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1.
Biomater Sci ; 12(11): 2885-2898, 2024 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38668741

RESUMO

Intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating neurovascular attack with limited treatment options. Alternative, pre-clinical modelling approaches are required to identify and trial therapeutic drug compounds. In this study we have used alginate hydrogels to model blood insult in vitro. Human whole blood was mixed with alginate and encapsulated into hydrogel beads. Beads were then incorporated in a second layer of alginate containing hyaluronic acid/chitosan nanoparticles to mimic the mechanical properties of brain tissue and create a model haematoma. Beads and model haematomas were characterised to profile size, volume, mechanical properties, release capacity and storage stability over time. Beads and model haematomas stimulate a pro-inflammatory phenotype in human monocytic and macrophage-like cells, however have no pathogenic effect on brain endothelial and neuronal cell survival or function. In conclusion, we have developed an effective strategy to model ICH in vitro, to investigate the human immune response to blood insult.


Assuntos
Alginatos , Hemorragia Cerebral , Hematoma , Ácido Hialurônico , Humanos , Alginatos/química , Ácido Hialurônico/química , Ácido Hialurônico/farmacologia , Quitosana/química , Hidrogéis/química , Nanopartículas/química , Modelos Biológicos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Brain Neurosci Adv ; 7: 23982128231182506, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37360628

RESUMO

As a leading cause of mortality and morbidity, stroke and its management have been studied extensively. Despite numerous pre-clinical studies identifying therapeutic targets, development of effective, specific pharmacotherapeutics remain limited. One significant limitation is a break in the translational pipeline - promising pre-clinical results have not always proven replicable in the clinic. Recent developments in virtual reality technology might help generate a better understanding of injury and recovery across the whole research pipeline in search of optimal stroke management. Here, we review the technologies that can be applied both clinically and pre-clinically to stroke research. We discuss how virtual reality technology is used to quantify clinical outcomes in other neurological conditions that have potential to be applied in stroke research. We also review current uses in stroke rehabilitation and suggest how immersive programmes would better facilitate the quantification of stroke injury severity and patient recovery comparable to pre-clinical study design. By generating continuous, standardised and quantifiable data from injury onset to rehabilitation, we propose that by paralleling pre-clinical outcomes, we can apply a better reverse-translational strategy and apply this understanding to animal studies. We hypothesise this combination of translational research strategies may improve the reliability of pre-clinical research outcomes and culminate in real-life translation of stroke management regimens and medications.

4.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1100967, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36949945

RESUMO

Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS1-9) is a genetically determined encephalopathy that falls under the type I interferonopathy disease class, characterized by excessive type I interferon (IFN-I) activity, coupled with upregulation of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), which can be explained by the vital role these proteins play in self-non-self-discrimination. To date, few mouse models fully replicate the vast clinical phenotypes observed in AGS patients. Therefore, we investigated the use of zebrafish as an alternative species for generating a clinically relevant model of AGS. Using CRISPR-cas9 technology, we generated a stable mutant zebrafish line recapitulating AGS5, which arises from recessive mutations in SAMHD1. The resulting homozygous mutant zebrafish larvae possess a number of neurological phenotypes, exemplified by variable, but increased expression of several ISGs in the head region, a significant increase in brain cell death, microcephaly and locomotion deficits. A link between IFN-I signaling and cholesterol biosynthesis has been highlighted by others, but not previously implicated in the type I interferonopathies. Through assessment of neurovascular integrity and qPCR analysis we identified a significant dysregulation of cholesterol biosynthesis in the zebrafish model. Furthermore, dysregulation of cholesterol biosynthesis gene expression was also observed through RNA sequencing analysis of AGS patient whole blood. From this novel finding, we hypothesize that cholesterol dysregulation may play a role in AGS disease pathophysiology. Further experimentation will lend critical insight into the molecular pathophysiology of AGS and the potential links involving aberrant type I IFN signaling and cholesterol dysregulation.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes do Sistema Nervoso , Interferon Tipo I , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso , Animais , Camundongos , Doenças Autoimunes do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Doenças Autoimunes do Sistema Nervoso/metabolismo , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/metabolismo , Proteína 1 com Domínio SAM e Domínio HD/genética , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
5.
Expert Opin Drug Discov ; 17(6): 559-568, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35587689

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The global health burden of stroke is significant and few therapeutic treatment options currently exist for patients. Pre-clinical research relies heavily on rodent stroke models but the limitations associated with using these systems alone has meant translation of drug compounds to the clinic has not been greatly successful to date. Zebrafish disease modeling offers a potentially complementary platform for pre-clinical compound screening to aid the drug discovery process for translational stroke research. AREAS COVERED: In this review, the authors introduce stroke and describe the issues associated with the current pre-clinical drug development pipeline and the advantages that zebrafish disease modeling can offer. Existing zebrafish models of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke are reviewed. Examples of how zebrafish models have been utilized for drug discovery in other disease disciplines are also discussed. EXPERT OPINION: Zebrafish disease modeling holds the capacity and potential to significantly enhance the stroke drug development pipeline. However, for this system to be more widely accepted and incorporated into translational stroke research, continued improvement of the existing zebrafish stroke models, as well as focussed collaboration between zebrafish and stroke researchers, is essential.


Assuntos
Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Descoberta de Drogas , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Pesquisa Translacional Biomédica
6.
Dis Model Mech ; 15(3)2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35098999

RESUMO

Despite the global health burden, treatment of spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is largely supportive, and translation of specific medical therapies has not been successful. Zebrafish larvae offer a unique platform for drug screening to rapidly identify neuroprotective compounds following ICH. We applied the Spectrum Collection library compounds to zebrafish larvae acutely after ICH to screen for decreased brain cell death and identified 150 successful drugs. Candidates were then evaluated for possible indications with other cardiovascular diseases. Six compounds were identified, including two angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is). Ramipril and quinapril were further assessed to confirm a significant 55% reduction in brain cell death. Proteomic analysis revealed potential mechanisms of neuroprotection. Using the INTERACT2 clinical trial dataset, we demonstrated a significant reduction in the adjusted odds of an unfavourable shift in the modified Rankin scale at 90 days for patients receiving an ACE-I after ICH (versus no ACE-I; odds ratio, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.68-0.95; P=0.009). The zebrafish larval model of spontaneous ICH can be used as a reliable drug screening platform and has identified therapeutics that may offer neuroprotection. This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.


Assuntos
Neuroproteção , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Hemorragia Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Larva , Proteômica
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 833, 2021 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547280

RESUMO

The structure of proline prevents it from adopting an optimal position for rapid protein synthesis. Poly-proline-tract (PPT) associated ribosomal stalling is resolved by highly conserved eIF5A, the only protein to contain the amino acid hypusine. We show that de novo heterozygous EIF5A variants cause a disorder characterized by variable combinations of developmental delay, microcephaly, micrognathia and dysmorphism. Yeast growth assays, polysome profiling, total/hypusinated eIF5A levels and PPT-reporters studies reveal that the variants impair eIF5A function, reduce eIF5A-ribosome interactions and impair the synthesis of PPT-containing proteins. Supplementation with 1 mM spermidine partially corrects the yeast growth defects, improves the polysome profiles and restores expression of PPT reporters. In zebrafish, knockdown eif5a partly recapitulates the human phenotype that can be rescued with 1 µM spermidine supplementation. In summary, we uncover the role of eIF5A in human development and disease, demonstrate the mechanistic complexity of EIF5A-related disorder and raise possibilities for its treatment.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Microcefalia/genética , Micrognatismo/genética , Fatores de Iniciação de Peptídeos/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Adolescente , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Criança , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/metabolismo , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Embrião não Mamífero , Feminino , Humanos , Lisina/análogos & derivados , Lisina/genética , Lisina/metabolismo , Masculino , Microcefalia/metabolismo , Microcefalia/patologia , Micrognatismo/metabolismo , Micrognatismo/patologia , Fatores de Iniciação de Peptídeos/deficiência , Peptídeos/genética , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Conformação Proteica , Isoformas de Proteínas/deficiência , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Ribossomos/genética , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Espermidina/farmacologia , Peixe-Zebra , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Fator de Iniciação de Tradução Eucariótico 5A
9.
Int J Stroke ; 16(2): 123-136, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183165

RESUMO

Intracerebral hemorrhage is a devastating global health burden with limited treatment options and is responsible for 49% of 6.5 million annual stroke-related deaths comparable to ischemic stroke. Despite the impact of intracerebral hemorrhage, there are currently no effective treatments and so weaknesses in the translational pipeline must be addressed. There have been many preclinical studies in intracerebral hemorrhage models with positive outcomes for potential therapies in vivo, but beyond advancing the understanding of intracerebral hemorrhage pathology, there has been no translation toward successful clinical application. Multidisciplinary preclinical research, use of multiple models, and validation in human tissue are essential for effective translation. Repurposing of therapeutics for intracerebral hemorrhage may be the most promising strategy to help relieve the global health burden of intracerebral hemorrhage. Here, we have reviewed the existing literature to highlight repurposable drugs with successful outcomes in preclinical models of intracerebral hemorrhage that have realistic potential for development into the clinic for intracerebral hemorrhage.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Hemorragia Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(5): 694-706, 2020 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359472

RESUMO

How mutations in the non-coding U8 snoRNA cause the neurological disorder leukoencephalopathy with calcifications and cysts (LCC) is poorly understood. Here, we report the generation of a mutant U8 animal model for interrogating LCC-associated pathology. Mutant U8 zebrafish exhibit defective central nervous system development, a disturbance of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) biogenesis and tp53 activation, which monitors ribosome biogenesis. Further, we demonstrate that fibroblasts from individuals with LCC are defective in rRNA processing. Human precursor-U8 (pre-U8) containing a 3' extension rescued mutant U8 zebrafish, and this result indicates conserved biological function. Analysis of LCC-associated U8 mutations in zebrafish revealed that one null and one functional allele contribute to LCC. We show that mutations in three nucleotides at the 5' end of pre-U8 alter the processing of the 3' extension, and we identify a previously unknown base-pairing interaction between the 5' end and the 3' extension of human pre-U8. Indeed, LCC-associated mutations in any one of seven nucleotides in the 5' end and 3' extension alter the processing of pre-U8, and these mutations are present on a single allele in almost all individuals with LCC identified to date. Given genetic data indicating that bi-allelic null U8 alleles are likely incompatible with human development, and that LCC is not caused by haploinsufficiency, the identification of hypomorphic misprocessing mutations that mediate viable embryogenesis furthers our understanding of LCC molecular pathology and cerebral vascular homeostasis.


Assuntos
Alelos , Calcinose/genética , Cistos do Sistema Nervoso Central/genética , Cistos/genética , Leucoencefalopatias/genética , Mutação , RNA Nucleolar Pequeno/genética , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Calcinose/patologia , Cistos do Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Sequência Conservada , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Humanos , Leucoencefalopatias/patologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
11.
J Vis Exp ; (148)2019 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233021

RESUMO

Despite being the most severe subtype of stroke with high global mortality, there is no specific treatment for patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Modelling ICH pre-clinically has proven difficult, and current rodent models poorly recapitulate the spontaneous nature of human ICH. Therefore, there is an urgent requirement for alternative pre-clinical methodologies for study of disease mechanisms in ICH and for potential drug discovery. The use of zebrafish represents an increasingly popular approach for translational research, primarily due to a number of advantages they possess over mammalian models of disease, including prolific reproduction rates and larval transparency allowing for live imaging. Other groups have established that zebrafish larvae can exhibit spontaneous ICH following genetic or chemical disruption of cerebrovascular development. The aim of this methodology is to utilize such models to study the pathological consequences of brain hemorrhage, in the context of pre-clinical ICH research. By using live imaging and motility assays, brain damage, neuroinflammation and locomotor function following ICH can be assessed and quantified. This study shows that key pathological consequences of brain hemorrhage in humans are conserved in zebrafish larvae highlighting the model organism as a valuable in vivo system for pre-clinical investigation of ICH. The aim of this methodology is to enable the pre-clinical stroke community to employ the zebrafish larval model as an alternative complementary model system to rodents.


Assuntos
Hemorragias Intracranianas/patologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Lesões Encefálicas/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Hemorragias Intracranianas/complicações , Larva/fisiologia , Ativação de Macrófagos , Masculino , Movimento , Fagocitose , Fenótipo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
12.
F1000Res ; 7: 1617, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30473780

RESUMO

Intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating condition with limited treatment options, and current understanding of pathophysiology is incomplete. Spontaneous cerebral bleeding is a characteristic of the human condition that has proven difficult to recapitulate in existing pre-clinical rodent models. Zebrafish larvae are frequently used as vertebrate disease models and are associated with several advantages, including high fecundity, optical translucency and non-protected status prior to 5 days post-fertilisation. Furthermore, other groups have shown that zebrafish larvae can exhibit spontaneous ICH. The aim of this study was to investigate whether such models can be utilised to study the pathological consequences of bleeding in the brain, in the context of pre-clinical ICH research. Here, we compared existing genetic (bubblehead) and chemically inducible (atorvastatin) zebrafish larval models of spontaneous ICH and studied the subsequent disease processes. Through live, non-invasive imaging of transgenic fluorescent reporter lines and behavioural assessment we quantified brain injury, locomotor function and neuroinflammation following ICH. We show that ICH in both zebrafish larval models is comparable in timing, frequency and location. ICH results in increased brain cell death and a persistent locomotor deficit. Additionally, in haemorrhaged larvae we observed a significant increase in macrophage recruitment to the site of injury. Live in vivo imaging allowed us to track active macrophage-based phagocytosis of dying brain cells 24 hours after haemorrhage. Morphological analyses and quantification indicated that an increase in overall macrophage activation occurs in the haemorrhaged brain. Our study shows that in zebrafish larvae, bleeding in the brain induces quantifiable phenotypic outcomes that mimic key features of human ICH. We hope that this methodology will enable the pre-clinical ICH community to adopt the zebrafish larval model as an alternative to rodents, supporting future high throughput drug screening and as a complementary approach to elucidating crucial mechanisms associated with ICH pathophysiology.

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