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1.
Front Microbiol ; 15: 1338261, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38410385

RESUMO

Bile represses Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) intestinal cell invasion, but it remains unclear which bile components and mechanisms are implicated. Previous studies reported that bile inhibits the RamR binding to the ramA promoter, resulting in ramA increased transcription, and that ramA overexpression is associated to decreased expression of type III secretion system 1 (TTSS-1) invasion genes and to impaired intestinal cell invasiveness in S. Typhimurium. In this study, we assessed the possible involvement of the ramRA multidrug efflux regulatory locus and individual bile salts in the bile-mediated repression of S. Typhimurium invasion, using Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells and S. Typhimurium strain ATCC 14028s. Our results indicate that (i) major primary bile salts, chenodeoxycholate and its conjugated-derivative salts, cholate, and deoxycholate, activate ramA transcription in a RamR-dependent manner, and (ii) it results in repression of hilA, encoding the master activator of TTSS-1 genes, and as a consequence in the repression of cellular invasiveness. On the other hand, crude ox bile extract and cholate were also shown to repress the transcription of hilA independently of RamR, and to inhibit cell invasion independently of ramRA. Altogether, these data suggest that bile-mediated repression of S. Typhimurium invasion occurs through pleiotropic effects involving partly ramRA, as well as other unknown regulatory pathways. Bile components other than the bile salts used in this study might also participate in this phenomenon.

3.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 30(1): 155-158, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38147057

RESUMO

After reports in 2017 of Brucella neotomae infections among humans in Costa Rica, we sequenced 12 strains isolated from rodents during 1955-1964 from Utah, USA. We observed an exact strain match between the human isolates and 1 Utah isolate. Independent confirmation is required to clarify B. neotomae zoonotic potential.


Assuntos
Brucella , Brucelose , Humanos , Genômica , Brucella/genética , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Costa Rica/epidemiologia
4.
Microb Pathog ; 185: 106442, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37944675

RESUMO

Alphaproteobacteria include organisms living in close association with plants or animals. This interaction relies partly on orthologous two-component regulatory systems (TCS), with sensor and regulator proteins modulating the expression of conserved genes related to symbiosis/virulence. We assessed the ability of the exoS+Sm gene, encoding a sensor protein from the plant endosymbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti to substitute its orthologous bvrS in the related animal/human pathogen Brucella abortus. ExoS phosphorylated the B. abortus regulator BvrR in vitro and in cultured bacteria, showing conserved biological function. Production of ExoS in a B. abortus bvrS mutant reestablished replication in host cells and the capacity to infect mice. Bacterial outer membrane properties, the production of the type IV secretion system VirB, and its transcriptional regulators VjbR and BvrR were restored as compared to parental B. abortus. These results indicate that conserved traits of orthologous TCS from bacteria living in and sensing different environments are sufficient to achieve phenotypic plasticity and support bacterial survival. The knowledge of bacterial genetic networks regulating host interactions allows for an understanding of the subtle differences between symbiosis and parasitism. Rewiring these networks could provide new alternatives to control and prevent bacterial infection.


Assuntos
Brucella abortus , Genes Bacterianos , Animais , Camundongos , Humanos , Virulência/genética , Histidina Quinase/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Mamíferos/genética , Mamíferos/metabolismo
6.
Front Microbiol ; 14: 1106994, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37032899

RESUMO

Brucella abortus is the main causative agent of brucellosis in cattle, leading to severe economic consequences in agriculture and affecting public health. The zoonotic nature of the infection increases the need to control the spread and dynamics of outbreaks in animals with the incorporation of high resolution genotyping techniques. Based on such methods, B. abortus is currently divided into three clades, A, B, and C. The latter includes subclades C1 and C2. This study presents the results of whole-genome sequencing of 49 B. abortus strains isolated in Kazakhstan between 1947 and 2015 and of 36 B. abortus strains of various geographic origins isolated from 1940 to 2004. In silico Multiple Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) allowed to assign strains from Kazakhstan to subclades C1 and to a much lower extend C2. Whole-genome Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism (wgSNP) analysis of the 46 strains of subclade C1 with strains of worldwide origins showed clustering with strains from neighboring countries, mostly North Caucasia, Western Russia, but also Siberia, China, and Mongolia. One of the three Kazakhstan strains assigned to subclade C2 matched the B. abortus S19 vaccine strain used in cattle, the other two were genetically close to the 104 M vaccine strain. Bayesian phylodynamic analysis dated the introduction of B. abortus subclade C1 into Kazakhstan to the 19th and early 20th centuries. We discuss this observation in view of the history of population migrations from Russia to the Kazakhstan steppes.

7.
Microbiol Spectr ; 11(1): e0220122, 2023 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36472437

RESUMO

The broad-host-range IncC plasmid family and the integrative mobilizable Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) and its derivatives enable the spread of medically important antibiotic resistance genes among Gram-negative pathogens. Although several aspects of the complex functional interactions between IncC plasmids and SGI1 have been recently deciphered regarding their conjugative transfer and incompatibility, the biological signal resulting in the hijacking of the conjugative plasmid by the integrative mobilizable element remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the conjugative entry of IncC/IncA plasmids is detected at an early stage by SGI1 through the transient activation of the SOS response, which induces the expression of the SGI1 master activators SgaDC, shown to play a crucial role in the complex biology between SGI1 and IncC plasmids. Besides, we developed an original tripartite conjugation approach to directly monitor SGI1 mobilization in a time-dependent manner following conjugative entry of IncC plasmids. Finally, we propose an updated biological model of the conjugative mobilization of the chromosomal resistance element SGI1 by IncC plasmids. IMPORTANCE Antimicrobial resistance has become a major public health issue, particularly with the increase of multidrug resistance (MDR) in both animal and human pathogenic bacteria and with the emergence of resistance to medically important antibiotics. The spread between bacteria of successful mobile genetic elements, such as conjugative plasmids and integrative elements conferring multidrug resistance, is the main driving force in the dissemination of acquired antibiotic resistances among Gram-negative bacteria. Broad-host-range IncC plasmids and their integrative mobilizable SGI1 counterparts contribute to the spread of critically important resistance genes (e.g., extended-spectrum ß-lactamases [ESBLs] and carbapenemases). A better knowledge of the complex biology of these broad-host-range mobile elements will help us to understand the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes that occurred across Gammaproteobacteria borders.


Assuntos
Ilhas Genômicas , Resposta SOS em Genética , Humanos , Plasmídeos/genética , Salmonella/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Conjugação Genética
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35133261

RESUMO

Three Gram-negative, rod-shaped, oxidase-positive, non-spore-forming, non-motile strains (C130915_07T, C150915_16 and C150915_17) were isolated from lymph nodes of Algerian cows. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene and whole genome similarities, the isolates were almost identical and clearly grouped in the genus Pseudochrobactrum. This allocation was confirmed by the analysis of fatty acids (C19:cyclo, C18 : 1, C18 : 0, C16 : 1 and C16 : 0) and of polar lipids (major components: phosphatidylethanolamine, ornithine-lipids, phosphatidylglycerol, cardiolipin and phosphatidylcholine, plus moderate amounts of phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, phosphatidyldimethylethanolamine and other aminolipids). Genomic, physiological and biochemical data differentiated these isolates from previously described Pseudochrobactrum species in DNA relatedness, carbon assimilation pattern and growth temperature range. Thus, these organisms represent a novel species of the genus Pseudochrobactrum, for which the name Pseudochrobactrum algeriensis sp. nov. is proposed (type strain C130915_07T=CECT30232T=LMG 32378T).


Assuntos
Brucellaceae/classificação , Bovinos/microbiologia , Linfonodos , Filogenia , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Brucellaceae/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Feminino , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
12.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 10(18)2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33958398

RESUMO

Since the 1990s, Brucella strains have been isolated from a wide variety of marine mammal species. We report the first complete genome sequence of a Brucella strain isolated from a hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), Brucella pinnipedialis strain 23a-1 of sequence type 54, found in the North Atlantic Ocean surrounding Norway.

14.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 284, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32153552

RESUMO

The genus Brucella comprises major pathogenic species causing disease in livestock and humans, e.g. B. melitensis. In the past few years, the genus has been significantly expanded by the discovery of phylogenetically more distant lineages comprising strains from diverse wildlife animal species, including amphibians and fish. The strains represent several potential new species, with B. inopinata as solely named representative. Being genetically more distant between each other, relative to the "classical" Brucella species, they present distinct atypical phenotypes and surface antigens. Among surface protein antigens, the Omp2a and Omp2b porins display the highest diversity in the classical Brucella species. The genes coding for these proteins are closely linked in the Brucella genome and oriented in opposite directions. They share between 85 and 100% sequence identity depending on the Brucella species, biovar, or genotype. Only the omp2b gene copy has been shown to be expressed and genetic variation is extensively generated by gene conversion between the two copies. In this study, we analyzed the omp2 loci of the non-classical Brucella spp. Starting from two distinct ancestral genes, represented by Australian rodent strains and B. inopinata, a stepwise nucleotide reduction was observed in the omp2b gene copy. It consisted of a first reduction affecting the region encoding the surface L5 loop of the porin, previously shown to be critical in sugar permeability, followed by a nucleotide reduction in the surface L8 loop-encoding region. It resulted in a final omp2b gene size shared between two distinct clades of non-classical Brucella spp. (African bullfrog isolates) and the group of classical Brucella species. Further evolution led to complete homogenization of both omp2 gene copies in some Brucella species such as B. vulpis or B. papionis. The stepwise omp2b deletions seemed to be generated through recombination with the respective omp2a gene copy, presenting a conserved size among Brucella spp., and may involve short direct DNA repeats. Successive Omp2b porin alteration correlated with increasing porin permeability in the course of evolution of Brucella spp. They possibly have adapted their porin to survive environmental conditions encountered and to reach their final status as intracellular pathogen.

16.
Front Vet Sci ; 6: 175, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231665

RESUMO

Members of the genus Brucella cluster in two phylogenetic groups: classical and non-classical species. The former group is composed of Brucella species that cause disease in mammals, including humans. A Brucella species, labeled as Brucella sp. BCCN84.3, was isolated from the testes of a Saint Bernard dog suffering orchiepididymitis, in Costa Rica. Following standard microbiological methods, the bacterium was first defined as "Brucella melitensis biovar 2." Further molecular typing, identified the strain as an atypical "Brucella suis." Distinctive Brucella sp. BCCN84.3 markers, absent in other Brucella species and strains, were revealed by fatty acid methyl ester analysis, high resolution melting PCR and omp25 and omp2a/omp2b gene diversity. Analysis of multiple loci variable number of tandem repeats and whole genome sequencing demonstrated that this isolate was different from the currently described Brucella species. The smooth Brucella sp. BCCN84.3 clusters together with the classical Brucella clade and displays all the genes required for virulence. Brucella sp. BCCN84.3 is a species nova taxonomical entity displaying pathogenicity; therefore, relevant for differential diagnoses in the context of brucellosis. Considering the debate on the Brucella species concept, there is a need to describe the extant taxonomical entities of these pathogens in order to understand the dispersion and evolution.

17.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 457, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894848

RESUMO

The integrative mobilizable elements of SGI1-family considerably contribute to the spread of resistance to critically important antibiotics among enteric bacteria. Even though many aspects of SGI1 mobilization by IncA and IncC plasmids have been explored, the basic transfer elements such as oriT and self-encoded mobilization proteins remain undiscovered. Here we describe the mobilization region of SGI1 that is well conserved throughout the family and carries the oriT SGI1 and two genes, mpsA and mpsB (originally annotated as S020 and S019, respectively) that are essential for the conjugative transfer of SGI1. OriT SGI1, which is located in the vicinity of the two mobilization genes proved to be a 125-bp GC-rich sequence with several important inverted repeat motifs. The mobilization proteins MpsA and MpsB are expressed from a bicistronic mRNA, although MpsB can be produced from its own mRNA as well. The protein structure predictions imply that MpsA belongs to the lambda tyrosine recombinase family, while MpsB resembles the N-terminal core DNA binding domains of these enzymes. The results suggest that MpsA may act as an atypical relaxase, which needs MpsB for SGI1 transfer. Although the helper plasmid-encoded relaxase proved not to be essential for SGI1 transfer, it appeared to be important to achieve the high transfer rate of the island observed with the IncA/IncC-SGI1 system.

18.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 177, 2019 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30655545

RESUMO

During infection, Salmonella senses and responds to harsh environments within the host. Persistence in a bile-rich environment is important for Salmonella to infect the small intestine or gallbladder and the multidrug efflux system AcrAB-TolC is required for bile resistance. The genes encoding this system are mainly regulated by the ramRA locus, which is composed of the divergently transcribed ramA and ramR genes. The acrAB and tolC genes are transcriptionally activated by RamA, whose encoding gene is itself transcriptionally repressed by RamR. RamR recognizes multiple drugs; however, the identity of the environmental signals to which it responds is unclear. Here, we describe the crystal structures of RamR in complexes with bile components, including cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid, determined at resolutions of 2.0 and 1.8 Å, respectively. Both cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids form four hydrogen bonds with Tyr59, Thr85, Ser137 and Asp152 of RamR, instead of π-π interactions with Phe155, a residue that is important for the recognition of multiple compounds including berberine, crystal violet, dequalinium, ethidium bromide and rhodamine 6 G. Binding of these compounds to RamR reduces its DNA-binding affinity, resulting in the increased transcription of ramA and acrAB-tolC. Our results reveal that Salmonella senses bile acid components through RamR and then upregulates the expression of RamA, which can lead to induction of acrAB-tolC expression with resulting tolerance to bile-rich environments.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/metabolismo , Transativadores/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/fisiologia , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Ácido Quenodesoxicólico/metabolismo , Ácido Cólico/metabolismo , Cristalografia por Raios X , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Tolerância a Medicamentos , Estrutura Molecular , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/fisiologia , Ligação Proteica , Transativadores/fisiologia , Regulação para Cima
19.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 3083, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32082266

RESUMO

Deciphering the evolutionary history of pathogenic bacteria and their near neighbors may help to understand the genetic or ecological bases which led to their pathogenic behavior. The Brucellaceae family comprises zoonotic pathogenic species belonging to the genus Brucella as well as the environmental genus Ochrobactrum for which some species are considered as opportunistic pathogens. Here, we used a phylogenomic approach including a set of 145 Brucellaceae genomes representative of the family diversity and more than 40 genomes of the order Rhizobiales to infer the taxonomic relationships between the family's species. Our results clarified some unresolved phylogenetic ambiguities, conducting to the exclusion of Mycoplana spp. out of the family Brucellaceae and the positioning of all Brucella spp. as a single genomic species within the current Ochrobactrum species diversity. Additional analyses also revealed that Ochrobactrum spp. separate into two clades, one comprising mostly environmental species while the other one includes the species considered as pathogens (Brucella spp.) or opportunistic pathogens (mainly O. anthropi, O. intermedium, and O. pseudintermedium). Finally, we show that O. intermedium is undergoing a beginning of genome reduction suggestive of an ongoing ecological niche specialization, and that some lineages of O. intermedium and O. anthropi may shift toward an adaption to the human host.

20.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 2230, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30294312

RESUMO

Brucella ovis is a non-zoonotic Brucella species lacking specific vaccine. It presents a narrow host range, a unique biology relative to other Brucella species, and important distinct surface properties. To increase our knowledge on its peculiar surface and virulence features, and seeking to develop a specific vaccine, multiple mutants for nine relevant cell-envelope-related genes were investigated. Mutants lacking Omp10 plus Omp19 could not be obtained, suggesting that at least one of these lipoproteins is required for viability. A similar result was obtained for the double deletion of omp31 and omp25 that encode two major surface proteins. Conversely, the absence of major Omp25c (proved essential for internalization in HeLa cells) together with Omp25 or Omp31 was tolerated by the bacterium. Although showing important in vitro and in vivo defects, the Δomp10Δomp31Δomp25c mutant was obtained, demonstrating that B. ovis PA survives to the simultaneous absence of Omp10 and four out seven proteins of the Omp25/Omp31 family (i.e., Omp31, Omp25c, Omp25b, and Omp31b, the two latter naturally absent in B. ovis). Three multiple mutants were selected for a detailed analysis of virulence in the mouse model. The Δomp31Δcgs and Δomp10Δomp31Δomp25c mutants were highly attenuated when inoculated at 106 colony forming units/mouse but they established a persistent infection when the infection dose was increased 100-fold. The Δomp10ΔugpBΔomp31 mutant showed a similar behavior until week 3 post-infection but was then totally cleared from spleen. Accordingly, it was retained as vaccine candidate for mice protection assays. When compared to classical B. melitensis Rev1 heterologous vaccine, the triple mutant induced limited splenomegaly, a significantly higher antibody response against whole B. ovis PA cells, an equivalent memory cellular response and, according to spleen colonization measurements, better protection against a challenge with virulent B. ovis PA. Therefore, it would be a good candidate to be evaluated in the natural host as a specific vaccine against B. ovis that would avoid the drawbacks of B. melitensis Rev1. In addition, the lack in this attenuated strain of Omp31, recognized as a highly immunogenic protein during B. ovis infection, would favor the differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals using Omp31 as diagnostic target.

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