1%) was higher than in bupropion (23.5%) (OR = 2.47, 95% CI 1.05-5.78, p = 0.038). There was no significant difference in abstinence rates between treatment groups in slow metabolizers (54.1% vs. 45.9%, OR = 1.39, 95% CI 0.68-2.83, p = 0.366). For slow metabolizers, the total score of side effects in the varenicline group was significantly higher than the bupropion group (p = 0.048), while there was no significant difference in side effects between groups for normal metabolizers (p = 0.360). CONCLUSION: Varenicline showed better efficacy than bupropion in normal metabolizers, and bupropion showed equivalent efficacy in slow metabolizers with less side effects. According to our study, NMR provides a better justification for both scientific research and tailoring optimal pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation among smokers in COPD.

4.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 12: 1360079, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38495619

RESUMO

Mitochondria are key metabolic hubs involved in cellular energy production and biosynthesis. ATP is generated primarily by glucose and fatty acid oxidation through the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in the mitochondria. During OXPHOS there is also production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are involved in the regulation of cellular function. Mitochondria are also central in the regulating cell survival and death, particularly in the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. Severe asthma is a heterogeneous disease driven by various immune mechanisms. Severe eosinophilic asthma entails a type 2 inflammatory response and peripheral and lung eosinophilia, associated with severe airflow obstruction, frequent exacerbations and poor response to treatment. Mitochondrial dysfunction and altered metabolism have been observed in airway epithelial and smooth muscle cells from patients with asthma. However, the role of mitochondria in the development of eosinophilia and eosinophil-mediated inflammation in severe asthma is unknown. In this review, we discuss the currently limited literature on the role of mitochondria in eosinophil function and how it is regulated by asthma-relevant cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-5 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), as well as by corticosteroid drugs. Moreover, we summarise the evidence on the role of mitochondria in the regulation of eosinophils apoptosis and eosinophil extracellular trap formation. Finally, we discuss the possible role of altered mitochondrial function in eosinophil dysfunction in severe asthma and suggest possible research avenues in order to better understand their role in disease pathogenesis, and identify novel therapeutic targets.

5.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 10: e53170, 2024 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38386387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) is a known risk factor for offspring developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore whether the increased COPD risk associated with MSDP could be attributed to tobacco dependence (TD). METHODS: This case-control study used data from the nationwide cross-sectional China Pulmonary Health study, with controls matched for age, sex, and smoking status. TD was defined as smoking within 30 minutes of waking, and the severity of TD was assessed using the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence. COPD was diagnosed when the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity was <0.7 in a postbronchodilator pulmonary function test according to the 2017 Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria. Logistic regression was used to examine the correlation between MSDP and COPD, adjusting for age, sex, BMI, educational attainment, place of residence, ethnic background, occupation, childhood passive smoking, residential fine particulate matter, history of childhood pneumonia or bronchitis, average annual household income, and medical history (coronary heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes). Mediation analysis examined TD as a potential mediator in the link between MSDP and COPD risk. The significance of the indirect effect was assessed through 1000 iterations of the "bootstrap" method. RESULTS: The study included 5943 participants (2991 with COPD and 2952 controls). Mothers of the COPD group had higher pregnancy smoking rates (COPD: n=305, 10.20%; controls: n=211, 7.10%; P<.001). TD was more prevalent in the COPD group (COPD: n=582, 40.40%; controls: n=478, 33.90%; P<.001). After adjusting for covariates, MSDP had a significant effect on COPD (ß=.097; P<.001). There was an association between MSDP and TD (ß=.074; P<.001) as well as between TD and COPD (ß=.048; P=.007). Mediation analysis of TD in the MSDP-COPD association showed significant direct and indirect effects (direct: ß=.094; P<.001 and indirect: ß=.004; P=.03). The indirect effect remains present in the smoking population (direct: ß=.120; P<.001 and indirect: ß=.002; P=.03). CONCLUSIONS: This study highlighted the potential association between MSDP and the risk of COPD in offspring, revealing the mediating role of TD in this association. These findings contribute to a deeper understanding of the impact of prenatal tobacco exposure on lung health, laying the groundwork for the development of relevant prevention and treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Tabagismo , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Fumar , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia
6.
Front Pediatr ; 12: 1329918, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38370139

RESUMO

Introduction: The impact of climate change on ambient temperatures threatens to worsen pediatric pneumonia-related outcomes considerably. This study examined the associations of temperature variation and extreme temperature with pediatric pneumonia-related events using a meta-analysis. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, Medline, Embase, and Web of Science databases for relevant literature, and the quality of evidence was assessed. Fixed and random-effects meta-analyses were performed to calculate the pooled relative risks (RRs) of the associations with pneumonia-related events. Results: We observed that a 1°C temperature variation increased the RR of pneumonia events by 1.06-fold (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.10). A 1°C temperature variation increased the RR by 1.10-fold of the pediatric pneumonia hospital admissions (95% CI: 1.00-1.21) and 1.06-fold of the pediatric pneumonia emergency department visits (95% CI: 1.01-1.10). Extreme cold increased the RR by 1.25-fold of the pediatric pneumonia events (95% CI: 1.07-1.45). A 1°C temperature variation increased the RR of pneumonia events in children by 1.19-fold (95% CI: 1.08-1.32), girls by 1.03-fold (95% CI: 1.02-1.05), and in temperate climate zones by 1.07-fold (95% CI: 1.03-1.11). Moreover, an increase in extreme cold increased the RR of pneumonia events in children by 2.43-fold (95% CI: 1.72-3.43), girls by 1.96-fold (95% CI: 1.29-2.98) and in temperate climate zones by 2.76-fold (95% CI: 1.71-4.47). Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that pediatric pneumonia events are more prevalent among children, particularly girls, and individuals residing in temperate climate zones. Climate change represents an emergent public health threat, affecting pediatric pneumonia treatment and prevention.. Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO (CRD42022378610).

7.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 10: e47453, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cough is a common symptom during and after COVID-19 infection; however, few studies have described the cough profiles of COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, severity, and associated risk factors of severe and persistent cough in individuals with COVID-19 during the latest wave of the Omicron variant in China. METHODS: In this nationwide cross-sectional study, we collected information of the characteristics of cough from individuals with infection of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant using an online questionnaire sent between December 31, 2022, and January 11, 2023. RESULTS: There were 11,718 (n=7978, 68.1% female) nonhospitalized responders, with a median age of 37 (IQR 30-47) years who responded at a median of 16 (IQR 12-20) days from infection onset to the time of the survey. Cough was the most common symptom, occurring in 91.7% of participants, followed by fever, fatigue, and nasal congestion (68.8%-87.4%). The median cough visual analog scale (VAS) score was 70 (IQR 50-80) mm. Being female (odds ratio [OR] 1.31, 95% CI 1.20-1.43), having a COVID-19 vaccination history (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.37-2.12), current smoking (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.41-0.58), chronic cough (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.69-2.45), coronary heart disease (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.17-2.52), asthma (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.02-1.46), and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.01-1.45) were independent factors for severe cough (VAS>70, 37.4%). Among all respondents, 35.0% indicated having a productive cough, which was associated with risk factors of being female (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.31-1.57), having asthma (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.52-2.22), chronic cough (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.19-1.74), and GERD (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.01-1.47). Persistent cough (>3 weeks) occurred in 13.0% of individuals, which was associated with the risk factors of having diabetes (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.30-3.85), asthma (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.11-2.62), and chronic cough (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.32-2.94). CONCLUSIONS: Cough is the most common symptom in nonhospitalized individuals with Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant infection. Being female, having asthma, chronic cough, GERD, coronary heart disease, diabetes, and a COVID-19 vaccination history emerged as independent factors associated with severe cough, productive cough, and persistent cough.


Assuntos
Asma , COVID-19 , Doença das Coronárias , Diabetes Mellitus , Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Transversais , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Tosse/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , China/epidemiologia , Asma/complicações , Asma/epidemiologia
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 918: 170668, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38320701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transient receptor potential (TRP) ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) could mediate ozone-induced lung injury. Optic Atrophy 1 (OPA1) is one of the significant mitochondrial fusion proteins. Impaired mitochondrial fusion, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction and ferroptosis, may drive the onset and progression of lung injury. In this study, we examined whether TRPA1 mediated ozone-induced bronchial epithelial cell and lung injury by activating PI3K/Akt with the involvement of OPA1, leading to ferroptosis. METHODS: Wild-type, TRPA1-knockout (KO) mice (C57BL/6 J background) and ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1)-pretreated mice were exposed to 2.5 ppm ozone for 3 h. Human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells were treated with 1 ppm ozone for 3 h in the presence of TRPA1 inhibitor A967079 or TRPA1-knockdown (KD) as well as pharmacological modulators of PI3K/Akt-OPA1-ferroptosis. Transcriptome was used to screen and decipher the differential gene expressions and pathways. Oxidative stress, inflammation and ferroptosis were measured together with mitochondrial morphology, function and dynamics. RESULTS: Acute ozone exposure induced airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), reduced mitochondrial fusion, and enhanced ferroptosis in mice. Similarly, acute ozone exposure induced inflammatory responses, altered redox responses, abnormal mitochondrial structure and function, reduced mitochondrial fusion and enhanced ferroptosis in BEAS-2B cells. There were increased mitochondrial fusion, reduced inflammatory responses, decreased redox responses and ferroptosis in ozone-exposed TRPA1-KO mice and Fer-1-pretreated ozone-exposed mice. A967079 and TRPA1-KD enhanced OPA1 and prevented ferroptosis through the PI3K/Akt pathway in BEAS-2B cells. These in vitro results were further confirmed in pharmacological modulator experiments. CONCLUSION: Exposure to ozone induces mitochondrial dysfunction in human bronchial epithelial cells and mouse lungs by activating TRPA1, which results in ferroptosis mediated via a PI3K/Akt/OPA1 axis. This supports a potential role of TRPA1 blockade in preventing the deleterious effects of ozone.


Assuntos
Ferroptose , Lesão Pulmonar , Doenças Mitocondriais , Oximas , Ozônio , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Lesão Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Ozônio/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Células Epiteliais , Doenças Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/metabolismo , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/farmacologia , Canal de Cátion TRPA1/metabolismo
9.
Lung ; 2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38411774

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Codeine is a narcotic antitussive often considered for managing patients with refractory or unexplained chronic cough. This study aimed to evaluate the proportion and characteristics of patients who responded to codeine treatment in real-world practice. METHODS: Data from the Korean Chronic Cough Registry, a multicenter prospective cohort study, were analyzed. Physicians assessed the response to codeine based on the timing and degree of improvement after treatment initiation. Follow-up assessments included the Leicester Cough Questionnaire and cough severity visual analog scale at six months. In a subset of subjects, objective cough frequency was evaluated following the initiation of codeine treatment. RESULTS: Of 305 patients, 124 (40.7%) responded to treatments based on anatomic diagnostic protocols, while 181 (59.3%) remained unexplained or refractory to etiological treatments. Fifty-one subjects (16.7%) were classified as codeine treatment responders (those showing a rapid and clear response), 57 (18.7%) as partial responders, and 62 (20.3%) as non-responders. Codeine responders showed rapid improvement in objective cough frequency and severity scores within a week of the treatment. At 6 months, responders showed significantly improved scores in cough scores, compared to non-responders. Several baseline parameters were associated with a more favorable treatment response, including older age, non-productive cough, and the absence of heartburn. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 60% of chronic cough patients in specialist clinics may require antitussive drugs. While codeine benefits some, only a limited proportion (about 20%) of patients may experience rapid and significant improvement. This underscores the urgent need for new antitussive drugs to address these unmet clinical needs.

10.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 171, 2024 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347162

RESUMO

Microbial communities at the airway mucosal barrier are conserved and highly ordered, in likelihood reflecting co-evolution with human host factors. Freed of selection to digest nutrients, the airway microbiome underpins cognate management of mucosal immunity and pathogen resistance. We show here the initial results of systematic culture and whole-genome sequencing of the thoracic airway bacteria, identifying 52 novel species amongst 126 organisms that constitute 75% of commensals typically present in heathy individuals. Clinically relevant genes encode antimicrobial synthesis, adhesion and biofilm formation, immune modulation, iron utilisation, nitrous oxide (NO) metabolism and sphingolipid signalling. Using whole-genome content we identify dysbiotic features that may influence asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We match isolate gene content to transcripts and metabolites expressed late in airway epithelial differentiation, identifying pathways to sustain host interactions with microbiota. Our results provide a systematic basis for decrypting interactions between commensals, pathogens, and mucosa in lung diseases of global significance.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Mucosa , Humanos , Mucosa/microbiologia , Bactérias/genética , Simbiose , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Genômica
11.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 153(4): 954-968, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38295882

RESUMO

Studies of asthma and allergy are generating increasing volumes of omics data for analysis and interpretation. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) assembled a workshop comprising investigators studying asthma and allergic diseases using omics approaches, omics investigators from outside the field, and NIAID medical and scientific officers to discuss the following areas in asthma and allergy research: genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, microbiomics, metabolomics, proteomics, lipidomics, integrative omics, systems biology, and causal inference. Current states of the art, present challenges, novel and emerging strategies, and priorities for progress were presented and discussed for each area. This workshop report summarizes the major points and conclusions from this NIAID workshop. As a group, the investigators underscored the imperatives for rigorous analytic frameworks, integration of different omics data types, cross-disciplinary interaction, strategies for overcoming current limitations, and the overarching goal to improve scientific understanding and care of asthma and allergic diseases.


Assuntos
Asma , Hipersensibilidade , Estados Unidos , Humanos , National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (U.S.) , Hipersensibilidade/genética , Asma/etiologia , Genômica , Proteômica , Metabolômica
12.
EBioMedicine ; 100: 104976, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38244293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic cough is a prevalent and difficult to treat condition often accompanied by cough hypersensitivity, characterised by cough triggered from exposure to low level sensory stimuli. The mechanisms underlying cough hypersensitivity may involve alterations in airway sensory nerve responsivity to tussive stimuli which would be accompanied by alterations in stimulus-induced brainstem activation, measurable with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). METHODS: We investigated brainstem responses during inhalation of capsaicin and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in 29 participants with chronic cough and 29 age- and sex-matched controls. Psychophysical testing was performed to evaluate individual sensitivities to inhaled stimuli and fMRI was used to compare neural activation in participants with cough and control participants while inhaling stimulus concentrations that evoked equivalent levels of urge-to-cough sensation. FINDINGS: Participants with chronic cough were significantly more sensitive to inhaled capsaicin and ATP and showed a change in relationship between urge-to-cough perception and cough induction. When urge-to-cough levels were matched, participants with chronic cough displayed significantly less neural activation in medullary regions known to integrate airway sensory inputs. By contrast, neural activations did not differ significantly between the two groups in cortical brain regions known to encode cough sensations whereas activation in a midbrain region of participants with chronic cough was significantly increased compared to controls. INTERPRETATION: Cough hypersensitivity in some patients may occur in brain circuits above the level of the medulla, perhaps involving midbrain regions that amplify ascending sensory signals or change the efficacy of central inhibitory control systems that ordinarily serve to filter sensory inputs. FUNDING: Supported in part by a research grant from Investigator-Initiated Studies Program of Merck Sharp & Dohme Pty Ltd. The opinions expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of Merck Sharp & Dohme (Australia) Pty Ltd.


Assuntos
Capsaicina , Hipersensibilidade , Humanos , Capsaicina/efeitos adversos , Tosse , Tronco Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Trifosfato de Adenosina
14.
Lung ; 202(1): 41-51, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38252134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The determinants linked to the short- and long-term improvement in lung function in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma (SEA) on biological treatment (BioT) remain elusive. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify the predictors of early and late lung function improvement in patients with SEA after BioT. METHODS: 140 adult patients with SEA who received mepolizumab, dupilumab, or reslizumab were followed up for 6 months to evaluate improvement in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). Logistic regression was used to determine the association between potential prognostic factors and improved lung function at 1 and 6 months of treatment. RESULTS: More than a third of patients with SEA using BioT showed early and sustained improvements in FEV1 after 1 month. A significant association was found between low baseline FEV1 and high blood eosinophil count and sustained FEV1 improvement after 1 month (0.54 [0.37-0.79] and 1.88 [1.28-2.97] odds ratios and 95% confidence interval, respectively). Meanwhile, among patients who did not experience FEV1 improvement after 1 month, 39% exhibited improvement at 6 months follow-up. A high ACT score measured at this visit was the most reliable predictor of late response after 6 months of treatment (OR and 95% CI 1.75 [1.09-2.98]). CONCLUSION: Factors predicting the efficacy of biological agents that improve lung function in SEA vary according to the stage of response.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos , Asma , Produtos Biológicos , Eosinofilia Pulmonar , Adulto , Humanos , Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Eosinófilos , Eosinofilia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Pulmão
15.
Lung ; 202(1): 17-24, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38135857

RESUMO

Chronic cough is characterized by a state of cough hypersensitivity. We analyze the process of transpiration, by which water appears to evaporate from laryngeal and tracheal mucus as from the surface of a leaf, as a potential cause of cough hypersensitivity. In this process, osmotic pressure differences form across mucus, pulling water toward the air, and preventing mucus dehydration. Recent research suggests that these osmotic differences grow on encounter with dry and dirty air, amplifying pressure on upper airway epithelia and initiating a cascade of biophysical events that potentially elevate levels of ATP, promote inflammation and acidity, threaten water condensation, and diminish mucus water permeability. Among consequences of this inflammatory cascade is tendency to cough. Studies of isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic aerosols targeted to the upper airways give insights to the nature of mucus transpiration and its relationship to a water layer that forms by condensation in the upper airways on exhalation. They also suggest that, while hypertonic NaCl and mannitol may provoke cough and bronchoconstriction, hypertonic salts with permeating anions and non-permeating cations may relieve these same upper respiratory dysfunctions. Understanding of mucus transpiration and its role in cough hypersensitivity can lead to new treatment modalities for chronic cough and other airway dysfunctions promoted by the breathing of dry and dirty air.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade , Humanos , Aerossóis e Gotículas Respiratórios , Tosse/etiologia , Muco , Água
16.
EBioMedicine ; 99: 104936, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38128411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic and neutrophilic asthma defined by high levels of blood and sputum eosinophils and neutrophils exemplifies the inflammatory heterogeneity of asthma, particularly severe asthma. We analysed the serum and sputum proteome to identify biomarkers jointly associated with these different phenotypes. METHODS: Proteomic profiles (N = 1129 proteins) were assayed in sputum (n = 182) and serum (n = 574) from two cohorts (U-BIOPRED and ADEPT) of mild-moderate and severe asthma by SOMAscan. Using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO)-penalised logistic regression in a stability selection framework, we sought sparse sets of proteins associated with either eosinophilic or neutrophilic asthma with and without adjustment for established clinical factors including oral corticosteroid use and forced expiratory volume. FINDINGS: We identified 13 serum proteins associated with eosinophilic asthma, including 7 (PAPP-A, TARC/CCL17, ALT/GPT, IgE, CCL28, CO8A1, and IL5-Rα) that were stably selected while adjusting for clinical factors yielding an AUC of 0.84 (95% CI: 0.83-0.84) compared to 0.62 (95% CI: 0.61-0.63) for clinical factors only. Sputum protein analysis selected only PAPP-A (AUC = 0.81 [95% CI: 0.80-0.81]). 12 serum proteins were associated with neutrophilic asthma, of which 5 (MMP-9, EDAR, GIIE/PLA2G2E, IL-1-R4/IL1RL1, and Elafin) complemented clinical factors increasing the AUC from 0.63 (95% CI: 0.58-0.67) for the model with clinical factors only to 0.89 (95% CI: 0.89-0.90). Our model did not select any sputum proteins associated with neutrophilic status. INTERPRETATION: Targeted serum proteomic profiles are a non-invasive and scalable approach for subtyping of neutrophilic and eosinophilic asthma and for future functional understanding of these phenotypes. FUNDING: U-BIOPRED has received funding from the Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI) Joint Undertaking under grant agreement no. 115010, resources of which are composed of financial contributions from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013), and European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations (EFPIA) companies' in-kind contributions (www.imi.europa.eu). ADEPT was funded by Johnson & Johnson/Janssen pharmaceutical Company.


Assuntos
Asma , Escarro , Humanos , Proteômica , Proteína Plasmática A Associada à Gravidez/metabolismo , Asma/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo
18.
World Allergy Organ J ; 16(12): 100848, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38093952

RESUMO

Background: Despite the increasing use of biologics in severe asthma, there is limited research on their use in asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap (ACO). We compared real-world treatment responses to biologics in ACO and asthma. Methods: We conducted a multicenter, retrospective, cohort study using data from the Precision Medicine Intervention in Severe Asthma (PRISM). ACO was defined as post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) <0.7 and a smoking history of >10 pack-years. Physicians selected biologics (omalizumab, mepolizumab, reslizumab, benralizumab, and dupilumab) based on each United States Food & Drug Administration (FDA) approval criteria. Results: After six-month treatment with biologics, both patients with ACO (N = 13) and asthma (N = 81) showed positive responses in FEV1 (10.69 ± 17.17 vs. 11.25 ± 12.87 %, P = 0.652), Asthma Control Test score (3.33 ± 5.47 vs. 5.39 ± 5.42, P = 0.290), oral corticosteroid use (-117.50 ± 94.38 vs. -115.06 ± 456.85 mg, P = 0.688), fractional exhaled nitric oxide levels (-18.62 ± 24.68 vs. -14.66 ± 45.35 ppb, P = 0.415), sputum eosinophils (-3.40 ± 10.60 vs. -14.48 ± 24.01 %, P = 0.065), blood eosinophils (-36.47 ± 517.02 vs. -363.22 ± 1294.59, P = 0.013), and exacerbation frequency (-3.07 ± 4.42 vs. -3.19 ± 5.11, P = 0.943). The odds ratio for exacerbation and time-to-first exacerbation showed no significant difference after full adjustments, and subgroup analysis according to biologic type was also showed similar results. Conclusions: Biologics treatment response patterns in patients with ACO and asthma were comparable, suggesting that biologics should be actively considered for ACO patients as well.

19.
Respir Res ; 24(1): 319, 2023 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38110986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial dysfunction and lung cellular senescence are significant features involved in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cigarette smoke (CS) stands as the primary contributing factor to COPD. This study examined mitochondrial dynamics, mitophagy and lung cellular senescence in COPD patients and investigated the effects of modulation of mitochondrial fusion [mitofusin2 (MFN2) and Optic atrophy 1 (OPA1)] on CS extract (CSE)-induced lung cellular senescence. METHODS: Senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) component mRNAs (IL-1ß, IL-6, CXCL1 and CXCL8), mitochondrial morphology, mitophagy and mitochondria-related proteins (including phosphorylated-DRP1(p-DRP1), DRP1, MFF, MNF2, OPA1, PINK1, PARK2, SQSTM1/p62 and LC3b) and senescence-related proteins (including P16, H2A.X and Klotho) were measured in lung tissues or primary alveolar type II (ATII) cells of non-smokers, smokers and COPD patients. Alveolar epithelial (A549) cells were exposed to CSE with either pharmacologic inducer (leflunomide and BGP15) or genetic induction of MFN2 and OPA1 respectively. RESULTS: There were increases in mitochondrial number, and decreases in mitochondrial size and activity in lung tissues from COPD patients. SASP-related mRNAs, DRP1 phosphorylation, DRP1, MFF, PARK2, SQSTM1/p62, LC3B II/LC3B I, P16 and H2A.X protein levels were increased, while MFN2, OPA1, PINK1 and Klotho protein levels were decreased in lung tissues from COPD patients. Some similar results were identified in primary ATII cells of COPD patients. CSE induced increases in oxidative stress, SASP-related mRNAs, mitochondrial damage and dysfunction, mitophagy and cellular senescence in A549 cells, which were ameliorated by both pharmacological inducers and genetic overexpression of MFN2 and OPA1. CONCLUSIONS: Impaired mitochondrial fusion, enhanced mitophagy and lung cellular senescence are observed in the lung of COPD patients. Up-regulation of MFN2 and OPA1 attenuates oxidative stress, mitophagy and lung cellular senescence, offering potential innovative therapeutic targets for COPD therapy.


Assuntos
GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases , Dinâmica Mitocondrial , Proteínas Mitocondriais , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Humanos , Senescência Celular , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/metabolismo
20.
ERJ Open Res ; 9(6)2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38152080

RESUMO

Background: Older adults with asthma have the greatest burden and worst outcomes, and there is increasing evidence that chronic cough (CC) is associated with asthma severity and poor prognosis. However, the clinical characteristics of older adult patients with both asthma and CC remain largely unknown. Methods: Participants with stable asthma underwent two cough assessments within 3 months to define the presence of CC. Patients were divided into four groups based on CC and age (cut-off ≥60 years). Multidimensional assessment was performed at baseline, followed by a 12-month follow-up to investigate asthma exacerbations. Logistic regression models were used to explore the interaction effect of CC and age on asthma control and exacerbations. Results: In total, 310 adult patients were prospectively recruited and divided into four groups: older CC group (n=46), older non-CC group (n=20), younger CC group (n=112) and younger non-CC group (n=132). Compared with the younger non-CC group, the older CC group had worse asthma control and quality of life and increased airflow obstruction. The older CC group showed an increase in moderate-to-severe exacerbations during the 12-month follow-up. There was a significant interaction effect of CC and ageing on the increased moderate-to-severe exacerbations (adjusted risk ratio 2.36, 95% CI 1.47-3.30). Conclusion: Older asthma patients with CC have worse clinical outcomes, including worse asthma control and quality of life, increased airway obstruction and more frequent moderate-to-severe exacerbations, which can be partly explained by the interaction between CC and ageing.

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