Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 5 de 5
Mais filtros

Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
Int J Food Microbiol ; 412: 110557, 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38237418


Gouda cheeses of different production batches and ripening times often differ in metabolite composition, which may be due to the starter culture mixture applied or the growth of non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) upon maturation. Therefore, a single Gouda cheese production batch was systematically investigated from the thermized milk to the mature cheeses, ripened for up to 100 weeks, to identify the main bacterial species and metabolites and their dynamics during the whole production and ripening. As this seemed to be starter culture strain- and NSLAB-dependent, it requested a detailed, longitudinal, and quantitative investigation. Hereto, microbial colony enumeration, high-throughput full-length 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and a metabolomic approach were combined. Culture-dependently, Lactococcus lactis was the most abundant species from its addition as part of the starter culture up to the first two months of cheese ripening. Afterward, the NSLAB Lacticaseibacillus paracasei became the main species during ripening. The milk was a possible inoculation source for the latter species, despite pasteurization. Culture-independently, the starter LAB Lactococcus cremoris and Lc. lactis were the most abundant species in the cheese core throughout the whole fermentation and ripening phases up to 100 weeks. The cheese rind from 40 until 100 weeks of ripening was characterized by a high relative abundance of the NSLAB Tetragenococcus halophilus and Loigolactobacillus rennini, which both came from the brine. These species were linked with the production of the biogenic amines cadaverine and putrescine. The most abundant volatile organic compound was acetoin, an indicator of citrate and lactose fermentation during the production day, whereas the concentrations of free amino acids were an indicator of the ripening time.

Queijo , Lactobacillales , Lactococcus lactis , Animais , Queijo/microbiologia , Leite/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Lactobacillales/genética , Lactococcus lactis/genética
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 90(2): e0165523, 2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38231565


Ten Gouda cheese wheels with an age of 31 weeks from six different batch productions were affected by a crack defect and displayed an unpleasant off-flavor. To unravel the causes of these defects, the concentrations of free amino acids, other organic acids, volatile organic compounds, and biogenic amines were quantified in zones around the cracks and in zones without cracks, and compared with those of similar Gouda cheeses without crack defect. The Gouda cheeses with cracks had a significantly different metabolome. The production of the non-proteinogenic amino acid γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) could be unraveled as the key mechanism leading to crack formation, although the production of the biogenic amines cadaverine and putrescine contributed as well. High-throughput amplicon sequencing of the full-length 16S rRNA gene based on whole-community DNA revealed the presence of Loigolactobacillus rennini and Tetragenococcus halophilus as most abundant non-starter lactic acid bacteria in the zones with cracks. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing allowed to obtain a metagenome-assembled genome of both Loil. rennini and T. halophilus. However, only Loil. rennini contained genes necessary for the production of GABA, cadaverine, and putrescine. Metagenetics further revealed the brine and the rennet used during cheese manufacturing as the most plausible inoculation sources of both Loil. rennini and T. halophilus.IMPORTANCECrack defects in Gouda cheeses are still poorly understood, although they can lead to major economic losses in cheese companies. In this study, the bacterial cause of a crack defect in Gouda cheeses was identified, and the pathways involved in the crack formation were unraveled. Moreover, possible contamination sources were identified. The brine bath might be a major source of bacteria with the potential to deteriorate cheese quality, which suggests that cheese producers should regularly investigate the quality and microbial composition of their brines. This study illustrated how a multiphasic approach can understand and mitigate problems in a cheese company.

Carboxiliases , Queijo , Lactobacillales , Lactobacillus , Sais , Lactobacillales/genética , Queijo/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Cadaverina , Putrescina , Bactérias/genética , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico , Ácido Láctico , Microbiologia de Alimentos
Front Microbiol ; 14: 1128394, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36876114


Industrial production of Gouda cheeses mostly relies on a rotated use of different mixed-strain lactic acid bacteria starter cultures to avoid phage infections. However, it is unknown how the application of these different starter culture mixtures affect the organoleptic properties of the final cheeses. Therefore, the present study assessed the impact of three different starter culture mixtures on the batch-to-batch variations among Gouda cheeses from 23 different batch productions in the same dairy company. Both the cores and rinds of all these cheeses were investigated after 36, 45, 75, and 100 weeks of ripening by metagenetics based on high-throughput full-length 16S rRNA gene sequencing accompanied with an amplicon sequence variant (ASV) approach as well as metabolite target analysis of non-volatile and volatile organic compounds. Up to 75 weeks of ripening, the acidifying Lactococcus cremoris and Lactococcus lactis were the most abundant bacterial species in the cheese cores. The relative abundance of Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides was significantly different for each starter culture mixture. This impacted the concentrations of some key metabolites, such as acetoin produced from citrate, and the relative abundance of non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB). Cheeses with the least Leuc. pseudomesenteroides contained more NSLAB, such as Lacticaseibacillus paracasei that was taken over by Tetragenococcus halophilus and Loigolactobacillus rennini upon ripening time. Taken together, the results indicated a minor role of leuconostocs in aroma formation but a major impact on the growth of NSLAB. The relative abundance of T. halophilus (high) and Loil. rennini (low) increased with ripening time from rind to core. Two main ASV clusters of T. halophilus could be distinguished, which were differently correlated with some metabolites, both beneficial (regarding aroma formation) and undesirable ones (biogenic amines). A well-chosen T. halophilus strain could be a candidate adjunct culture for Gouda cheese production.

Metab Eng ; 62: 10-19, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795614


As a biorefinery platform host, Escherichia coli has been used extensively to produce metabolites of commercial interest. Integration of foreign DNA onto the bacterial genome allows for stable expression overcoming the need for plasmid expression and its associated instability. Despite the development of numerous tools and genome editing technologies, the question of where to incorporate a synthetic pathway remains unanswered. To address this issue, we studied the genomic expression in E. coli and linked it not only to 26 rationally selected genomic locations, but also to the gene direction in relation to the DNA replication fork, to the carbon and nitrogen source, to DNA folding and supercoiling, and to metabolic burden. To enable these experiments, we have designed a fluorescent expression cassette to eliminate specific local effects on gene expression. Overall it can be concluded that although the expression range obtained by changing the genomic location of a pathway is small compared to the range typically seen in promoter-RBS libraries, the effect of culture medium, environmental stress and metabolic burden can be substantial. The characterization of multiple effects on genomic expression, and the associated libraries of well-characterized strains, will only stimulate and improve the creation of stable production hosts fit for industrial settings.

Escherichia coli , Edição de Genes , Escherichia coli/genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Genômica , Plasmídeos
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(31): 4531-4533, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924472


The sucrose phosphorylase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis (BaSP) can be used as a transglucosylase for the production of rare sugars. We designed variants of BaSP for the efficient synthesis of nigerose from sucrose and glucose, thereby adding to the inventory of rare sugars that can conveniently be produced from bulk sugars.