Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 122
Filtrar
Filtros adicionais











Intervalo de ano
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419546

RESUMO

Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) represents the most lethal form of primary immunodeficiency, with mortality rates of greater than 90% within the first year of life without treatment. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and gene therapy are the only curative treatments available, and the best-known prognostic factors for success are age at diagnosis, age at hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and the comorbidities that develop in between. There are no evidence-based guidelines for standardized clinical care for patients with SCID during the time between diagnosis and definitive treatment, and we aim to generate a consensus management strategy on the supportive care of patients with SCID. First, we gathered available information about SCID diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines, then we developed a document including diagnostic and therapeutic interventions, and finally we submitted the interventions for expert consensus through a modified Delphi technique. Interventions are grouped in 10 topic domains, including 123 "agreed" and 38 "nonagreed" statements. This document intends to standardize supportive clinical care of patients with SCID from diagnosis to definitive treatment, reduce disease burden, and ultimately improve prognosis, particularly in countries where newborn screening for SCID is not universally available and delayed diagnosis is the rule. Our work intends to provide a tool not only for immunologists but also for primary care physicians and other specialists involved in the care of patients with SCID.

3.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 75: 105767, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376626

RESUMO

BAY 41-2272 is a guanylyl cyclase (GC) stimulator derived from YC-1 (3-[(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzyl indazole]). Previous studies by our group showed that BAY 41-2272 activates human monocytes via soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) and cGMP. In this study, we investigated the effect of BAY 41-2272 on human neutrophil function and found that 30 µM BAY 41-2272 inhibits neutrophil migration (1.82-fold lower than FMLP, P < 0.05 by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test), oxidative burst (1.70-fold lower than PMA, P < 0.05 by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test), and IL-8 cytokine production (1.80-fold lower than PMA, P < 0.05 by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test). Our results suggest that these effects are independent of the sGC pathway but dependent instead on cGMP production, as the response induced by 30 µM BAY 41-2272 was 6.40-fold greater than that observed in our negative control (P < 0.05 by parametric t-test). 1H-[1, 2, 4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a] quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), which is an irreversible inhibitor of sGC, was unable to reverse the effects of BAY 41-2272 on human neutrophils, indicating that this drug acts independently of sGC. Our results confirm the immunomodulatory effect of BAY 41-2272 on human neutrophils.

4.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(6): 529, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214926
5.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 15(5): 529-540, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30681380

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: CD40 ligand (CD40L) deficiency or X-linked Hyper-IgM syndrome is a severe primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the CD40L gene. Despite currently available treatments, CD40L-deficient patients remain susceptible to life-threatening infections and have poor long term survival. Areas covered: Here, we discuss clinical and immunological characteristics of CD40L deficiency as well as current therapeutic strategies used for patient management. This review highlights that beyond B cell defects, patients' susceptibility to opportunistic pathogens might be due to impaired T cell and innate immune responses. In this context, we discuss how better knowledge of CD40L function and regulation may result in the development of new treatments. Expert opinion: Despite the introduction of hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation, immunoglobulin replacement, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) administration, and prophylactic antibiotic therapies, life-threatening infections still cause high morbidity and mortality among CD40L-deficient patients. The reasons for this inadequate response to current therapies remains poorly understood, but recent reports suggest the involvement of CD40L-CD40 interaction in early stages of the innate immune system ontogeny. The development of novel gene therapeutic approaches and the use of redirected immunotherapies represent alternative treatment methods that could offer reduced morbidity and mortality rates for patients with CD40L deficiency.

6.
J Periodontol ; 90(7): 747-755, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30644104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into distinct mesenchymal cell lineages and regulate the immune response. The aim of this study was to determine whether periodontal ligament-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PDLSCs) have the ability to modulate neutrophil responses via paracrine mechanisms. METHODS: CD105-enriched PDLSCs were seeded for 24 h and challenged with Porphyromonas gingivalis total protein extract (PgPE) (0 or 2 ug/mL) for 3 h. Cells were then washed and further cultured for 18 h and the supernatants were collected and stored. Next, neutrophil-differentiated human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells (HL60D) were treated with PDLSCs supernatants and HL-60D activation and functional responses were determined. RESULTS: PgPE treatment induced higher secretion of inflammatory markers and chemokines by PDLSCs, including RANTES, eotaxin, interferon (IFN)-γ- inducible protein 10 (IP-10), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), IFN-γ, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and IL-1ra (P < 0.05). HL-60D recruitment rate was increased by 4.7 ± 1.09-fold when exposed to PgPE-treated PDLSCs supernatants. PgPE-treated PDLSCs supernatants promoted a 1.78 ± 1.04-fold increase in the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) by PMA-stimulated HL-60D, whereas PgPE-untreated PDLSCs supernatants led to a 16% reduction in intracellular ROS. In sharp contrast, neither PgPE-untreated nor PgPE-treated PDLSCs supernatants altered tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-1ß secretion by HL-60D cells. CONCLUSION: Together, these findings suggest an important role of PDLSCs in the recognition of P. gingivalis, paracrine recruitment and activation of antimicrobial mechanisms in innate immune cells, without interfering in cytokine responses.

10.
J Clin Immunol ; 2018 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30470982

RESUMO

The results of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) for primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID) have been improving over time. Unfortunately, developing countries do not experience the same results. This first report of Brazilian experience of HSCT for PID describes the development and results in the field. We included data from transplants in 221 patients, performed at 11 centers which participated in the Brazilian collaborative group, from July 1990 to December 2015. The majority of transplants were concentrated in one center (n = 123). The median age at HSCT was 22 months, and the most common diseases were severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) (n = 67) and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) (n = 67). Only 15 patients received unconditioned transplants. Cumulative incidence of GVHD grades II to IV was 23%, and GVHD grades III to IV was 10%. The 5-year overall survival was 71.6%. WAS patients had better survival compared to other diseases. Most deaths (n = 53) occurred in the first year after transplantation mainly due to infection (55%) and GVHD (13%). Although transplant for PID patients in Brazil has evolved since its beginning, we still face some challenges like delayed diagnosis and referral, severe infections before transplant, a limited number of transplant centers with expertise, and resources for more advanced techniques. Measures like newborn screening for SCID may hasten the diagnosis and ameliorate patients' conditions at the moment of transplant.

11.
Front Pediatr ; 6: 248, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30255005

RESUMO

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an innate immune deficiency of phagocytic cells caused by mutations that affect components of the NADPH oxidase system, with resulting impairment in reactive oxygen species production. Patients with CGD are susceptible to recurrent infections and hyperinflammatory responses. Mutations in CYBB lead to the X-linked form of CGD and are responsible for ~ 70% of cases. In this study, we report the case of a 2.5-year-old male patient with recurrent pneumonia and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin infection (BCGitis). As his first clinical manifestation, he presented with bullous impetigo at 18 days of age, which was followed by recurrent pneumonia and regional BCGitis. Genetic analysis revealed a de novo mutation in exon 5 of the CYBB gene: a single-nucleotide substitution, c.376T > C, leading to a C126R change.

12.
Front Pediatr ; 6: 230, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30177960

RESUMO

We report a novel homozygous JAK3 mutation in two female Brazilian SCID infants from two unrelated kindreds. Patient 1 was referred at 2 months of age due to a family history of immunodeficiency and the appearance of a facial rash. The infant was screened for TRECs (T-cell receptor excision circles) and KRECs (kappa-deleting recombination excision circles) for the assessment of newly formed naïve T and B cells respectively, which showed undetectable TRECs and normal numbers of KRECs. Lymphocyte immunophenotyping by flow cytometry confirmed the screening results, revealing a T-B+NK- SCID. The patient underwent successful HSCT. Patient 2 was admitted to an intensive care unit at 8 months of age with severe pneumonia, BCGosis, and oral moniliasis; she also had a positive family history for SCID but newborn screening was not performed at birth. At 10 months of age she was diagnosed as a T-B+NK- SCID and underwent successful HSCT. JAK3 sequencing revealed the same homozygous missense mutation (c.2350G>A) in both patients. This mutation affects the last nucleotide of exon 17 and it is predicted to disrupt the donor splice site. cDNA sequencing revealed skipping of exon 17 missing in both patients, confirming the predicted effect on mRNA splicing. Skipping of exon 17 leads to an out of frame deletion of 151 nucleotides, frameshift and creation of a new stop codon 60 amino acids downstream of the mutation resulting in a truncated protein which is likely nonfunctional.

13.
J Cell Biochem ; 2018 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30260027

RESUMO

Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) plays an important role in innate and adaptive immunity against intracellular infections and is used clinically for the prevention and control of infections in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) and inborn defects in the IFN-γ/interleukin (IL)-12 axis. Using transcriptome profiling (RNA-seq), we sought to identify differentially expressed genes, transcripts and exons in Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B lymphocytes (B-EBV) cells from CGD patients, IFN-γ receptor deficiency patients, and normal controls, treated in vitro with IFN-γ for 48 hours. Our results show that IFN-γ increased the expression of a diverse array of genes related to different cellular programs. In cells from normal controls and CGD patients, IFN-γ-induced expression of genes relevant to oxidative killing, nitric oxide synthase pathway, proteasome-mediated degradation, antigen presentation, chemoattraction, and cell adhesion. IFN-γ also upregulated genes involved in diverse stages of messenger RNA (mRNA) processing including pre-mRNA splicing, as well as others implicated in the folding, transport, and assembly of proteins. In particular, differential exon expression of WARS (encoding tryptophanyl-transfer RNA synthetase, which has an essential function in protein synthesis) induced by IFN-γ in normal and CGD cells suggests that this gene may have an important contribution to the benefits of IFN-γ treatment for CGD. Upregulation of mRNA and protein processing related genes in CGD and IFNRD cells could mediate some of the effects of IFN-γ treatment. These data support the concept that IFN-γ treatment may contribute to increased immune responses against pathogens through regulation of genes important for mRNA and protein processing.

17.
Front Pediatr ; 6: 130, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29780795

RESUMO

Mutations in the CD40 ligand (CD40L) gene (CD40LG) lead to X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome (X-HIGM), which is a primary immunodeficiency (PID) characterized by decreased serum levels of IgG and IgA and normal or elevated IgM levels. Although most X-HIGM patients become symptomatic during the first or second year of life, during which they exhibit recurrent infections, some patients exhibit mild phenotypes, which are usually associated with hypomorphic mutations that do not abrogate protein expression or function. Here, we describe a 28-year-old man who initially presented with recurrent infections since the age of 7 years, when he exhibited meningitis caused by Cryptococcus neoformans. The patient had no family history of immunodeficiency, and based on clinical and laboratory presentation, he was initially diagnosed with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). In subsequent years, he displayed several sporadic episodes of infection, including pneumonia, pharyngotonsillitis, acute otitis media, rhinosinusitis, fungal dermatosis, and intestinal helminthiasis. The evaluation of CD40L expression on the surface of activated CD3+CD4+ T cells from the patient showed decreased expression of CD40L. Genetic analysis revealed a novel de novo mutation consisting of a 6-nucleotide insertion in exon 1 of CD40LG, which confirmed the diagnosis of X-HIGM. In this report, we describe a novel mutation in the CD40L gene and highlight the complexities of PID diagnosis in light of atypical phenotypes and hypomorphic mutations as well as the importance of the differential diagnosis of PIDs.

18.
Front Immunol ; 9: 567, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29666621

RESUMO

Autoimmune-polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator gene (AIRE). Patients with AIRE mutations are susceptible to Candida albicans infection and present with autoimmune disorders. We previously demonstrated that cytoplasmic AIRE regulates the Syk-dependent Dectin-1 pathway. In this study, we further evaluated direct contact with fungal elements, synapse formation, and the response of macrophage-like THP-1 cells to C. albicans hyphae to determine the role of AIRE upon Dectin receptors function and signaling. We examined the fungal synapse (FS) formation in wild-type and AIRE-knockdown THP-1 cells differentiated to macrophages, as well as monocyte-derived macrophages from APECED patients. We evaluated Dectin-2 receptor signaling, phagocytosis, and cytokine secretion upon hyphal stimulation. AIRE co-localized with Dectin-2 and Syk at the FS upon hyphal stimulation of macrophage-like THP-1 cells. AIRE-knockdown macrophage-like THP-1 cells exhibited less Dectin-1 and Dectin-2 receptors accumulation, decreased signaling pathway activity at the FS, lower C. albicans phagocytosis, and less lysosome formation. Furthermore, IL-1ß, IL-6, or TNF-α secretion by AIRE-knockdown macrophage-like THP-1 cells and AIRE-deficient patient macrophages was decreased compared to control cells. Our results suggest that AIRE modulates the FS formation and hyphal recognition and help to orchestrate an effective immune response against C. albicans.

19.
Front Immunol ; 9: 464, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29616019

RESUMO

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), which have been extensively studied in the context of the immune response to viruses, have recently been implicated in host defense mechanisms against fungal infections. Nevertheless, the involvement of human pDCs during paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a fungal infection endemic to Latin America, has been scarcely studied. However, pDCs were found in the cutaneous lesions of PCM patients, and in pulmonary model of murine PCM these cells were shown to control disease severity. These findings led us to investigate the role of human pDCs in the innate phase of PCM. Moreover, considering our previous data on the engagement of diverse Toll-like receptors and C-type lectin receptors receptors in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis recognition, we decided to characterize the innate immune receptors involved in the interaction between human pDCs and yeast cells. Purified pDCs were obtained from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors and they were stimulated with P. brasiliensis with or without blocking antibodies to innate immune receptors. Here we demonstrated that P. brasiliensis stimulation activates human pDCs that inhibit fungal growth and secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines and type I IFNs. Surprisingly, P. brasiliensis-stimulated pDCs produce mature IL-1ß and activate caspase 1, possibly via inflammasome activation, which is a phenomenon not yet described during pDC engagement by microorganisms. Importantly, we also demonstrate that dectin-2 and dectin-3 are expressed on pDCs and appear to be involved (via Syk signaling) in the pDC-P. brasiliensis interaction. Moreover, P. brasiliensis-stimulated pDCs exhibited an efficient antigen presentation and were able to effectively activate CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. In conclusion, our study demonstrated for the first time that human pDCs are involved in P. brasiliensis recognition and may play an important role in the innate and adaptive immunity against this fungal pathogen.

20.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 142(5): 1571-1588.e9, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29518426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome caused by CD40 ligand (CD40L) deficiency often present with episodic, cyclic, or chronic neutropenia, suggesting abnormal neutrophil development in the absence of CD40L-CD40 interaction. However, even when not neutropenic and despite immunoglobulin replacement therapy, CD40L-deficient patients are susceptible to life-threatening infections caused by opportunistic pathogens, suggesting impaired phagocyte function and the need for novel therapeutic approaches. OBJECTIVES: We sought to analyze whether peripheral neutrophils from CD40L-deficient patients display functional defects and to explore the in vitro effects of recombinant human IFN-γ (rhIFN-γ) on neutrophil function. METHODS: We investigated the microbicidal activity, respiratory burst, and transcriptome profile of neutrophils from CD40L-deficient patients. In addition, we evaluated whether the lack of CD40L in mice also affects neutrophil function. RESULTS: Neutrophils from CD40L-deficient patients exhibited defective respiratory burst and microbicidal activity, which were improved in vitro by rhIFN-γ but not soluble CD40L. Moreover, neutrophils from patients showed reduced CD16 protein expression and a dysregulated transcriptome suggestive of impaired differentiation. Similar to CD40L-deficient patients, CD40L knockout mice were found to have impaired neutrophil responses. In parallel, we demonstrated that soluble CD40L induces the promyelocytic cell line HL-60 to proliferate and mature by regulating the expression of genes of the same Gene Ontology categories (eg, cell differentiation) when compared with those dysregulated in peripheral blood neutrophils from CD40L-deficient patients. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest a nonredundant role of CD40L-CD40 interaction in neutrophil development and function that could be improved in vitro by rhIFN-γ, indicating a potential novel therapeutic application for this cytokine.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA