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1.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 12(24): e030042, 2023 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38108253

RESUMO

The United States witnessed a nearly 4-fold increase in personal health care expenditures between 1980 and 2010. Despite innovations and obvious benefits to health, participants enrolled in clinical trials still do not accurately represent the racial and ethnic composition of patients nationally or globally. This lack of diversity in cohorts limits the generalizability and significance of results among all populations and has deep repercussions for patient equity. To advance diversity in clinical trials, robust evidence for the most effective strategies for recruitment of diverse participants is needed. A major limitation of previous literature on clinical trial diversity is the lack of control or comparator groups for different strategies. To date, interventions have focused primarily on (1) community-based interventions, (2) institutional practices, and (3) digital health systems. This review article outlines prior intervention strategies across these 3 categories and considers health policy and ethical incentives for substantiation before US Food and Drug Administration approval. There are no current studies that comprehensively compare these interventions against one another. The American Heart Association Strategically Focused Research Network on the Science of Diversity in Clinical Trials represents a multicenter, collaborative network between Stanford School of Medicine and Morehouse School of Medicine created to understand the barriers to diversity in clinical trials by contemporaneous head-to-head interventional strategies accessing digital, institutional, and community-based recruitment strategies to produce informed recruitment strategies targeted to improve underrepresented patient representation in clinical trials.


Assuntos
American Heart Association , Instalações de Saúde , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Política de Saúde , Assistência Médica , Diversidade Cultural , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto
4.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 63(12)2019 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548185

RESUMO

Doxycycline is a tetracycline-class antimicrobial labeled by the United States (U.S.) Food and Drug Administration for children >8 years of age for many common childhood infections. Doxycycline is not labeled for children ≤8 years of age, due to the association between tetracycline class antibiotics and tooth staining, although doxycycline may be used off-label in severe conditions. Accordingly, there is a paucity of pharmacokinetic (PK) data to guide dosing in children 8 years and younger. We leveraged opportunistically-collected plasma samples after intravenous (IV) and oral doxycycline doses received per standard of care to characterize the PK of doxycycline in children of different ages, and evaluated the effect of obesity and fasting status on PK parameters.We developed a population PK model of doxycycline using data collected from 47 patients 0-18 years of age, including 14 participants ≤8 years. We developed a 1 compartment PK model and found doxycycline clearance to be 3.32 L/h/70 kg and volume to be 96.8 L/70kg for all patients; comparable to values reported in adults. We estimated a bioavailability of 89.6%, also consistent with adult data. Allometrically scaled clearance and volume of distribution did not differ between children 2 to ≤8 years of age and children >8 to ≤18 years of age, suggesting that younger children may be given the same per kg dosing. Obese and fasting status were not selected for inclusion in the final model. Additional doxycycline PK samples collected in future studies may be used to improve model performance and maximize its clinical value.

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