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1.
J Sch Psychol ; 102: 101260, 2024 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38143093

RESUMO

This study explored supportive relational processes for immigrant children's well-being between peers, teachers, and parents in the development of school-based creative interventions in European multi-ethnic societies. Within the present study, we integrated the perspectives of teachers and parents to broaden the dominant focus on the assessment of individual symptomatology within the existing body of studies of school-based interventions studies. As a part of a larger multi-method study on the implementation of a creative expression program for immigrant children ages 8-12 years in three schools in Belgium, we conducted focus group discussions to learn parents' and teachers' perspectives on the role of school-based creative interventions in children's coping with histories of migration and life in exile. Parents and teachers identified the need for the intervention to foster emotional expression impacting children's self-esteem and social connectedness with peers and to foster emotional connections between parents, teachers, and children. Parents also stressed the importance of the intervention within society as a forum to engage with social conditions, promote cultural belonging, and social integration. Results identified the importance of school-based interventions in terms of individual benefits as well as connectedness and coherence in entire communities, thereby strengthening the development of transcultural research evidence for school-based interventions in multi-ethnic societies.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Educação , Pais , Criança , Humanos , Pais/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Bélgica
2.
Front Psychol ; 14: 1236262, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37901067

RESUMO

Despite the central role that teachers can have in preventing and reducing bullying, they often feel insecure about how to deal with bullying. This study evaluated a short teacher training - called the Teachers SUPporting POsitive RelaTionships (T-SUPPORT) training - that aims to reduce bullying by supporting teachers in building positive teacher-student relationships and in actively dealing with bullying. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether the T-SUPPORT training resulted in higher quality teacher-student relationships, and more active and less passive responses to bullying incidents, and whether these improvements in turn resulted in lower levels of bullying victimization. In a Randomized Controlled Trial 10 Belgian primary schools were randomly assigned to an intervention or control condition. The Grades 4-6 teachers of the five schools in the intervention condition received the three-session school-based training; control teachers received no intervention. Grade 4-6 students (N = 964; 55 classrooms) in these schools completed questionnaires at pre- and post-test. In contrast to the hypotheses, results of the two-level linear mixed model analyses revealed no significant effect of the training on teacher-student relationship quality, teachers' responses to bullying and bullying victimization. Yet, higher quality teacher-student relationships and more active teacher responses to bullying were significantly associated with less bullying victimization, whereas more passive responses were linked with more victimization. The latter findings are in line with theorizing and research on the role that teachers can play in reducing bullying.

3.
Psychosoc Interv ; 32(3): 177-189, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37691715

RESUMO

School-based psychosocial interventions are increasingly put forward as a way to support young refugees' and migrants' well-being and mental health in resettlement. However, the evidence on these interventions' effectiveness remains scarce and scholars denounce particular gaps in the evidence to date, pointing to a lack of large-scale, controlled studies and studies including social outcome measures. This cluster randomized study aims to strengthen the evidence base on school-based psychosocial interventions for refugee and migrant youth by assessing the effect of two interventions, Classroom Drama and Welcome to School, on youth's mental health, resilience, and social relations in Belgium, Denmark, Norway, and the United Kingdom. Multilevel analyses were conducted separately for the two interventions (Classroom Drama, n = 307, ages 11-19; Welcome to School, n = 251, ages 11-23), using separate no-treatment control groups. Our analyses indicated a significant main, positive effect of Classroom Drama on perceived family support, and an effect on perceived support from friends that was moderated by country: in the United Kingdom, the intervention group reported an increase in perceived friend support, whereas the control group reported a decrease. Furthermore, baseline resilience moderated the effect of the Classroom Drama intervention on behavioral difficulties and well-being. No effects of Welcome to School on any of the outcome variables were found. Overall, this study provides novel, nuanced evidence on school-based psychosocial interventions for refugee and migrant adolescents.


Cada vez se proponen más las intervenciones psicosociales centradas en la escuela como ayuda al bienestar de jóvenes refugiados y migrantes en su realojamiento. No obstante hay pocas pruebas sobre la eficacia de tales intervenciones y los expertos denuncian fallas en dichas pruebas hasta el momento debido a la falta de estudios controlados a gran escala que incluyan medidas de los resultados sociales. El presente estudio de grupos aleatorizados pretende potenciar la base de pruebas sobre intervenciones psicosociales centradas en la escuela con jóvenes refugiados y migrantes analizando el efecto de dos intervenciones, "El drama en el aula" y "Bienvenido al colegio", en la salud mental, la resiliencia y las relaciones sociales de los jóvenes en Bélgica, Dinamarca, Noruega y el Reino Unido. Se efectuaron análisis multinivel por separado para las dos intervenciones ("El drama en el aula", n = 307, edad entre 11 y 19 años; "Bienvenido al colegio", n = 251, edad entre 11 y 23 años) con grupos de control sin tratamiento separados. Los análisis mostraron un efecto positivo principal significativo de "El drama en el aula" en el apoyo familiar percibido y un efecto en el apoyo percibido de los amigos moderado por el país: en el Reino Unido el grupo de intervención presentó un aumento del apoyo percibido de los amigos, mientras que en el grupo control disminuyó. Además la resiliencia básica moderaba el efecto de la intervención de "El drama en el aula" en las dificultades conductuales y en el bienestar. No se apreció efecto de "Bienvenido al colegio" en ninguna de las variables resultado. En términos generales el estudio supone un inédito y detallado aval de las intervenciones psicosociales centradas en la escuela en el caso de adolescentes refugiados y migrantes.


Assuntos
Refugiados , Migrantes , Humanos , Adolescente , Saúde Mental , Intervenção Psicossocial , Bélgica
4.
Br J Educ Psychol ; 93(2): 513-530, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36645030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Teachers may play a key role in reducing bullying by responding to incidents among students. Inspired by the theory of planned behaviour, several studies have investigated teachers' bullying-related cognitions as predictors of their responses to bullying. AIMS: This study investigated whether six teachers' bullying-related cognitions (i.e., perceived seriousness, empathy, attitudes, self-efficacy and attribution of the bullying) predicted five student-perceived teachers' responses (i.e., Non-Intervention, Disciplinary Methods, Victim Support, Mediation and Group Discussion) over time. By examining this objective, more insight into student perceptions of teachers' responses to bullying could also be provided. SAMPLE: In total, 999 upper elementary school students (Mage  = 10.61 at Wave 1, SDage  = .90; 53.6% girls) and their 59 teachers (Mage  = 39.61 at W1, SDage  = 11.60; 79.7% female) participated. METHODS: A bullying questionnaire was administered in three waves to assess students' perceptions of the teachers' responses. Teachers reported bullying-related cognitions in the first wave. Multilevel analyses were used to investigate the relative contribution of the predictors on the teachers' responses over time. RESULTS: None of the teachers' bullying-related cognitions significantly predicted the teachers' specific responses. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that teachers' bullying-related cognitions are not reflected in their responses to bullying as perceived by students. Moreover, the findings indicate that students' perceptions of teachers' responses vary widely within classrooms and over time. Student- and teacher-reported teachers' responses might differ, and these possible differences should be taken into account.


Assuntos
Bullying , Pessoal de Educação , Humanos , Feminino , Criança , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto , Masculino , Atitude , Estudantes , Professores Escolares , Cognição
5.
Am J Orthopsychiatry ; 92(5): 599-615, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35758984

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effects of a school-based creative expression program on mental health and classroom social relationships in elementary school children with refugee and nonrefugee migration backgrounds. It was hypothesized that children receiving the intervention would report less externalizing and internalizing problem behaviors, less posttraumatic functioning, and more positive classroom social relationships at posttest than children receiving education as usual, particularly for refugee children. Classes in three multiethnic Belgian elementary schools were randomly assigned to a creative intervention (7 classes, 68 students) or control condition (6 classes, 52 students). All participants (8-12 years old) had a migration background. Almost half (47%) were refugees, 53% were first- to third-generation nonrefugee immigrants. Data collection included pre- and posttest assessment with children, parents, and teachers. Multilevel analysis was used to assess outcomes. Children in the intervention condition rated the classroom climate at posttest more positive than their control peers (d = .33). Children who received the intervention did not show less symptomatic functioning than children in the education-as-usual condition. However, post hoc analysis by baseline severity showed that students with high baseline levels of posttraumatic stress reported less trauma symptoms at posttest in the intervention group than in the control group (d = -.97). This effect was moderated by children's refugee background, indicating a differential effect in which refugee children show more reduction of trauma symptoms as compared to nonrefugee immigrant children. The intervention supported classroom climate and alleviated posttraumatic stress in children with increased posttraumatic symptomatology. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Refugiados , Criança , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Saúde Mental , Refugiados/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas
6.
Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 27(4): 938-952, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35617461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: European countries face the challenge of promoting refugee and immigrant children's well-being within their host communities, invoking the necessity of adequate mental health assessment. This study aims to contribute to document the psychosocial well-being of primary school refugee and non-refugee immigrant children in Flanders, Belgium. METHOD: A total of 120 children (8-12 years old) with migration backgrounds participated in the study. Through self-report, parent and teacher questionnaires we scrutinized externalizing and internalizing behavioral problems, post-traumatic stress problems, and classroom relationships. RESULTS: Thirty percent of the participants reported high levels of post-traumatic stress; around 25% reported a high or very high prevalence of internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems. Self-reported mental health problems are elevated in comparison to the general population. Refugee children did not report more difficulties than their immigrant peers. In the perception of parents and teachers, respectively 20% and 5% of children showed high or very high amounts of internalizing and externalizing behavioral difficulties. Almost 70% of the participants perceived the class climate as unsafe. CONCLUSIONS: Refugee and immigrant children are at risk for mental health difficulties, and experience classroom dynamics as markedly distressful. School-based intervention might be particularly suited to support these children's psychosocial well-being in resettlement.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Refugiados , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Refugiados/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas
7.
Front Psychol ; 13: 830850, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35356319

RESUMO

Given the high prevalence and dramatic impact of being bullied at school, it is crucial to get more insight into how teachers can reduce bullying. So far, few instruments have measured elementary teachers' responses to bullying. This study investigated the validity of the student-reported Teachers' Responses to Bullying Questionnaire. The factor structure and measurement invariance were tested across two educational contexts among fourth and fifth grade students from Italy (n = 235) and Belgium (n = 667). Furthermore, associations between student-perceived teachers' responses and students' bullying behavior were examined. Confirmatory Factor Analysis supported the predicted five-factor structure, distinguishing Non-Intervention, Disciplinary Methods, Group Discussion, Mediation, and Victim Support. A partial factor means invariance model was found, allowing for valid comparisons between the Italian and Belgian educational contexts. Significant associations were found between self-reported, but not peer-nominated, bullying behavior and most student-perceived teachers' responses.

8.
J Youth Adolesc ; 51(5): 848-870, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686949

RESUMO

While scholarly literature indicates that both refugee and non-refugee migrant young people display increased levels of psychosocial vulnerability, studies comparing the mental health of the two groups remain scarce. This study aims to further the existing evidence by examining refugee and non-refugee migrants' mental health, in relation to their migration history and resettlement conditions. The mental health of 883 refugee and 483 non-refugee migrants (mean age 15.41, range 11-24, 45.9% girls, average length of stay in the host country 3.75 years) in five European countries was studied in their relation to family separation, daily material stress and perceived discrimination in resettlement. All participants reported high levels of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Family separation predicted post-trauma and internalizing behavioral difficulties only in refugees. Daily material stress related to lower levels of overall well-being in all participants, and higher levels of internalizing and externalizing behavioral difficulties in refugees. Perceived discrimination was associated with increased levels of mental health problems for refugees and non-refugee migrants. The relationship between perceived discrimination and post-traumatic stress symptoms in non-refugee migrants, together with the high levels of post-traumatic stress symptoms in this subsample, raises important questions on the nature of trauma exposure in non-refugee migrants, as well as the ways in which experiences of discrimination may interact with other traumatic stressors in predicting mental health.


Assuntos
Separação da Família , Refugiados , Migrantes , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Discriminação Percebida , Refugiados/psicologia
9.
J Youth Adolesc ; 51(7): 1354-1373, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34843081

RESUMO

Bullying victimization is a prevalent problem in upper elementary school that predicts various detrimental outcomes. Increasing evidence suggests that interindividual differences in the severity of these outcomes result from differences in victimization experiences. However, longitudinal research largely overlooked victimization forms. Additionally, it is unclear how the quality of students' relationships with peers and teachers functions as a risk or protective factor for different patterns of victimization development. This one-year longitudinal study investigated joint trajectories of relational and physical victimization and examined differences between these trajectory classes regarding classroom social relationships as possible antecedents and social-emotional well-being as a possible outcome. A sample of 930 fourth to sixth graders (55 classes, 53.1% girls, Mage = 10.55, SD = 0.90) completed self-reports about relational and physical victimization and social-emotional outcomes (i.e., depressive symptoms, self-esteem). Peer nominations were used to measure the social antecedents (i.e., peer rejection and acceptance, teacher-student closeness and conflict). A 3-step approach including Latent Class Growth Analyses and Growth Mixture Modeling yielded two trajectory classes. Most students experienced low, decreasing relational and physical victimization. A smaller group experienced higher, generally stable victimization, more relational than physical. Younger students and girls were more likely to be members of the latter class. This class was more rejected, less accepted, reported more depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem. Teacher-student closeness and conflict were similar across classes. The current study showed that relational and physical victimization followed a largely parallel development. Low social status was found to be a risk factor for belonging to a victimization trajectory that is characterized by stable levels of both relational and physical victimization, with higher levels of the relational form.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Bullying/psicologia , Criança , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/psicologia
10.
J Youth Adolesc ; 50(11): 2166-2180, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480671

RESUMO

Although teachers play a central role in tackling peer victimization at school, no study so far has investigated transactional associations between positive and negative teacher-student relationship dimensions and peer victimization in early adolescence. Investigating both dimensions simultaneously in upper elementary school allows to examine differential effects on peer victimization (and vice versa) and could aid tailored prevention and intervention efforts. At three time points within one school year, self-reported teacher-student closeness and conflict and self- and peer-reported peer victimization were assessed in a sample of 930 fourth to sixth grade students (Mage = 10.55 years, 53.1% girls). Cross-lagged models revealed negative within-time associations between closeness and self-reported peer victimization, and positive within-time associations between conflict and self-reported peer victimization at most time points. Whereas closeness and conflict negatively predicted each other across the school year, no bidirectional longitudinal effects were found between teacher-student relationships and peer victimization. The current findings highlight the need for early prevention and intervention efforts to tackle peer victimization, build positive teacher-student relationships, and especially reduce negative teacher-student relationships.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499304

RESUMO

In two independent studies, we aimed to examine the extent to which teacher and peer nominations of loneliness are associated with children's and adolescents' self-reported loneliness, respectively. Additionally, we examined whether loneliness nominations from teachers and peers were informative above and beyond peer status and social behaviors associated with loneliness. In Study 1 (N = 1594, Mage = 9.43 years), teacher nominations of loneliness showed a small to moderate correlation with children's self-reported loneliness as assessed using the Loneliness and Social Dissatisfaction Questionnaire (LSDQ). The results of a hierarchical regression analysis showed that teacher nominations of loneliness predicted children's self-reported loneliness above and beyond teacher nominations of peer status and social behaviors. In Study 2 (N = 350, Mage = 13.81 years), peer nominations of loneliness showed a small to moderate correlation with adolescents' self-reported loneliness as assessed using the peer-related loneliness subscale of the Loneliness and Aloneness Scale for Children and Adolescents (LACA). The results of a hierarchical regression analysis showed that peer nominations of loneliness predicted adolescents' self-reported loneliness above and beyond peer nominations of peer status and social behaviors. We conclude that loneliness nominations are valuable, but caution is needed when they are used exclusively to identify lonely children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Solidão , Grupo Associado , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Instituições Acadêmicas , Autorrelato
12.
Br J Educ Psychol ; 91(4): 1127-1145, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Relationships with peers and teachers are keys for children's psychosocial development. However, it is unclear whether this also applies for high-ability children. This study adds to the literature by longitudinally examining the role of interpersonal relationships in the educational context for high- and average-ability students. AIMS: In this study, we examined whether high- and average-ability students differ in terms of peer acceptance, teacher conflict, and school well-being. Further, we studied the potential bi-directional effects between school well-being, teacher conflict, and peer acceptance in late childhood and examined whether the relations between these concepts differ between high- and average-ability students. SAMPLE: The total sample consisted of 3,101 Belgian students (49.9% boys, Mage = 9.76 years), with 348 high-ability and 2,753 average-ability students. METHODS: Cognitive ability was assessed in Grade 3 with two cognitive ability tests (for crystallized intelligence and fluid intelligence, respectively). The students were followed for three years (Grades 4, 5, and 6), and each year their current teacher filled out questionnaires regarding teacher-child conflict, peer acceptance, and school well-being. RESULTS: High-ability students showed lower teacher conflict, higher peer acceptance, and better school well-being than average-ability students. Cross-lagged analyses showed that peer acceptance consistently predicted school well-being over time, while Grade 4 school well-being impacted Grade 5 teacher conflict. Also, better peer acceptance in Grade 5 predicted lower teacher-student conflict in Grade 6. Multigroup analyses revealed similar associations for both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that high-ability students in general display more positive school-based social relationships and school well-being than average-ability students. We found no differences in the links between these variables for both groups (i.e., high-ability students and average-ability students).


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Sucesso Acadêmico , Bélgica , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Professores Escolares
13.
Front Psychol ; 11: 592582, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33335501

RESUMO

Teachers' responses to bullying incidents are key in bullying intervention at school. Scholars have suggested that teacher responses can predict student cognitions that are associated with their bullying behaviors. However, little is known about whether and how teacher responses affect these cognitions. Therefore, the current study investigated the effects of four immediate teacher responses on four bullying-related student cognitions, using an experimental vignette design. Additionally, it was examined whether students' own participant role behaviors in actual bullying moderated these effects. The investigated teacher responses were non-response, comforting the victim, correcting the bully, and a combination of comforting the victim and correcting the bully. The investigated student cognitions were perceived teacher attitudes toward bullying, perceived teacher moral disengagement regarding bullying, student willingness to report bullying to the teacher and student expectations regarding bullying participant role behaviors in the classroom. Fourth-to-sixth grade students (N = 910; 47% boys; M age = 11.04 years, SD = 0.91) read a vignette describing a hypothetical teacher's response to a same bullying incident, following random assignment to one of eight conditions (i.e., four teacher responses × two genders of bully and victim in the vignette). Afterward, students completed questionnaires about their social cognitions and manipulation checks. ANOVA demonstrated that students perceived stronger teacher anti-bullying attitudes and less teacher moral disengagement when the hypothetical teacher displayed an active response. These effects were even stronger when the teacher corrected the bully compared to when only the victim was comforted. Further, students were more willing to report bullying when the teacher corrected the bully than when the teacher only comforted the victim. Finally, students expected less pro-bullying behaviors, more defending and less victimization in the vignette's classroom following active teacher response compared to non-response. The effects of teacher responses on student cognitions were not moderated by students' own participant roles in bullying. Taken together, these findings emphasize the importance of active teacher responses to bullying, and especially, responses that clearly show that bullying is not tolerated. Teachers are encouraged to be aware that students can deduce beliefs from teacher responses which can, in turn, affect bullying processes in the classroom.

14.
J Adolesc ; 85: 21-31, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035916

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Empathy consists of a cognitive and an affective component, of which it is thought that there are gender differences. Previous studies also suggest that maternal and paternal support play a more prominent role in the development of an adolescent's affective and cognitive empathy, respectively. Besides the environmental factor, that is parenting, adolescent personality, and more specifically, agreeableness, is closely linked to both empathy and support, but this interplay was not extensively investigated longitudinally. The present study investigated the transactional associations among parental support, adolescent agreeableness, and adolescent empathy. More specifically, we examined (a) whether maternal/paternal support is differentially associated with cognitive/affective empathy, while taking into account adolescent agreeableness and (b) whether adolescent agreeableness still predicts empathy, while taking into account parental support. METHODS: Data from 993 Belgian adolescents (MageT1 = 13.96 years; [12.6-18.4]) and their parents across four time points were used in a random intercept cross-lagged panel model. RESULTS: At the between-person level, maternal support was associated with affective, but not cognitive empathy, whereas agreeableness was associated with maternal and paternal support as well as with both types of empathy. At the within-person level, affective empathy predicted cognitive empathy one wave later. CONCLUSIONS: At a population level, agreeableness and support are both important in adolescent empathy development with limited evidence for the differential roles of mothers and fathers. Within participants, affective empathy, and not parental support or agreeableness, predicted cognitive empathy.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Empatia , Relações Pais-Filho , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
J Youth Adolesc ; 49(11): 2246-2264, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918664

RESUMO

Loneliness, social anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms are internalizing problems that are highly intertwined and often co-occur during adolescence. This overlap and co-occurrence raises the question whether three different labels are used for the same underlying phenomenon. The present study adopts a comprehensive approach to this issue by investigating the development of the three phenomena simultaneously. Specifically, this study aimed to investigate (1) the developmental trend for all three internalizing problems separately, (2) whether they are best described by a single developmental trend, (3) how they co-develop across adolescence, and (4) gender differences in this co-development. The analyses were run in three three-wave longitudinal samples of adolescents with one-year intervals in order to verify the robustness of the findings. Sample 1 (roughly ages 15, 16, and 17) comprised 549 adolescents (63% girls), and Samples 2 and 3 (roughly ages 13, 14, and 15) comprised 811 adolescents (46% girls) and 1101 adolescents (52% girls), respectively. Latent growth curve modeling for the three phenomena separately showed either small increases or stable patterns. A comparison of a Multiple Indicator Latent Growth Model (MILGM) with a Parallel Process Latent Growth Curve Modeling (PPLGCM) showed that the three internalizing problems followed unique, but related, developmental trends across adolescence. The intercepts of the three phenomena were positively correlated with one another in all samples and increases in loneliness were associated consistently with increases in social anxiety symptoms. Only in Sample 3 evidence was found for a similar association between loneliness and depressive symptoms and between social anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms. Except for differences in initial levels, gender differences in the development of the three problems were limited. Overall, the results of the present study clearly indicate that the three internalizing problems are longitudinally distinct from one another, but co-develop across adolescence.


Assuntos
Depressão , Solidão , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Ansiedade , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais
16.
J Youth Adolesc ; 49(11): 2311-2326, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556838

RESUMO

Peer victimization is a persistent problem in early adolescents' peer relationships that is related to various difficulties in the short and long run. Previous studies have investigated whether relationships with peers and teachers predict victimization, but to date, few studies have examined the simultaneous contribution of both classroom-based relationships to victimization over time. Therefore, this study investigated how peer rejection and teacher-child relationships uniquely predict peer victimization over the course of one school year in upper elementary school. The transactional associations among teacher-child relationships, peer rejection, and relational and physical victimization were examined in a sample of 692 children (36 classes; Mage = 10.28; range: 7.92-13.14; 48.4% female). Teacher-child relationship quality and peer victimization were measured by student self-report, peer rejection by peer-report. Cross-lagged analyses showed that rejection predicted victimization from wave 1 to wave 2. In turn, more victimization predicted more rejection throughout the whole school year. More supportive teacher-child relationships predicted less victimization. Additionally, more victimization (wave 1) predicted less supportive relationships with teachers (wave 2). Peer rejection and teacher-child relationships were found to have unique, additive effects on victimization in early adolescence over time. Therefore, to effectively intervene in victimization processes, relationships with both peers and teachers need to be considered.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes
17.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 29(3): 327-342, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144101

RESUMO

Research has indicated that a strictly dimensional or parental style approach does not capture the full complexity of parenting. To better understand this complexity, the current study combined these two approaches using a novel statistical technique, i.e., subspace K-means clustering. Four objectives were addressed. First, the study tried to identify meaningful groups of parents in longitudinal adolescent reports on parenting behaviour. Second, the dimensional structure of every cluster was inspected to uncover differences in parenting between and within clusters. Third, the parenting styles were compared on several adolescent characteristics. Fourth, to examine the impact of change in parenting style over time, we looked at the cluster membership over time. Longitudinal questionnaire data were collected at three annual waves, with 1,116 adolescents (mean age = 13.79 years) at wave 1. Based on five parenting dimensions (support and proactive, punitive, psychological and harsh control), subspace K-means clustering, analysed per wave separately, identified two clusters (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) in which parenting dimensions were interrelated differently. Authoritative parenting seemed to be beneficial for adolescent development (less externalising problem behaviour and higher self-concept). Longitudinal data revealed several parenting group trajectories which showed differential relations with adolescent outcomes. Change in membership from the authoritative cluster to the authoritarian cluster was associated with a decrease in self-concept and an increase in externalising problem behaviour, whereas changes from the authoritarian cluster to the authoritative cluster were associated with an increase in self-concept and a decrease in externalising problem behaviour.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Child Dev ; 91(3): 814-828, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927458

RESUMO

This 4-year longitudinal multi-informant study examined between- and within-person associations between adolescent social anxiety symptoms and parenting (parental psychological control and autonomy support). A community sample of 819 adolescents (46.1% girls; Mage T1  = 13.4 years) reported annually on social anxiety symptoms and both adolescents and mothers reported on parenting. Between-person associations suggested that adolescent social anxiety symptoms were associated with higher adolescent- and mother-reported psychological control and lower mother-reported autonomy support. At the within-person level, however, mothers reported lower psychological control and higher autonomy support after periods with higher adolescent social anxiety symptoms. Our findings illustrate the importance of distinguishing among between-person and within-person associations and including perceptions of both dyad members in longitudinal research concerning parenting and adolescent mental health.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Mães/psicologia
19.
J Abnorm Child Psychol ; 47(10): 1691-1705, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30937813

RESUMO

Adolescents are particularly vulnerable to experiencing loneliness, social anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms. These internalizing problems often co-occur but, until now, it remains unclear how they are associated over time. Insight in these temporal sequences is important to enhance our understanding of how internalizing problems arise and may reinforce each other over time. To examine these temporal sequences, three samples of adolescents were used: Sample 1 consisted of 1,116 adolescents (48.97% girls, Mage = 13.59), Sample 2 of 1,423 adolescents (52.42% girls, Mage = 13.79), and Sample 3 of 549 adolescents (62.66% girls, Mage = 14.82). Adolescents filled out well-established self-report measures of loneliness, social anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms during regular school hours at three measurement occasions with a 1-year interval. Meta-analytic techniques were used to estimate the average true effects across three-variable autoregressive cross-lagged models in the three samples. In addition, indirect effects and gender differences in the temporal associations were explored in all three samples. The results suggest that social anxiety symptoms play a crucial role as potential antecedent of emerging feelings of loneliness and depression in adolescence. In addition, in line with theoretical expectations, our results suggest the presence of a vicious cycle between adolescents' feelings of loneliness and social anxiety symptoms. The indirect effects were inconsistent across samples and no gender differences were found. These findings shed more light on the unique temporal relationships among different internalizing problems. Clinical interventions should target social anxiety symptoms to prevent feelings of loneliness and vice versa.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Solidão , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
20.
Dev Psychol ; 55(3): 653-673, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30589339

RESUMO

Previous studies often assumed that parenting practices are similar across families. This assumption is difficult to hold, especially throughout adolescence, a period of major change for both adolescents and their parents. By combining a person-centered and a variable-centered approach, the present study adds to the literature by identifying trajectory classes in parenting behaviors and assessing their associations with externalizing problem behavior. The study aimed (a) to examine the existence of subgroups with different trajectories for five parenting dimensions (i.e., support, proactive control, punitive control, harsh punitive control, psychological control) in mothers and fathers separately, and (b) to assess whether membership of a subgroup is associated with the development of rule-breaking and aggressive behavior, respectively. The current study used four waves of data, with adolescents' age ranging from 12 to 18 years. Mothers (N = 747) and fathers (N = 645) reported on their own parenting behavior, whereas adolescent (N = 1,116) reported on externalizing problem behavior. Latent class growth analyses per parenting dimension showed that trajectory classes could be distinguished for support, proactive, punitive, and psychological control, but not harsh punitive control, and this for both mother and father. Conditional growth models per parenting dimension and per parent did not show different trajectories for aggressive and rule-breaking behavior across adolescence for the distinct parenting trajectories. However, analyses indicated that depending on the parenting trajectory, there was a difference in initial (Age 12) levels of problem behavior. Suggestions for additional research on longitudinal heterogeneity of parenting among mothers and fathers of adolescents are outlined. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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