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1.
Dalton Trans ; 52(42): 15549-15561, 2023 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37753593

RESUMO

A series of coinage metal complexes bearing rarely explored ortho-silylated phosphine is reported. The treatment of diphenyl(2-(trimethylsilyl)phenyl)phosphine (1) with CuCl and [Cu(CH3CN)4]BF4 furnished the corresponding neutral [(1)CuCl]2 (2) and mono-cationic [(1)2Cu(CH3CN)]BF4 (3) complexes, respectively. The reactions of 1 with AgX (X = BF4-, NO3-) in 2 : 1 ratio furnished the corresponding mono cationic dicoordinate silver(I) complexes of the type [(1)2Ag]X (X = BF4- (4a), NO3- (4b)). The ortho-silylated phosphine ligand (1) was conveniently converted into the corresponding sulfide (5a) and selenide (5b) species, and their reactions with [Cu(CH3CN)4]BF4 yielded mono-cationic, homoleptic tris(silylphosphinochalcogenide)copper(I) complexes of the type [(5a/5b)3Cu]BF4 (6a/6b). The molecular structures of 2-4 and 6 were established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The copper complexes 2, 3, and 6a were employed as catalysts in azide-alkyne cycloaddition reactions. Among these complexes, 3 was extensively used in the preparation of various mono- and bis-triazoles consisting of tolyl, benzyl, carbazolyl, and propargylic ether groups. Three sets of substituted triazole derivatives were achieved under mild conditions by employing copper(I) catalytic systems. The mechanistic studies indicated the formation of a heteroleptic copper(I) triazolide intermediate which was detected by high-resolution mass spectral analysis.

2.
Dalton Trans ; 52(44): 16151-16158, 2023 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37603440

RESUMO

Two novel dicationic binuclear Cu(I) complexes of the type [{(BPPP)E2}Cu]2[BF4]2 (E = S (3a); Se (3b)) bearing (BPPP)E2 (BPPP = bis(diphenylphosphino)pyridine) pincer systems were isolated, and structurally characterized. The solid-state structures of 3a/3b display the presence of intermolecular cuprophilic (Cu⋯Cu) interactions between the two monocationic species, and consist of weak Cu⋯S bonding between the two cations. Besides, complex 3a was introduced as a molecular copper(I) catalyst in cyclization reactions, and new protocols were developed for the synthesis of a series of new oxazole and triazole derivatives bearing alkyne-phenyl propargylic ether substituents. 3a was also found to be active in achieving these two classes of heterocyclic compounds by the mechanical grinding method. One of the key intermediate copper-azide species was detected by the high-resolution mass spectrometry technique, which supports the proposed catalytic pathway. All the reported transformations were accomplished sustainably by employing a well-defined, earth-abundant, and cheap copper(I) catalytic system.

3.
Chemistry ; 26(65): 14878-14887, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721063

RESUMO

Chloride abstraction from the complexes [(η6 -p-cymene){(IDipp)P}MCl] (2 a, M=Ru; 2 b, M=Os) and [(η5 -C5 Me5 ){(IDipp)P}IrCl] (3 b, IDipp=1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazolin-2-ylidene) with sodium tetrakis[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]borate (NaBArF ) in the presence of trimethylphosphine (PMe3 ), 1,3,4,5-tetramethylimidazolin-2-ylidene (Me IMe) or carbon monoxide (CO) afforded the complexes [(η6 -p-cymene){(IDipp)P}M(PMe3 )]BArF ] (4 a, M=Ru; 4 b, M=Os), [(η6 -p-cymene){(IDipp)P}Os(Me IMe)]BArF ] (5) and [(η5 -C5 Me5 ){(IDipp)P}IrL][BArF ] (6, L=PMe3 ; 7, L=Me IMe; 8, L=CO). These cationic N-heterocyclic carbene-phosphinidene complexes feature very similar structural and spectroscopic properties as prototypic nucleophilic arylphosphinidene complexes such as low-field 31 P NMR resonances and short metal-phosphorus double bonds. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal that the metal-phosphorus bond can be described in terms of an interaction between a triplet [(IDipp)P]+ cation and a triplet metal complex fragment ligand with highly covalent σ- and π-contributions. Crystals of the C-H activated complex 9 were isolated from solutions containing the PMe3 complex, and its formation can be rationalized by PMe3 dissociation and formation of a putative 16-electron intermediate [(η5 -C5 Me5 )Ir{P(IDipp)}I][BArF ], which undergoes C-H activation at one of the Dipp isopropyl groups and addition along the iridium-phosphorus bond to afford an unusual η3 -benzyl coordination mode.

4.
Chemistry ; 25(57): 13119-13123, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433085

RESUMO

Arsenic monophosphide (AsP) species supported by two different N-heterocyclic carbenes were prepared by reaction of (IDipp)PSiMe3 (1) (IDipp=1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazolin-2-ylidene) with (IMes)AsCl3 (2) (IMes=1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazolin-2-ylidene) to afford the dichloride [(IMes)As(Cl)P(IDipp)]Cl (3), which upon reduction with KC8 furnished heteroleptic [(IMes)AsP(IDipp)] (4). The corresponding mono- and dications [(IMes)AsP(IDipp)][PF6 ], [5]PF6 , and [(IMes)AsP(IDipp)][GaCl4 ]2, [6][GaCl4 ]2 , respectively, were prepared by one-electron oxidation of 4 with ferrocenium hexafluorophosphate, [Fc]PF6, or by chloride abstraction from 3 with two equivalents of GaCl3 , respectively. Compounds 4-6 represent rare examples of heterodiatiomic interpnictogen compounds, and X-ray crystal structure determinations together with density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal a consecutive shortening of the As-P bond lengths and increasing bond order, in agreement with the presence of an arsenic-phosphorus single bond in 4 and a double bond in 62+ . The EPR signal of the cationic radical [5]+. indicates a symmetric spin distribution on the AsP moiety through strong hyperfine coupling with the 75 As and 31 P nuclei.

5.
Chem Rev ; 119(12): 6994-7112, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30983327

RESUMO

N-Heterocyclic carbenes (NHC) are nowadays ubiquitous and indispensable in many research fields, and it is not possible to imagine modern transition metal and main group element chemistry without the plethora of available NHCs with tailor-made electronic and steric properties. While their suitability to act as strong ligands toward transition metals has led to numerous applications of NHC complexes in homogeneous catalysis, their strong σ-donating and adaptable π-accepting abilities have also contributed to an impressive vitalization of main group chemistry with the isolation and characterization of NHC adducts of almost any element. Formally, NHC coordination to Lewis acids affords a transfer of nucleophilicity from the carbene carbon atom to the attached exocyclic moiety, and low-valent and low-coordinate adducts of the p-block elements with available lone pairs and/or polarized carbon-element π-bonds are able to act themselves as Lewis basic donor ligands toward transition metals. Accordingly, the availability of a large number of novel NHC adducts has not only produced new varieties of already existing ligand classes but has also allowed establishment of numerous complexes with unusual and often unprecedented element-metal bonds. This review aims at summarizing this development comprehensively and covers the usage of N-heterocyclic carbene adducts of the p-block elements as ligands in transition metal chemistry.

6.
Dalton Trans ; 46(45): 15859-15864, 2017 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29114655

RESUMO

Heteroleptic N-heterocyclic dicarbene-diphosphorus species were prepared by reaction of the carbene-phosphinidene adduct (IPr)PSiMe3 (1, IPr = 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazolin-2-ylidene) with the carbene-phosphorus trichloride adduct (IMes)PCl3 (2, IMes = 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazolin-2-ylidene), which furnished the dichloride [(IPr)PPCl(IMes)]Cl (3). Reduction of 3 with potassium graphite (KC8) afforded [(IPr)PP(IMes)] (4). The corresponding radical cation [(IPr)PP(IMes)]˙+ (5˙+) is isolated as [5]PF6 by reaction of 4 with ferrocenium hexafluorophosphate, whereas complexes containing the corresponding dication [(IPr)PP(IMes)]2+ (62+) can be isolated as the gallate and borate salts [6](GaCl4)2 and [6](BArF)2 by chloride abstraction from 3 with GaCl3 or sodium tetrakis[bis(3,5-trifluoromethyl)phenyl]borate (NaBArF), respectively. The asymmetric set of N-heterocyclic carbene ligands allows to establish 1JPP coupling constants of 249 Hz for 4 and 543 Hz for [6](GaCl4)2. Based on X-ray diffraction analyses, the molecular structures of 4, 5˙+ and 62+ reveal a consecutive shortening of the P-P bond lengths, in agreement with the presence of a phosphorus-phosphorus single bond in 4 and a double bond in 62+, which is best described as a dicationic diphosphene according to density functional theory (DFT) calculations.

7.
Inorg Chem ; 56(17): 10785-10793, 2017 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28829597

RESUMO

Half-sandwich complexes of the N-heterocyclic carbene-phosphinidene adduct [(IPr)PH] (1, IPr = 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazolin-2-ylidene) were prepared by its reaction with dimeric complexes of the type [LMCl2]2, which afforded the three-legged piano-stool complexes [LMCl2{HP(IPr)}] (9a/9b: M = Ru/Os, L = η6-p-cymene; 10a/10b: M = Rh/Ir, L = η5-C5Me5). Their conversion into the corresponding carbene-phosphinidenide complexes [LMCl{P(IPr)}] (11a/11b: M = Ru/Os; 12a/12b: M = Rh/Ir) with a two-legged piano stool geometry was studied by NMR spectroscopy in the presence of the strong base 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU). Alternatively, the complexes 11 and 12 were isolated in high yields from the reactions of the carbene-phosphinidene adduct [(IPr)PTMS] (2) with [LMCl2]2, whereby formation of the metal-phosphorus bonds was accompanied by elimination of trimethylsilyl chloride (Me3SiCl). Theoretical calculations reveal a strong polarization of the phosphorus ligands upon metal complexation, which can be ascribed to the ability of the imidazole moiety to effectively stabilize a positive charge. Dehydrohalogenation of complexes 9/10 to 11/12 affords a significant increase of the metal-phosphorus bond order, with the carbene-phosphinidenide ligand acting as a strong 2σ,2π-electron donor.

8.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 53(45): 6069-6072, 2017 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28466884

RESUMO

N-Heterocyclic carbene adducts of the parent arsinidene (AsH) were prepared by two different synthetic routes, either by reaction of As(SiMe3)3 with 2,2-difluoroimidazolines followed by desilylation or by reaction of [Na(dioxane)3.31][AsCO] with imidazolium chlorides.

9.
Chemistry ; 21(45): 16178-89, 2015 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26365325

RESUMO

Coinage metal complexes of the N-heterocyclic carbene-phosphinidene adduct IPr⋅PPh (IPr=1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazolin-2-ylidene) were prepared by its reaction with CuCl, AgCl, and [(Me2 S)AuCl], which afforded the monometallic complexes [(IPr⋅PPh)MCl] (M=Cu, Ag, Au). The reaction with two equivalents of the metal halides gave bimetallic [(IPr⋅PPh)(MCl)2 ] (M=Cu, Au); the corresponding disilver complex could not be isolated. [(IPr⋅PPh)(CuOTf)2 ] was prepared by reaction with copper(I) trifluoromethanesulfonate. Treatment of [(IPr⋅PPh)(MCl)2 ] (M=Cu, Au) with Na(BAr(F) ) or AgSbF6 afforded the tetranuclear complexes [(IPr⋅PPh)2 M4 Cl2 ]X2 (X=BAr(F) or SbF6 ), which contain unusual eight-membered M4 Cl2 P2 rings with short cuprophilic or aurophilic contacts along the chlorine-bridged M⋅⋅⋅M axes. Complete chloride abstraction from [(IPr⋅PPh)(AuCl)2 ] was achieved with two equivalents of AgSbF6 in the presence of tetrahydrothiophene (THT) to form [(IPr⋅PPh){Au(THT)}2 ][SbF6 ]2 . The cationic tetra- and dinuclear complexes were used as catalysts for enyne cyclization and carbene transfer reactions.

10.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 53(49): 13568-72, 2014 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25287885

RESUMO

The N-heterocyclic carbene-phosphinidene adduct IPrPSiMe3 is introduced as a synthon for the preparation of terminal carbene-phosphinidyne transition metal complexes of the type [(IPrP)MLn ] (MLn =(η(6) -p-cymene)RuCl) and (η(5) -C5 Me5 )RhCl). Their spectroscopic and structural characteristics, namely low-field (31) P NMR chemical shifts and short metal-phosphorus bonds, show their similarity with arylphosphinidene complexes. The formally mononegative IPrP ligand is also capable of bridging two or three metal atoms as demonstrated by the preparation of bi- and trimetallic RuAu, RhAu, Rh2 , and Rh2 Au complexes.

11.
Nanoscale ; 6(10): 5532-44, 2014 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24733576

RESUMO

Efforts to replace noble-metal catalysts by low-cost alternatives are of constant interest. The organometallic, non-aqueous wet-chemical synthesis of various hitherto unknown nanocrystalline Ni/Ga intermetallic materials and the use of NiGa for the selective semihydrogenation of alkynes to alkenes are reported. Thermal co-hydrogenolysis of the all-hydrocarbon precursors [Ni(COD)2] (COD = 1,5-cyclooctadiene) and GaCp* (Cp* = pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) in high-boiling organic solvents mesitylene and n-decane in molar ratios of 1 : 1, 2 : 3 and 3 : 1 yields the nano-crystalline powder materials of the over-all compositions NiGa, Ni2Ga3 and Ni3Ga, respectively. Microwave induced co-pyrolysis of the same precursors without additional hydrogen in the ionic liquid [BMIm][BF4] (BMIm = 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium) selectively yields the intermetallic phases NiGa and Ni3Ga from the respective 1 : 1 and 3 : 1 molar ratios of the precursors. The obtained materials are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), IR, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The single-source precursor [Ni(GaCp*)(PMe3)3] with a fixed Ni : Ga stoichiometry of 1 : 1 was employed as well. In comparison with the co-hydrogenolytic dual precursor source approach it turned out to be less practical due to inefficient nickel incorporation caused by the parasitic formation of stable [Ni(PMe3)4]. The use of ionic liquid [BMIm][BF4] as a non-conventional solvent to control the reaction and stabilize the nanoparticles proved to be particularly advantageous and stable colloids of the nanoalloys NiGa and Ni3Ga were obtained. A phase-selective Ni/Ga colloid synthesis in conventional solvents and in the presence of surfactants such as hexadecylamine (HDA) was not feasible due to the undesired reactivity of HDA with GaCp* leading to inefficient gallium incorporation. Recyclable NiGa nanoparticles selectively semihydrogenate 1-octyne and diphenylacetylene (tolan) to 1-octene and diphenylethylene, respectively, with a yield of about 90% and selectivities of up to 94 and 87%. Ni-NPs yield alkanes with a selectivity of 97 or 78%, respectively, under the same conditions.

12.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 52(1): 450-4, 2013 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23169591

RESUMO

Much π and no σ: quantum chemical calculations showed that the Ge atoms of the Ga(2)Ge(2) core in Ge(2)[Ga(DPP)](2) are not bonded by σ interactions, but rather by a transannular π interaction. The compound is formed by reduction of (PCy(3))⋅GeCl(2) with Ga(DDP)/KC(8) which also yielded a further product Ge(4)[Ga(DPP)](2) with a Ge(4) tetrahedron (DDP=HC(CMeNC(6)H(3)-2,6-iPr(2))(2)).

13.
Inorg Chem ; 49(17): 7976-80, 2010 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20704355

RESUMO

Activation of white phosphorus with Ga(DDP) (DDP = 2-diiso-propylphenylamino-4-diiso-propylphenylimino-2-pentene) afforded [(DDP)Ga(P(4))] (1) by insertion of the Ga(I) center at one of the six P-P bonded edges of the P(4) tetrahedron. Further reaction of 1 with three equivalents of Mo(CO)(6) results in the formation of [(DDP)Ga(eta(2:1:1)-P(4)){Mo(CO)(5)}(2)] x 2 toluene (2). Compounds 1 and 2 are characterized by (1)H, (13)C, and (31)P NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and single crystal X-ray structural analysis. The solid-state structure of molecule 1 reveals the first example of a structurally characterized GaP(4) core stabilized by a beta-diketiminate ligand. Compound 2 represents a rare type of coordination mode of a gallium supported P(4) butterfly structure.

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