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1.
Internet Interv ; 35: 100717, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38328276

RESUMO

Background: Temstem is a smartphone app developed with and for clinical voice hearing individuals with the aim to reduce their voice hearing distress and improve social functioning. Methods: A randomized controlled trial with adult outpatients suffering from distressing and frequent auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) was conducted. Participants were randomized to unguided 'Temstem+AVH monitoring' or unguided 'AVH monitoring only' (control condition). Assessments were performed at baseline, post-intervention (week 5-6), and follow-up (week 9-10). Primary outcomes were voice hearing distress and social functioning, as measured with Experience Sampling Method (ESM), consisting of multiple daily questionnaires during six days. In addition, voices and mood were self-monitored with help of a daily reflective questionnaire. Analyses were linear regression models (intention-to-treat). Results: 44 Participants were allocated to Temstem and 45 to the control condition. No significant differences between the groups were found on both primary outcomes. Conclusion: Our results do not support the effectiveness of stand-alone use of Temstem versus symptom monitoring on voice hearing distress or social functioning in voice hearing individuals. In order to potentially improve effectiveness of an mHealth tool in a population of people with frequent and distressing voices, we recommend to involve persons with lived experience in all stages of development and research; to thoroughly test the (technological) usability before performing an RCT; to test whether guidance of a therapist is needed to optimize effectiveness; and to provide prompts to remind the user to actually use the tool.

2.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 81(3): 227-239, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38019495

RESUMO

Importance: Targeting low self-esteem in youth exposed to childhood adversity is a promising strategy for preventing adult mental disorders. Ecological momentary interventions (EMIs) allow for the delivery of youth-friendly, adaptive interventions for improving self-esteem, but robust trial-based evidence is pending. Objective: To examine the efficacy of SELFIE, a novel transdiagnostic, blended EMI for improving self-esteem plus care as usual (CAU) compared with CAU only. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a 2-arm, parallel-group, assessor-blinded, randomized clinical trial conducted from December 2018 to December 2022. The study took place at Dutch secondary mental health services and within the general population and included youth (aged 12-26 years) with low self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale [RSES] <26) exposed to childhood adversity. Interventions: A novel blended EMI (3 face-to-face sessions, email contacts, app-based, adaptive EMI) plus CAU or CAU only. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was RSES self-esteem at postintervention and 6-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes included positive and negative self-esteem, schematic self-beliefs, momentary self-esteem and affect, general psychopathology, quality of life, observer-rated symptoms, and functioning. Results: A total of 174 participants (mean [SD] age, 20.7 [3.1] years; 154 female [89%]) were included in the intention-to-treat sample, who were primarily exposed to childhood emotional abuse or neglect, verbal or indirect bullying, and/or parental conflict. At postintervention, 153 participants (87.9%) and, at follow-up, 140 participants (80.5%), provided primary outcome data. RSES self-esteem was, on average, higher in the experimental condition (blended EMI + CAU) than in the control condition (CAU) across both postintervention and follow-up as a primary outcome (B = 2.32; 95% CI, 1.14-3.50; P < .001; Cohen d-type effect size [hereafter, Cohen d] = 0.54). Small to moderate effect sizes were observed suggestive of beneficial effects on positive (B = 3.85; 95% CI, 1.83-5.88; P < .001; Cohen d = 0.53) and negative (B = -3.78; 95% CI, -6.59 to -0.98; P = .008; Cohen d = -0.38) self-esteem, positive (B = 1.58; 95% CI, 0.41-2.75; P = .008; Cohen d = 0.38) and negative (B = -1.71; 95% CI, -2.93 to -0.48; P = .006; Cohen d = -0.39) schematic self-beliefs, momentary self-esteem (B = 0.29; 95% CI, 0.01-0.57; P = .04; Cohen d = 0.24), momentary positive affect (B = 0.23; 95% CI, 0.01-0.45; P = .04; Cohen d = 0.20), momentary negative affect (B = -0.33; 95% CI, -0.59 to -0.03, P = .01, Cohen d = -0.27), general psychopathology (B = -17.62; 95% CI, -33.03 to -2.21; P = .03; Cohen d = -0.34), and quality of life (B = 1.16; 95% CI, 0.18-2.13; P = .02; Cohen d = 0.33) across postintervention and follow-up. No beneficial effects on symptoms and functioning were observed. Conclusions and Relevance: A transdiagnostic, blended EMI demonstrated efficacy on the primary outcome of self-esteem and signaled beneficial effects on several secondary outcomes. Further work should focus on implementing this novel EMI in routine public mental health provision. Trial Registration: Dutch Trial Register Identifier:NL7129(NTR7475).


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Resultado do Tratamento , Transtornos da Personalidade
3.
Personal Neurosci ; 6: e5, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38107775

RESUMO

The present study examines whether neuroticism is predicted by genetic vulnerability, summarized as polygenic risk score for neuroticism (PRSN), in interaction with bullying, parental bonding, and childhood adversity. Data were derived from a general population adolescent and young adult twin cohort. The final sample consisted of 202 monozygotic and 436 dizygotic twins and 319 twin pairs. The Short Eysenck Personality questionnaire was used to measure neuroticism. PRSN was trained on the results from the Genetics of Personality Consortium (GPC) and United Kingdom Biobank (UKB) cohorts, yielding two different PRSN. Multilevel mixed-effects models were used to analyze the main and interacting associations of PRSN, childhood adversity, bullying, and parental bonding style with neuroticism. We found no evidence of gene-environment correlation. PRSN thresholds of .005 and .2 were chosen, based on GPC and UKB datasets, respectively. After correction for confounders, all the individual variables were associated with the expression of neuroticism: both PRSN from GPC and UKB, childhood adversity, maternal bonding, paternal bonding, and bullying in primary school and secondary school. However, the results indicated no evidence for gene-environment interaction in this cohort. These results suggest that genetic vulnerability on the one hand and negative life events (childhood adversity and bullying) and positive life events (optimal parental bonding) on the other represent noninteracting pathways to neuroticism.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37914846

RESUMO

Experience sampling methods (ESM) using mobile health (mHealth) technology with a smartphone application are increasingly used in clinical practice and research. Still, recommendations are limited in young people, and adaptations may be necessary. Patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) are chronically treated with steroids from a young age. However, the impact of intermittent treatment schedules on fluctuations in somatic, cognitive and behavioural symptoms is poorly investigated. Existing studies are often cross-sectional and occur in controlled clinical settings, which do not provide sufficiently detailed insights into possible correlations. ESM might alleviate these problems. ESM innovates data collection with a smartphone application, which repeatedly assesses specific symptoms and contextual factors at random moments in daily life. We aimed to evaluate its feasibility in adolescents with DMD. In three (without/with/without steroids) 4-day periods of ESM, that were nested in 10/10 or 11/9 day on/off-medication periods, we evaluated its user-friendliness and compliance, and explored its ability to objectify fluctuations in somatic, cognitive and behavioural symptom severity and their relationship with contextual factors in seven DMD patients (age range 12-18 years) using intermittent corticosteroid treatment (dosage range 0.3-0.6 mg/kg/day). Patients reported that ESM was convenient and user-friendly. We were able to capture extensive intra-individual symptom fluctuations during intermittent corticosteroid treatment that were not revealed by routine clinical assessment. Implementing ESM to evaluate symptom fluctuation patterns in relation to treatment effects shows promise in adolescents with DMD. Optimization in further research is needed.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37624463

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore gender differences of the associations between childhood adversity (CA) subtypes and psychiatric symptoms in the general population. METHODS: Data of 791 participants were retrieved from a general population twin cohort. The Symptom Checklist-90 Revised (SCL-90) and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were used to assess overall psychopathology with nine symptom domains scores and total CA with exposure to five CA subtypes, respectively. The associations between CA and psychopathology were analyzed in men and women separately and were subsequently compared. RESULTS: Total CA was associated with total SCL-90 and all symptom domains without significant gender differences. However, the analyses of CA subtypes showed that the association between emotional abuse and total SCL-90 was stronger in women compared to men [χ2(1) = 4.10, P = 0.043]. Sexual abuse was significantly associated with total SCL-90 in women, but emotional neglect and physical neglect were associated with total SCL-90 in men. Exploratory analyses of CA subtypes and SCL-90 subdomains confirmed the pattern of gender-specific associations. In women, emotional abuse was associated with all symptom domains, and sexual abuse was associated with all except phobic anxiety and interpersonal sensitivity. In men, emotional neglect was associated with depression, and physical neglect was associated with phobic anxiety, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity, obsessive-compulsive, paranoid ideation, and hostility subdomains. CONCLUSION: CA is a trans-syndromal risk factor regardless of gender. However, differential associations between CA subtypes and symptom manifestation might exist. Abuse might be particularly associated with psychopathology in women, whereas neglect might be associated with psychopathology in men.

6.
J Relig Health ; 62(5): 3687-3701, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37418048

RESUMO

Religiosity and spirituality (R/S) are often regarded as being relatively stable over time. The present exploratory experience sampling method (ESM) study aims to assess the variability of three R/S parameters concerning affective representations of God and spiritual experiences in a psychiatric population. Depressed in- and outpatients self-identifying as being spiritual or religious participated, from two Dutch mental health care institutions. The twenty-eight participants rated momentary affective R/S-variables up to 10 times per day over a 6-day period when prompted by a mobile application. All three examined R/S parameters varied significantly within the day. ESM examination of R/S showed good compliance and little reactivity. This indicates that ESM offers a feasible, usable, and valid way to explore R/S in a psychiatric population.


Assuntos
Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Espiritualidade , Humanos , Religião , Emoções
7.
Psychiatry Res ; 323: 115184, 2023 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37015164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) frequently present cognitive impairments. Here, we investigated whether the exposome score for schizophrenia (ES-SCZ) - a cumulative environmental exposure score - was associated with impairments of neurocognition, social cognition, and perception in patients with SSD, their unaffected siblings, and healthy controls. METHODS: This cross-sectional sample consisted of 1200 patients, 1371 siblings, and 1564 healthy controls. Neurocognition, social cognition, and perception were assesed using a short version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III), the Degraded Facial Affect Recognition Task (DFAR), and the Benton Facial Recognition Test (BFR), respectively. Regression models were used to analyze the association between ES-SCZ and cognitive domains in each group. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant associations between ES-SCZ and cognitive domains in SSD. ES-SCZ was negatively associated with T-score of cognition in siblings (B=-0.40, 95% CI -0.76 to -0.03) and healthy controls (B=-0.63, 95% CI -1.06 to -0.21). Additionally, ES-SCZ was positively associated with DFAR-total in siblings (B=0.83, 95% CI 0.26 to 1.40). Sensitivity analyses excluding cannabis use history from ES-SCZ largely confirmed the main findings. CONCLUSIONS: Longitudinal cohorts may elucidate how environmental exposures influence the onset and course of cognitive impairments in trans-syndromic psychosis spectrum.


Assuntos
Cognição , Expossoma , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Adulto , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Irmãos/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino
8.
Front Psychiatry ; 14: 1107812, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36911128

RESUMO

Background: Sleep disorders and reduced physical activity are common in patients with psychosis and can be related to health-related outcomes such as symptomatology and functioning. Mobile health technologies and wearable sensor methods enable continuous and simultaneous monitoring of physical activity, sleep, and symptoms in one's day-to-day environment. Only a few studies have applied simultaneous assessment of these parameters. Therefore, we aimed to examine the feasibility of the simultaneous monitoring of physical activity, sleep, and symptoms and functioning in psychosis. Methods: Thirty three outpatients diagnosed with a schizophrenia or other psychotic disorder used an actigraphy watch and experience sampling method (ESM) smartphone app for 7 consecutive days to monitor physical activity, sleep, symptoms, and functioning. Participants wore the actigraphy watch during day and night and completed multiple short questionnaires (eight daily, one morning, and one evening) on their phone. Hereafter they completed evaluation questionnaires. Results: Of the 33 patients (25 male), 32 (97.0%) used the ESM and actigraphy during the instructed timeframe. ESM response was good: 64.0% for the daily, 90.6% for morning, and 82.6% for evening questionnaire(s). Participants were positive about the use of actigraphy and ESM. Conclusion: The combination of wrist-worn actigraphy and smartphone-based ESM is feasible and acceptable in outpatients with psychosis. These novel methods can help both clinical practice and future research to gain more valid insight into physical activity and sleep as biobehavioral markers linked to psychopathological symptoms and functioning in psychosis. This can be used to investigate relationships between these outcomes and thereby improve individualized treatment and prediction.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36767905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthcare and social services aim to ensure health equity for all users. Despite ongoing efforts, marginalized populations remain underserved. The Dutch HOP-TR study intends to expand knowledge on how to enable the recovery of homeless service users. METHODS: A naturalistic meta-snowball sampling resulted in a representative sample of homeless services (N = 16) and users (N = 436). Interviews collected health and needs from user and professional perspectives in a comprehensive, rights-based ecosystem strategy. We calculated the responsiveness to needs in four domains (mental health, physical health, paid work, and administration). RESULTS: Most service users were males (81%) with a migration background (52%). In addition to physical (78%) and mental health needs (95%), the low education level (89%) and functional illiteracy (57%) resulted in needs related to paid work and administration support. Most had vital needs in three or four domains (77%). The availability of matching care was extremely low. For users with needs in two domains, met needs ranged from 0.6-13.1%. Combined needs (>2 domains) were hardly met. CONCLUSIONS: Previous research demonstrated the interdependent character of health needs. This paper uncovers some causes of health inequity. The systematic failure of local services to meet integrating care needs demonstrates the urgency to expand recovery-oriented implementation strategies with health equity in mind.


Assuntos
Equidade em Saúde , Pessoas Mal Alojadas , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Ecossistema , Saúde Mental
11.
Clin Psychol Psychother ; 30(2): 357-372, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36347022

RESUMO

Satisfying daily life functioning is essential in mental healthcare. Standard assessments focus on symptoms and are designed to detect underlying vulnerabilities. However, they offer insufficient insight into patterns of contextual variability and resilience. Consequently, interventions are planned using incomplete information. The experience-sampling method (ESM) is a structured moment-to-moment diary assessing the individual's affect, thoughts, perception and behaviour in the daily life context. ESM helps to understand variation in mental states (e.g., anxiety or sleeping problems) as adaptational processes in relation to contextual challenges (functional analysis). Although ESM has been extensively studied across psychological disorders, the adoption by mental health professionals and their patients remains limited because the 'how to' is unclear. This paper presents a practical guide for ESM application in routine clinical care. It integrates empirical knowledge with expert experiences and provides real-world examples and recommendations for successful implementation. The guide comprises how to engage and motivate patients and how to customize assessments to the patient's needs. It also includes instructions to interpret results and create an atmosphere of shared decision-making. Experience-sampling technology has merits for patients with various mental health complaints and across healthcare settings, although the exact use and implementation may vary depending on the individual case.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Saúde Mental , Humanos , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade
12.
Psychol Med ; 53(8): 3750-3761, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36117284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychotic experiences (PEs) frequently occur and are associated with a range of negative health outcomes. Prospective studies on PEs are scarce, and to date no study investigated PE prevalence, incidence, persistence, their risk indicators, and psychiatric comorbidity, in one dataset. Furthermore, most studies are based on self-report, and it is unclear how this compares to clinical interviews. METHODS: Data are used from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2 (NEMESIS-2), a psychiatric cohort study among a representative sample of adults (baseline characteristics: N = 6646; 49.6% female; 18-64 years). Results are presented for self-reported and clinically validated PEs. Associations are assessed for mental disorders, socio-demographic, vulnerability, physical health, and substance use factors. RESULTS: Based on self-report, at baseline 16.5% of respondents had at least one PE in their lifetime, of those, 30.1% also reported a PE at 3-year follow-up. 4.8% had a first PE at 3-year follow up. The 3-year prevalence of PE was associated with almost all studied risk indicators. Generally, the strongest associations were found for mental health disorders. Prevalence and incidence rates were two to three times higher in self-report than in clinical interview but results on associated factors were similar. CONCLUSIONS: Validated prevalence and incidence estimates of PE are substantially lower than self-reported figures but results on associated factors were similar. Therefore, future studies on associations of PEs can rely on relatively inexpensive self-reports of PEs. The associations between PE and mental disorders underline the importance of assessment of PE in general practice.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos Psicóticos , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Seguimentos , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Incidência , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Prospectivos , Prevalência , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia
13.
Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health ; 19: e17450179271206, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38680529

RESUMO

Background: The current state of mental health care in the Netherlands faces challenges such as fragmentation, inequality, inaccessibility, and a narrow specialist focus on individual diagnosis and symptom reduction. Methods: A review suggests that in order to address these challenges, an integrated public health approach to mental health care that encompasses the broader social, cultural, and existential context of mental distress is required. Results: A Mental Health Ecosystem social trial seeks to pilot such an approach in the Netherlands, focusing on empowering patients and promoting collaboration among various healthcare providers, social care organizations, and peer-support community organizations, working together in a regional ecosystem of care and committed to a set of shared values. In the ecosystem, mental health problems are examined through the prism of mental variation in context whilst scaling up the capacity of group-based treatment and introducing a flexible and modular approach of (2nd order) treatment by specialists across the ecosystem. The approach is to empower naturally available resources in the community beyond professionally run care facilities. Digital platforms such as psychosenet.nl and proud2bme.nl, which complement traditional mental health care services and enhance public mental health, will be expanded. The capacity of recovery colleges will be increased, forming a national network covering the entire country. GEM will be evaluated using a population-based approach, encompassing a broad range of small-area indicators related to mental health care consumption, social predictors, and clinical outcomes. The success of GEM relies heavily on bottom-up development backed by stakeholder involvement, including insurers and policy-making institutions, and cocreation. Conclusion: By embracing a social trial and leveraging digital platforms, the Dutch mental health care system can overcome challenges and provide more equitable, accessible, and high-quality care to individuals.

14.
JMIR Ment Health ; 9(11): e37394, 2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36416883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying momentary risk and protective mechanisms may enhance our understanding and treatment of mental disorders. Affective stress reactivity is one mechanism that has been reported to be altered in individuals with early and later stages of mental disorder. Additionally, initial evidence suggests individuals with early and enduring psychosis may have an extended recovery period of negative affect in response to daily stressors (ie, a longer duration until affect reaches baseline levels after stress), but evidence on positive affective recovery as a putative protective mechanism remains limited. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate trajectories of positive affect in response to stress across the continuum of mental disorder in a transdiagnostic sample. METHODS: Using the Experience Sampling Method, minor activity-, event-, and overall stress and positive affect were assessed 10 times a day, with time points approximately 90 minutes apart on six consecutive days in a pooled data set including 367 individuals with a mental disorder, 217 individuals at risk for a severe mental disorder, and 227 controls. Multilevel analysis and linear contrasts were used to investigate trajectories of positive affect within and between groups. RESULTS: Baseline positive affect differed across groups, and we observed stress reactivity in positive affect within each group. We found evidence for positive affective recovery after reporting activity- or overall stress within each group. While controls recovered to baseline positive affect about 90 minutes after stress, patients and at-risk individuals required about 180 minutes to recover. However, between-group differences in the affective recovery period fell short of significance (all P>.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results provide first evidence that positive affective recovery may be relevant within transdiagnostic subclinical and clinical stages of mental disorder, suggesting that it may be a potential target for mobile health interventions fostering resilience in daily life.

15.
J Psychiatr Res ; 156: 532-537, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36356555

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Clinicians in mental healthcare have few objective tools to identify and analyze their patient's care needs. Clinical decision aids are tools that support this process. This study examines whether 1) clinicians working with a clinical decision aid (TREAT) discuss more of their patient's care needs compared to usual treatment, and 2) agree on more evidence-based treatment decisions. METHODS: Clinicians participated in consultations (n = 166) with patients diagnosed with psychotic disorders from four Dutch mental healthcare institutions (research registration number 201700763). Primary outcomes were measured with the modified Clinical Decision-making in Routine Care questionnaire and combined with psychiatric, physical and social wellbeing related care needs. A multilevel analysis compared discussed care needs and evidence-based treatment decisions between treatment as usual (TAU) before, TAU after and the TREAT condition. RESULTS: First, a significant increase in discussed care needs for TREAT compared to both TAU conditions (ß = 20.2, SE = 5.2, p = 0.00 and ß = 15.8, SE = 5.4, p = 0.01) was found. Next, a significant increase in evidence-based treatments decisions for care needs was observed for TREAT compared to both TAU conditions (ß = 16.7, SE = 4.8, p = 0.00 and ß = 16.0, SE = 5.1, p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: TREAT improved the discussion about physical health issues and social wellbeing related topics. It also increased evidence-based treatment decisions for care needs which are sometimes overlooked and difficult to treat. Our findings suggest that TREAT makes sense of routine outcome monitoring data and improves guideline-informed care.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Transtornos Psicóticos , Humanos , Transtornos Psicóticos/terapia , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão
16.
Internet Interv ; 30: 100580, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36277314

RESUMO

Background: Temstem is a mobile application developed in cooperation with voice-hearing persons to help them cope with distressing voices. After psychoeducation about voice hearing, Temstem offers two functions: Silencing is a mode designed to inhibit voice activity through the processing of incompatible language; the Challenging mode introduces dual tasking (as used in eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing) designed to reduce the emotionality and vividness of a voice memory. Two different language games, Lingo Tapper and Word Link, are provided, containing both functions. This study aimed to explore the momentary effects of Temstem on voice-hearing distress, emotionality and vividness in a naturalistic sample of voice-hearing app users. Method: Temstem is freely available in the Netherlands. We collected data through the app from 1048 individual users who had given informed consent for the study. We assessed changes in pre- and post-session scores on distress, emotionality and vividness, and we evaluated differences in outcomes between the games and whether effects remained stable over multiple sessions. Results: Users had been hearing voices for an average of 4.95 years; 79 % had been informed about Temstem by a mental health therapist or coach. After a Silencing session, voice-hearing distress was reduced, t(958) = 27.12, p < .001, d = 0.49; the degree of reduction remained stable after repeated use, F(1, 7905.57) = 1.91, p = .167. After a Challenging session, emotionality, t(651) = 23.16, p < .001, d = 0.74, and the vividness of voice memories were reduced, t(651) = 22.20, p < .001, d = 0.71; both diminished slightly with frequent use, F(1, 2222.86) = 7.21, p < .05; F(1, 2289.92) = 4.25, p < .05. In comparison with Lingo Tapper, larger reductions were seen for a Word Link game: emotionality t(226) = 2.88, p < .005, d = 0.21; vividness t(226) = 2.29, p < .05, d = 0.17. Discussion: In this heterogeneous sample of voice-hearing individuals, Temstem appeared to be a promising coping tool; momentary voice-hearing distress and the emotionality and vividness of voice statements were reduced after a Temstem session. Despite important limitations and the need for more research, naturalistic studies of user app data may yield interesting and generalisable findings.

17.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 63: 47-59, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055075

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is frequently accompanied with social cognitive disturbances. Cannabis represents one established environmental factor associated with the onset and progression of schizophrenia. The present cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the association of facial emotion recognition (FER) performance with cannabis use in 2039 patients with schizophrenia, 2141 siblings, and 2049 healthy controls (HC). FER performance was measured using the Degraded Facial Affect Recognition Task (DFAR). Better FER performance as indicated by higher DFAR-total scores was associated with lifetime regular cannabis use in schizophrenia (B = 1.36, 95% CI 0.02 to 2.69), siblings (B = 2.17, 95% CI 0.79 to 3.56), and HC (B = 3.10, 95% CI 1.14 to 5.06). No associations were found between DFAR-total and current cannabis use. Patients with schizophrenia who started to use cannabis after the age of 16 showed better FER performance than patients who started earlier (B = 2.50, 95% CI 0.15 to 4.84) and non-users (B = 3.72, 95 CI 1.96 to 5.49). Better FER performance was found also in siblings who started to use cannabis after 16 compared to non-users (B = 2.37, 95% CI 0.58 to 4.16), while HC using cannabis performed better than non-users at DFAR-total regardless of the age at onset. Our findings suggest that lifetime regular cannabis use may be associated with better FER regardless of the psychosis risk, but that FER might be moderated by age at first use in people with higher genetic risk. Longitudinal studies may clarify whether there is a cause-and-effect relationship between cannabis use and FER performance in psychotic and non-psychotic samples.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Reconhecimento Facial , Transtornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Agonistas de Receptores de Canabinoides , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Humanos , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Irmãos/psicologia
18.
Psychol Med ; : 1-10, 2022 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36039768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambulatory monitoring is gaining popularity in mental and somatic health care to capture an individual's wellbeing or treatment course in daily-life. Experience sampling method collects subjective time-series data of patients' experiences, behavior, and context. At the same time, digital devices allow for less intrusive collection of more objective time-series data with higher sampling frequencies and for prolonged sampling periods. We refer to these data as parallel data. Combining these two data types holds the promise to revolutionize health care. However, existing ambulatory monitoring guidelines are too specific to each data type, and lack overall directions on how to effectively combine them. METHODS: Literature and expert opinions were integrated to formulate relevant guiding principles. RESULTS: Experience sampling and parallel data must be approached as one holistic time series right from the start, at the study design stage. The fluctuation pattern and volatility of the different variables of interest must be well understood to ensure that these data are compatible. Data have to be collected and operationalized in a manner that the minimal common denominator is able to answer the research question with regard to temporal and disease severity resolution. Furthermore, recommendations are provided for device selection, data management, and analysis. Open science practices are also highlighted throughout. Finally, we provide a practical checklist with the delineated considerations and an open-source example demonstrating how to apply it. CONCLUSIONS: The provided considerations aim to structure and support researchers as they undertake the new challenges presented by this exciting multidisciplinary research field.

19.
Psychol Med ; 52(10): 1910-1922, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is evidence that environmental and genetic risk factors for schizophrenia spectrum disorders are transdiagnostic and mediated in part through a generic pathway of affective dysregulation. METHODS: We analysed to what degree the impact of schizophrenia polygenic risk (PRS-SZ) and childhood adversity (CA) on psychosis outcomes was contingent on co-presence of affective dysregulation, defined as significant depressive symptoms, in (i) NEMESIS-2 (n = 6646), a representative general population sample, interviewed four times over nine years and (ii) EUGEI (n = 4068) a sample of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, the siblings of these patients and controls. RESULTS: The impact of PRS-SZ on psychosis showed significant dependence on co-presence of affective dysregulation in NEMESIS-2 [relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI): 1.01, p = 0.037] and in EUGEI (RERI = 3.39, p = 0.048). This was particularly evident for delusional ideation (NEMESIS-2: RERI = 1.74, p = 0.003; EUGEI: RERI = 4.16, p = 0.019) and not for hallucinatory experiences (NEMESIS-2: RERI = 0.65, p = 0.284; EUGEI: -0.37, p = 0.547). A similar and stronger pattern of results was evident for CA (RERI delusions and hallucinations: NEMESIS-2: 3.02, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 6.44, p < 0.001; RERI delusional ideation: NEMESIS-2: 3.79, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 5.43, p = 0.001; RERI hallucinatory experiences: NEMESIS-2: 2.46, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 0.54, p = 0.465). CONCLUSIONS: The results, and internal replication, suggest that the effects of known genetic and non-genetic risk factors for psychosis are mediated in part through an affective pathway, from which early states of delusional meaning may arise.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Transtornos Psicóticos/etiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/genética , Alucinações/etiologia , Alucinações/genética , Esquizofrenia/etiologia , Esquizofrenia/genética , Herança Multifatorial , Risco , Delusões/diagnóstico
20.
Psychol Med ; 52(8): 1509-1516, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of psychotic experiences (PEs) is higher in low-and-middle-income-countries (LAMIC) than in high-income countries (HIC). Here, we examine whether this effect is explicable by measurement bias. METHODS: A community sample from 13 countries (N = 7141) was used to examine the measurement invariance (MI) of a frequently used self-report measure of PEs, the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE), in LAMIC (n = 2472) and HIC (n = 4669). The CAPE measures positive (e.g. hallucinations), negative (e.g. avolition) and depressive symptoms. MI analyses were conducted with multiple-group confirmatory factor analyses. RESULTS: MI analyses showed similarities in the structure and understanding of the CAPE factors between LAMIC and HIC. Partial scalar invariance was found, allowing for latent score comparisons. Residual invariance was not found, indicating that sum score comparisons are biased. A comparison of latent scores before and after MI adjustment showed both overestimation (e.g. avolition, d = 0.03 into d = -0.42) and underestimation (e.g. magical thinking, d = -0.03 into d = 0.33) of PE in LAMIC relative to HIC. After adjusting the CAPE for MI, participants from LAMIC reported significantly higher levels on most CAPE factors but a significantly lower level of avolition. CONCLUSION: Previous studies using sum scores to compare differences across countries are likely to be biased. The direction of the bias involves both over- and underestimation of PEs in LAMIC compared to HIC. Nevertheless, the study confirms the basic finding that PEs are more frequent in LAMIC than in HIC.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos , Análise Fatorial , Alucinações , Humanos , Renda , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Autorrelato
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