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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 141795, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892043

RESUMO

Sugarcane is the second largest bioenergy crop in the world and it accounts for 80% of global sugar production. Grown mostly in wet and warm tropics with relatively high nitrogen (N) fertiliser input and crop residue retention, sugarcane production is a significant source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emission. Yet, a global evaluation of research on N2O emission from sugarcane crop is lacking. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis using data from 141 measurements compiled from 15 sugarcane field studies reported from different countries to i) quantify N2O emissions and emission factors (EFs) globally, and for tropics and sub-tropics, and ii) identify the key factors that promote N2O emission. Our analysis shows that the global mean total N2O emission from sugarcane production reached 2.26 (CI: 1.93-2.62) kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 with an estimated EF of 1.21% (CI: 0.971-1.46%). N2O emissions increased exponentially with increase in N fertiliser rate, questioning the adequacy of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) default EF value (1%) for sugarcane N2O emission estimation. Mean total N2O emissions and EFs in tropics and sub-tropics did not vary significantly. Supplementing synthetic N fertiliser (SN) with organic amendments (OA) significantly increased mean N2O emission (~1.4-fold) and EF (~2.5-fold) compared to SN. A remarkable reduction in N2O emission (38.6%) and EF (61.5%) was evident when enhanced efficiency fertilisers (EEF) replaced SN. In contrast, crop residue removal had little impact on N2O emission and EF, but both parameters showed an upward trend with irrigation and increased rainfall. Soil carbon content and pH were emerged as key regulators of sugarcane N2O emission and EF. It is concluded that global sugarcane N2O emission could be significant and that there is considerable prospect for mitigating the emission through innovative nutrient formulations and precision agriculture that help meet crop nutrient demand without compromising environmental imperatives.


Assuntos
Óxido Nitroso , Saccharum , Agricultura , Fertilizantes/análise , Nitrogênio , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Solo
2.
Int J Med Sci ; 17(18): 3005-3019, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33173421

RESUMO

The posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA), with its unique anatomical complexity, is of great clinical importance and involved in many diseases including aneurysm, ischemic stroke, neurovascular compression syndrome (NVCS), arteriovenous malformation (AVM), and brain tumor. However, a comprehensive systematic review of the importance of the PICA is currently lacking. In this study, we perform a literature review of PICA by searching all the associated papers in the PUBMED database hoping to provide a better understanding of the artery. The PICA has tortuous and variable course and territory, divided into 5 segments. Various aneurysms involving PICA were not uncommon, of which the treatment is challenging. The PICA infarct typically manifests lateral medullary syndrome (LMS) and is more likely to cause mass effects. The PICA frequently compresses the medulla and the cranial nerves resulting in various neurovascular compression syndromes (NVCS). Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) fed by PICA are associated with aneurysm and dissection which have high risk of rupture and worse outcome. PICA injured by head trauma can cause fatal SAH. VA terminating in PICA probably cause Bow hunter's syndrome (BHS). The PICA supplies many brain tumors and can be used in intracerebellar chemotherapy. The PICA can be exposed and injured during surgeries especially in telovelar approach, and it also plays an important role in bypass surgeries, hinting the surgical importance of PICA. In conclusion, PICA is very important in clinical practice.

3.
Circ Res ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176578

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Over 50% of heart failure patients have preserved, rather than reduced ejection fraction (HFpEF vs. HFrEF). Complexity of its pathophysiology and the lack of animal models hamper the development of effective therapy for HFpEF. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate the metabolic mechanisms of HFpEF and test therapeutic interventions using a novel animal model. METHODS AND RESULTS: By combining the age, long-term high-fat diet and desoxycorticosterone pivalate challenge in a mouse model we were able to recapture the myriad features of HFpEF. In these mice, mitochondrial hyperacetylation exacerbated while increasing ketone body availability rescued the phenotypes. The HFpEF mice exhibited overproduction of interleukin (IL)-1ß/IL-18, and tissue fibrosis due to increased assembly of NLPR3 inflammasome on hyperacetylated mitochondria. Increasing ß-hydroxybutyrate (ß-OHB) level attenuated NLPR3 inflammasome formation and antagonized proinflammatory cytokines-triggered mitochondrial dysfunction and fibrosis. Moreover, ß-OHB downregulated the acetyl-CoA pool and mitochondrial acetylation, partially via activation of citrate synthase and inhibition of fatty acid uptake. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, we identify the interplay of mitochondrial hyperacetylation and inflammation as a key driver in HFpEF pathogenesis which can be ameliorated by promoting ß-OHB abundance.

4.
Biomaterials ; : 120388, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172606

RESUMO

Immunogenic chemotherapy (IC) is a type of chemotherapy where certain chemodrugs induce immunogenic cancer cell death (ICD), which in turn arouses T cell antitumor immunity. However, IC concurrently upregulates a key immune suppressor, indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), in both cancer cells and immune cells. IDO-mediated immunosuppression significantly offsets IC's therapeutic benefits in cancer patients, suggesting a necessity of combination with IDO inhibitors. Here, we report an enzyme-, pH-, and redox-triple-sensitive nanosystem using mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) as a core encapsulating doxorubicin (DOX, an immunogenic chemodrug); the core is coated with a shell (ß-CD-PEI/Ge1MT) for co-delivering 1-methyl-D-tryptophan (1 MT, an IDO inhibitor). By using these responsivenesses sequentially triggering the release of 1 MT into tumor extracellular compartment and DOX into intracellular endo/lysosomal compartment, this nanosystem (DOX@GMTMSNs) precisely delivers the drugs to their target cells residing in different compartments. Released 1 MT uptake by IDO-expressing dendritic cells (DCs) and cancer cells suppresses IDO activity, reducing immunosuppressive Tregs' presence; DOX unloaded within cancer cells induces ICD, promoting effector T-cell infiltration. In two preclinical cancer models, DOX@GMTMSNs potentiate both tumor local and systemic antitumor immunity, suppressing primary tumor growth by 78% with an 83% reduction in metastatic foci, as well as extending animal survival, thus strongly demonstrating DOX@ GMTMSNs' clinical translational potential.

5.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 16(6): 763-788, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187576

RESUMO

Chemotherapy is the most commonly used treatment for cancer. However, due to their short circulation time and lack of specific biological distribution, chemotherapeutic drugs cause severe systemic toxicity. Using the agents specifically binding to the targeted molecules might resolve this dilemma. Aptamers can directly connect with the drugs or couple with the nano-carrier to reduce systemic toxicity. In this review, we elucidated the definition, characteristics and screening process of aptamers. The methods of drug delivery by aptamers were illustrated in details. Furthermore, clinical application of aptamers in recent years was briefly summarized and its long-term prospects were put forward.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos , Neoplasias , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/uso terapêutico , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico
6.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 16(6): 954-964, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187590

RESUMO

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has become the main cause of diarrhea-related diseases in domestic (China) inpatients. High-sensitivity and high-specificity detection methods for CDI must be applied clinically for CDI supervisory control. In this paper, we introduce a detection method for C. difficile and Norovirus based on real-time PCR. We developed and optimized a primer-probe for Norovirus targets tcdA and tcdB with remarkably increased detection sensitivity. We then used this method in an integrated cassette, and found increased detection efficiency for Norovirus standards in the cassette compared to C. difficile samples. These results provide a basis for further exploration of automatic testing system design.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas , Clostridium difficile , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa , Norovirus , Proteínas de Bactérias , China , Humanos , Norovirus/genética
7.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 11(1): 466, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is an ovarian dysfunction that seriously affects a woman's physiological health and reproduction. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation offers a promising treatment option for ovarian restoration in rodent POI models. However, the efficacy and mechanism of it remain unclear. METHODS: POI mice model was generated by cyclophosphamide and busulfan, followed with the treatment of tail-vein injection of the human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs). Maternal physiological changes and offspring behavior were detected. To reveal the pathogenesis and therapeutic mechanisms of POI, we first compared the metabolite profiles of healthy and POI ovarian tissues using untargeted metabolomics analyses. After stem cell therapy, we then collected the ovaries from control, POI, and hUCMSC-treated POI groups for lipid metabolomics and pseudotargeted metabolomics analysis. RESULTS: Our results revealed remarkable changes of multiple metabolites, especially lipids, in ovarian tissues after POI generation. Following the transplantation of clinical-grade hUCMSCs, POI mice exhibited significant improvements in body weight, sex hormone levels, estrous cycles, and reproductive capacity. Lipid metabolomics and pseudotargeted metabolomics analyses for the ovaries showed that the metabolite levels in the POI group, mainly lipids, glycerophospholipids, steroids, and amino acids changed significantly compared with the controls', and most of them returned to near-healthy levels after receiving hUCMSC treatment. Meanwhile, we also observed an increase of monosaccharide levels in the ovaries from POI mice and a decrease after stem cell treatment. CONCLUSIONS: hUCMSCs restore ovarian function through activating the PI3K pathway by promoting the level of free amino acids, consequently improving lipid metabolism and reducing the concentration of monosaccharides. These findings provide potential targets for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of POI.

8.
Life Sci ; : 118709, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) plays a key role to regulate an inflammatory response, inhibits vascular smooth cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis. But its role in pulmonary hypertension (PH) pathology is essentially unknown. We hypothesized that downregulation IRF7 promotes pulmonary vascular remodeling and that overexpression of IRF7 could slow the progression of PH. METHODS: mRNA, and protein levels of IRF7 were assessed in the lung samples and isolated pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) from MCT-induced PH in rats. The preventive effects of IRF7 up-regulation were tested in the MCT induced PH rat. The effects of IRF7 on inflammation, proliferation, apoptosis, and AFT3 signaling were tested in cultured rat PASMCs. RESULTS: mRNA and protein levels of IRF7 were decreased in vivo and in vitro in the pulmonary vascular from MCT induced PH rats. Genetically up-regulation IRF7 with adeno-associated virus attenuated pulmonary vascular remodeling, resulted in decreasing pulmonary artery systolic pressure and improving the right ventricular structure and function. The pulmonary vascular protective effect worked by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokine levels (TNF-α, IL-6), as well as abrogating PASMCS proliferation and apoptosis resistance via ATF3 signaling. ATF3 activation augmented the proliferation-dependent genes (PCNA1, Cyclin D1) and anti-apoptotic regulators (Capase-3 and Bax) in PASMCs. CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide evidence that down-regulation of IRF7 cold initiate inflammation response, cause PASMCs proliferation and apoptosis resistance via activation of ATF3 signaling pathway. Activation of IRF7 could be a potential therapeutic target for treating PH.

9.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(21): 21220-21235, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159018

RESUMO

In this study, we studied the effect and possible mechanism of TGF-ß1 on vascular calcification. We found that the serum levels of TGF-ß1 and cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) were significantly increased in patients with chronic kidney disease. Phosphate up regulated TGF-ß1 in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). TGF-ß1 decreased the markers of VSMCs, but increased osteogenic markers and calcification in aortic segments. The phosphate-induced osteogenic markers were reduced by the TGFßR I inhibitor (LY364947), which also attenuated the potential of phosphate to reduce VSMC markers in VSMCs. Both phosphate and TGF-ß1 increased the protein level of ß-catenin, which was partially mitigated by LY364947. TGF-ß1 decreased sclerostin, and exogenous sclerostin decreased the mineralization induced by TGF-ß1. LY364947 reduced the phosphate and TGF-ß1 induced COX-2. Meanwhile, the effects of TGF-ß1 on osteogenic markers, ß-catenin, and sclerostin, were partially reversed by the COX-2 inhibitor. Mechanistically, we found that p-Smad2/3 and p-CREB were both enriched at the promoter regions of sclerostin and ß-catenin. TGF-ß1 and COX-2 were significantly elevated in serum and aorta of rats undergoing renal failure. Therapeutic administration of meloxicam effectively ameliorated the renal lesion. Our results suggested that COX-2 may mediate the effect of TGF-ß1 on vascular calcification through down-regulating sclerostin in VMSCs.

10.
Malar J ; 19(1): 409, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: According to China's Malaria Eradication Action Plan, malaria cases diagnosed and reported by health authorities at the county level must be further re-confirmed by provincial laboratories. The Yunnan Province Malaria Diagnostic Reference Laboratory (YPMDRL) began the synchronous implementation of microscopic examinations and nested polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR) testing to re-test the malaria cases initially diagnosed by county-level laboratories and to evaluate the consistency of Plasmodium species identified between by YPMDRL and by the county-level laboratories from 2013 to 2018 in Yunnan Province. METHODS: Data on malaria initial diagnosis completed by county-level laboratories in Yunnan Province were collected weekly from the "China Disease Prevention and Control Information System" from 2013 to 2018. The YPMDRL performed Plasmodium microscopic examination and 18S rRNA gene nested-PCR testing on every malaria case managed by the China Disease Prevention and Control Information System. The re-testing detection results were fed back to the initial diagnosis and reporting unit for revision of malaria case types. RESULTS: A total of 2,869 malaria cases were diagnosed and reported by county-level laboratories in Yunnan Province from 2013 to 2018. The re-testing rate was 95.6% (2,742/2,869), and the re-testing rate increased from 2013 to 2018. Among the re-tested 2,742 cases, 96.7% (2651/2742), 2.2% (59/2742), and 1.1% (32/2742) were doubly examined by microscopy and by nested-PCR, only by microscopy, and only by nested-PCR, respectively. The total Plasmodium species accuracy rate at county-level laboratories was 92.6% (2,543/2,742) reference to the diagnosis by YPMDRL. Among the inconsistent 199 cases, they were identified as including 103 negative cases, 45 falciparum malaria cases, 30 vivax malaria cases, 11 ovale malaria cases, and 10 malariae malaria cases by YPMDRL. From 2013 to 2018, the revised and registered malaria cases by the China Disease Prevention and Control Information System in Yunnan Province was 2,747 cases, including 2,305 vivax malaria cases, 421 falciparum malaria cases, 11 ovale malaria cases, and 10 malariae malaria cases. CONCLUSIONS: The double re-testing strategy by microscopy and by gene testing increases the accuracy of diagnoses malaria in Yunnan Province, and gene testing can reliably differentiate Plasmodium species. The re-testing results provided by YPMDRL are the authoritative basis for revising malaria kind in Yunnan Province.

11.
Chemosphere ; : 128856, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189401

RESUMO

Toxicological and epidemiologic evidence has suggested that exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) impairs semen quality, while the underlying biological mechanisms remain unclear. This study aimed to examine the mediating role of oxidative stress in association between DBP exposure and semen quality. We measured a urinary biomarker of DBP exposure [trichloroacetic acid (TCAA)] and three urinary biomarkers of oxidative stress [8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-isoPGF2α) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-mercapturic acid (HNE-MA)] among men from an infertility clinic (n = 299). The associations of oxidative stress biomarkers with urinary TCAA and semen quality were evaluated using multivariable linear regression models, and the mediating role of oxidative stress biomarkers was assessed by a mediation analysis. Urinary TCAA was positively associated with urinary 8-OHdG and 8-isoPGF2α in a dose-response manner (both P for trend < 0.001). Significantly inverse dose-response associations were observed between urinary 8-isoPGF2α and sperm concentration and between urinary 8-OHdG and sperm motility (both P for trend < 0.05). The mediation analysis indicated a significant indirect effect of urinary 8-isoPGF2α in the association between urinary TCAA and decreased sperm concentration (P = 0.01). Our results suggest that lipid peroxidation may be an intermediate mechanism by which DBP exposure impairs semen quality.

12.
J Biol Chem ; 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077519

RESUMO

Type I and III interferons (IFNs) induce expression of the "myxovirus resistance proteins" MxA in human cells and its ortholog Mx1 in murine cells. Human MxA forms cytoplasmic structures, while murine Mx1 forms nuclear bodies. While both HuMxA and MuMx1 are antiviral towards influenza A virus (FLUAV) (an orthomyxovirus), only HuMxA is considered antiviral towards vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) (a rhabdovirus). We previously reported that the cytoplasmic human GFP-MxA structures were phase-separated membraneless organelles (MLOs) ("biomolecular condensates"). In the present study we investigated whether nuclear murine Mx1 structures might also represent phase-separated biomolecular condensates. The transient expression of murine GFP-Mx1 in human Huh7 hepatoma, human Mich-2H6 melanoma and murine NIH 3T3 cells led to the appearance of Mx1 nuclear bodies. These GFP-MuMx1 nuclear bodies were rapidly disassembled by exposing cells to 1, 6-hexanediol (5% w/v), or to hypotonic buffer (40-50 mosM), consistent with properties of membraneless phase-separated condensates. FRAP assays revealed that the GFP-MuMx1 nuclear bodies upon photobleaching showed a slow partial recovery (mobile fraction: ~18%) suggestive of a gel-like consistency. Surprisingly, expression of GFP-MuMx1 in Huh7 cells also led to the appearance of GFP-MuMx1 in 20-30% of transfected cells in a novel cytoplasmic giantin-based intermediate filament meshwork and in cytoplasmic bodies. Remarkably, Huh7 cells with cytoplasmic murine GFP-MuMx1 filaments, but not those with only nuclear bodies, showed antiviral activity towards VSV. Thus, GFP-MuMx1 nuclear bodies comprised phase-separated condensates. Unexpectedly, GFP-MuMx1 in Huh7 cells also associated with cytoplasmic giantin-based intermediate filaments, and, such cells showed antiviral activity towards VSV.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998275

RESUMO

In this study soils at different depths were collected in a Zn smelting site located in Zhuzhou City, China, in order to understand toxic metal(loid)s distribution and microbial community in vertical soil profile at a smelting site. Except Soil properties and metal(loid)s content, the richness and diversity of microbial communities in soil samples were analyzed via high-throughput Illumina sequencing of 16s rRNA gene amplicons. The results showed that the content of As, Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn, and Mn was relatively high in top soil in comparison to subsoil, while the concentration of Cr in subsoil was comparable with that in top soil due to its relative high background value in this soil layer. The bioavailability of Cd, Mn, Zn, and Pb was relative higher than that of As, Cr, and Cu. The diversity of soil microbial communities decreased with increasing depth, which might be ascribed to the decrease in evenness with increase in depth duo to the influence by environmental conditions, such as pH, TK (total potassium), CEC (cation exchange capacity), ORP (oxidation reduction potential), and Bio-Cu (bioavailable copper). The results also found Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Chloroflexi were dominant phyla in soil samples. At the genus level, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, and Gp7 were dominant soil microorganism. Besides, Environmental factors, such as SOM (soil organic matter), pH, Bio-Cu, Bio-Cd (bioavailable cadmium), and Bio-Pb (bioavailable lead), greatly impacted microbial community in surface soil (1-3 m), while ORP, TK, and AN concentration influenced microbial community in the subsoil (4-10 m).

14.
Poult Sci ; 99(10): 4832-4844, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988520

RESUMO

Rearing system is a critical nongenetic factor influencing meat quality of ducks. In this study, a total of 360 birds were randomly allocated into floor rearing system (FRS) and net rearing system (NRS) to compare their effects on intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition, fatty acid composition, and related gene expression in muscles of Nonghua ducks. Sawdust bedding and stainless mesh bed were equipped in FRS and NRS, respectively. At the eighth week (8w) and 13th week (13w), the breast and thigh muscles of ducks were collected to determine the profiles of lipids composition and the expressions of lipid metabolism-related genes. The IMF content was higher in 13w-FRS than 8w-FRS and 8w-NRS in breast muscle, whereas it was higher in 13w-NRS than other groups in thigh muscle (P < 0.05). C16:1, C20:5(n-3) of muscles were higher in 8w-NRS than 8w-FRS, whereas C18:1(n-9)c, C18:2(n-6)c, Æ© monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), and Æ©MUFA/Æ©saturated fatty acid (SFA) ratio of muscles were higher in 13w-NRS than 8w-FRS and 8w-NRS (P < 0.05). C22:6(n-3), C20:4(n-6) of breast muscle and C20:3(n-6) of thigh muscle were higher in 13w-NRS than 13w-FRS (P < 0.05). Fatty acids variation was studied by principal component analysis, exhibiting extensive positive loadings on principal components. SREBP1, ACADL, and FABP3 were downregulated in breast muscle, whereas PPARα and ELOVL5 were upregulated in thigh muscle of NRS ducks at 13w. Principal components were extensively correlated with lipids composition parameters, and principal components of breast muscle 1 and principal components of thigh muscle 1 were correlated with SREBP1 and PPARα, respectively (P < 0.05). In conclusion, with increasing age, FRS enhanced IMF deposition in breast muscle, and the same promotion in thigh muscle was because of NRS. The variation of fatty acids in muscles was uniform, and the change of single fatty acid was unable to distinguish NRS and FRS. However, as NRS downregulated SREBP1, ACADL and FABP3 in breast muscle and upregulated PPARα and ELOVL5 in thigh muscle, NRS could improve nutrient value and meat quality by increasing Æ©MUFA, Æ©MUFA/Æ©SFA ratio, and important PUFA levels. Therefore, NRS was more recommended than FRS for Nonghua ducks during week 8 to 13 posthatching.

15.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 16(4): 548-552, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970986

RESUMO

As an emerging two-dimensional layered material, black phosphorus nanosheets show unparalleled optical and electronic properties. Although black phosphorus nanosheets have attracted much attention in the photoelectric field, their applications in biomedical field were still limited due to their poor biocompatibility of current synthesis strategies. Herein, we propose a novel synthetic strategy for black phosphorus nanosheets that rely on Tween 20-assisted liquid exfoliation and post-processing in deoxygenated water. Microscopic and spectroscopic analysis suggested that the produced black phosphorus nanosheets dispersions exhibited good stability and higher yield compared with other currently prepared methods. Because of their ultrahigh exfoliation efficiency, the black phosphorus flakes present few-layer and even monolayer, which are thinner than the most dispersions of black phosphorus. Thus, this method enables mass-production of high-quality few-layer black phosphorus with high biocompatibility, and has the potential to be directly used in the biological field.


Assuntos
Fósforo , Nanoestruturas , Água
16.
Chin J Integr Med ; 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915426

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of Chinese medicine Dingkun Pill () alone or in combination with Diane-35 on patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS: This is a prospective randomized controlled trial conducted at Peking Union Medical College Hospital Beijing, China, from December 2016 to September 2017. Totally 117 PCOS patients were randomly assigned to the Dingkun Pill group (38 cases), Diane-35 group (40 cases), or combined group (39 cases). Patients in the Dingkun Pill group or Diane-35 group took daily 7 g of oral Dingkun Pill or 1 tablet of oral Diane-35, respectively, for 21 consecutive days followed by 7 drug-free days. And the combined group received a combination of Dingkun Pill and Diane-35. The treatment course was 3 months. Fasting plasma glucose and insulin, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), free fatty acids (FFA) and sex hormones were analyzed, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) was calculated, and menstruation and acne scores were recorded at baseline and after 3-month treatment. RESULTS: Compared with before treatment, QUICKI decreased significantly in the Dingkun Pill and combined groups after 3-month treatment (P<0.05); TC, LDL-C and FFA decreased significantly in the Dingkun Pill group (P<0.01), LDL-C also decreased obviously in the Diane-35 group (P<0.01), while TC increased significantly in the combined group (P<0.01), TG increased significantly in all groups (P<0.01); total testosterone (TT) and menstruation regularity was improved significantly in the Diane-35 and combined groups (P<0.01); acne scores were improved in all groups (P<0.01). After treatment, TC and FFA in the Dingkun Pill group were significantly lower than the Diane-35 group (P<0.05 or P<0.01); TT was lower and regular menstruation rate was higher in the Diane-35 and combined groups than the Dingkun Pill group (P<0.01), and no differences were observed between Diane-35 group and combined group (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Dingkun Pill showed better effects than Diane-35 in improving insulin sensitivity, lowering TC and FFA. Diane-35 was more efficient in regulating menstruation and lowering androgen than Dingkun Pill. Combination of Dingkun Pill and Diane-35 may be a better choice to regulate menstruation, lower androgens while improve glucose metabolism in PCOS patients. (Registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, registration No. NCT03264638).

17.
Clin Nucl Med ; 45(11): 871-872, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969903

RESUMO

A 61-year-old woman diagnosed with left breast cancer underwent a bone scan for the evaluation of possible bone metastases. Multiple foci of elevated activity were noticed in the spine and pelvis. In addition, a focus of intense activity was observed in the right lung on the SPECT/CT images without corresponding anatomic abnormality.

18.
Nanoscale ; 12(38): 19689-19701, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966497

RESUMO

Precise discrimination of breast cancer remains a challenge in clinical medicine, which depends on the development of novel specific molecular probes. However, the current technologies and antibodies cannot achieve precise discrimination of breast cancer subtypes very well. To address this problem, a novel truncated DNA aptamer MF3Ec was developed in this work. Aptamer MF3Ec exhibited high specificity and binding affinity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells with a Kd value of 18.95 ± 2.9 nM which is four times lower than that of the original aptamer, and could work at 4 °C, 25 °C and 37 °C with no obvious differences. Besides, aptamer MF3Ec displayed better stability in serum samples with a long existence time of about 12 h. Moreover, fluorescence imaging experiments indicated that aptamer MF3Ec was able to distinguish MCF-7 breast cancer cells from SK-BR-3, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-10A breast cancer cell subtypes, and differentiate the tumor-bearing mice and xenografted tissue sections of MCF-7 breast cancer cells from those of MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells in vivo and in vitro, respectively. Finally, clinical experiments indicated that aptamer MF3Ec could distinguish Luminal A breast cancer subtype from Luminal B (HER2+), HER2-enriched, and triple-negative breast cancer subtypes, para-carcinoma tissues and normal breast tissues. Collectively, all these results suggest that aptamer MF3Ec is a promising probe for precise discrimination and targeted therapy of Luminal A breast cancer molecular subtype.

19.
Photochem Photobiol ; 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32875566

RESUMO

In this study, ocular biologically effective exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVBE) is investigated with six kinds of sun protective measures (spectacle lenses, sunglasses, cap, bonnet, straw hat and under parasol). Ocular UV exposure measurements were performed on manikins during the summer period in Shenyang city (41.64° N, 123.50° E, 66 m a.s.l.), China. The measurements include the ocular UV exposure of an unprotected eye and the ambient UV as a control concurrently. Based on the relative spectral weighting factors of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), the ocular biologically effective UV is calculated and compared with the 8-h exposure limits of ICNIRP (30 J m-2 ). The UV index (UVI) of the measurement days is 0-8, and the 8-h (8:00-16:00 China Standard Time, CST) cumulated UVBE of the unprotected eye is 452.0 J m-2 . The 8-h cumulated UVBE of the eye with spectacle lenses, sunglasses, cap, bonnet, straw hat and under parasol are 364.2, 69.1, 51.4, 49.0, 56.8 and 110.2 J m-2 , respectively. Importantly, it should be noted that the eye could be exposed to risk despite protective measures. The 8-h cumulated UVBE of the eye with protection is ca 1.6-15.1 times the exposure limit, respectively. As indicated in the present study, during summer months, high exposure to the sun for more than 30 min without eye protection and more than 1 h with eye protection is not advisable. The protection measures could effectively reduce the UVBE reaching the eye, yet there is still a high degree of risk when compared with the ICNIRP 8-h exposure limits.

20.
Ultraschall Med ; 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971542

RESUMO

Maternal oxygenation (MO) is widely applied in obstetrics. Scholars have conducted numerous studies on maternal hyperoxygenation and have reported many theoretical and applied achievements and a number of different points of view. The main purpose of this article is to discuss the effect of maternal oxygenation on fetal circulation during normal and complicated pregnancies and to ascertain its potential side effects and research gaps in this field. In complicated pregnancies, the fetus may benefit from oxygen therapy. However, large randomized controlled trials and longitudinal studies are necessary to support the widespread application of maternal oxygenation in this context.

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