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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(5): e2410421, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38739392

RESUMO

Importance: Patients with head and neck cancer who undergo radiotherapy can develop chronic radiation-induced xerostomia. Prior acupuncture studies were single center and rated as having high risk of bias, making it difficult to know the benefits of acupuncture for treating radiation-induced xerostomia. Objective: To compare true acupuncture (TA), sham acupuncture (SA), and standard oral hygiene (SOH) for treating radiation-induced xerostomia. Design, Setting, and Participants: A randomized, blinded, 3-arm, placebo-controlled trial was conducted between July 29, 2013, and June 9, 2021. Data analysis was performed from March 9, 2022, through May 17, 2023. Patients reporting grade 2 or 3 radiation-induced xerostomia 12 months or more postradiotherapy for head and neck cancer were recruited from community-based cancer centers across the US that were part of the Wake Forest National Cancer Institute Community Oncology Research Program Research Base. Participants had received bilateral radiotherapy with no history of xerostomia. Interventions: Participants received SOH and were randomized to TA, SA, or SOH only. Participants in the TA and SA cohorts were treated 2 times per week for 4 weeks. Those experiencing a minor response received another 4 weeks of treatment. Main Outcomes and Measures: Patient-reported outcomes for xerostomia (Xerostomia Questionnaire, primary outcome) and quality of life (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General) were collected at baseline, 4 (primary time point), 8, 12, and 26 weeks. All analyses were intention to treat. Results: A total of 258 patients (201 men [77.9%]; mean [SD] age, 65.0 [9.16] years), participated from 33 sites across 13 states. Overall, 86 patients were assigned to each study arm. Mean (SD) years from diagnosis was 4.21 (3.74) years, 67.1% (n = 173) had stage IV disease. At week 4, Xerostomia Questionnaire scores revealed significant between-group differences, with lower Xerostomia Questionnaire scores with TA vs SOH (TA: 50.6; SOH: 57.3; difference, -6.67; 95% CI, -11.08 to -2.27; P = .003), and differences between TA and SA (TA: 50.6; SA: 55.0; difference, -4.41; 95% CI, -8.62 to -0.19; P = .04) yet did not reach statistical significance after adjustment for multiple comparisons. There was no significant difference between SA and SOH. Group differences in Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General scores revealed statistically significant group differences at week 4, with higher scores with TA vs SOH (TA: 101.6; SOH: 97.7; difference, 3.91; 95% CI, 1.43-6.38; P = .002) and at week 12, with higher scores with TA vs SA (TA: 102.1; SA: 98.4; difference, 3.64; 95% CI, 1.10-6.18; P = .005) and TA vs SOH (TA: 102.1; SOH: 97.4; difference, 4.61; 95% CI, 1.99-7.23; P = .001). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this trial suggest that TA was more effective in treating chronic radiation-induced xerostomia 1 or more years after the end of radiotherapy than SA or SOH. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02589938.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Lesões por Radiação , Xerostomia , Humanos , Xerostomia/etiologia , Xerostomia/terapia , Masculino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Lesões por Radiação/terapia , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos
2.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2301100, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709986

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To test efficacy of donepezil, a cognitive enhancer, to improve memory in breast cancer survivors who report cancer-related cognitive impairment 1-5 years postchemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Adult female BCS exposed to ≥4 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy 1-5 years before enrollment who reported cancer-related cognitive impairment were eligible. Participants, enrolled at sites affiliated with the Wake Forest NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) Research Base, were randomly assigned to receive 5 mg of donepezil once daily for 6 weeks titrated to 10 mg once daily for 18 weeks or placebo. Cognition and self-report cognitive functioning was assessed at baseline, 12, 24 (end of intervention), and 36 (washout) weeks postrandomization. Mixed-effects repeated measures analysis of covariance models were used to assess treatment differences in immediate recall (primary outcome) on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R) and other cognitive domains (secondary outcomes) with covariates of treatment, time, time by treatment interaction, baseline outcome level, age stratification, and an unstructured covariance matrix to account for within participant correlation over time. RESULTS: Two hundred seventy-six BCS from 87 NCORP practices (mean age, 57.1, standard deviation [SD], 10.5) who were at a mean of 29.6 months (SD, 14.2) postchemotherapy were randomly assigned to donepezil (n = 140) or placebo (n = 136). At 24 weeks, treatment groups did not differ on HVLT-R scores (donepezil mean = 25.98, placebo = 26.50, P = .32). There were no statistically significant differences between treatments at 12, 24, or 36 weeks for attention, executive function, verbal fluency, processing speed, or self-reported cognitive functioning. Endocrine therapy and menopausal status did not affect results. CONCLUSION: BCS 1-5 years after completing chemotherapy with documented memory problems, randomly assigned to 24 weeks of 5-10 mg of donepezil once daily, did not perform differently at the end of treatment on tests of memory, other cognitive functions, or subjective functioning than those randomly assigned to placebo.

3.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 2024 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38676669

RESUMO

Social determinants of health and unmet social needs are directly related to cancer outcomes, from diagnosis to survivorship. If identified, unmet social needs can be addressed in oncology care by changing care plans in collaboration with patients' preferences and accounting for clinical practice guidelines (eg, reducing the frequency of appointments, switching treatment modalities) and connecting patients to resources within healthcare organizations (eg, social work support, patient navigation), and with community organizations (eg, food banks, housing assistance programs). Screening for social needs is the first step to identifying those who need additional support and is increasingly recognized as a necessary component of high-quality cancer care delivery. Despite evidence about the relationship between social needs and cancer outcomes and the abundance of screening tools, the implementation of social needs screening remains a challenge and little is known regarding the adoption, reach, and sustainability of social needs screening in routine clinical practice. We present data on the adoption and implementation of social needs screening at two large academic cancer centers and discuss three challenges associated with implementing evidence-based social needs screening in clinical practice: (1) identifying an optimal approach for administering social needs screening in oncology care, (2) adequately addressing identified unmet needs with resources and support, and (3) coordinating social needs screening between oncology and primary care.

4.
Ethn Health ; 29(3): 309-327, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317577

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To solicit information/suggestions from prostate cancer survivors to improve survivorship experiences specific to work/workability. DESIGN: The study employed a qualitative/phenomenological approach. Black/African-American and white prostate cancer survivors who: (1) had prostatectomy or radiation therapy 6-36 months prior, (2) were working for pay within 30 days before having treatment, and (3) expected to be working for pay 6 months later (n = 45) were eligible for this study. Survivors were engaged in 60-to-90-minute structured interviews. Content analysis was used to ascertain prominent themes. RESULTS: Participants had the following recommendations for survivors: ask about research on treatment options and side effects; speak with other survivors about cancer diagnosis; and inform family/friends and employers about needed accommodations. Considerations for family/friends emphasized the significance of instrumental (e.g. help finding information) and emotional support (e.g. encouragement). Employer/co-worker considerations most often related to work-related accommodations/support and avoiding stigmatization of the survivor. Considerations for healthcare providers commonly included the provision of unbiased, plain-language communication about treatment options and side effects. No major differences existed by race. CONCLUSIONS: Needs of employed PrCA survivors, regardless of their race or treatment type, are commonly related to their desire for informational, instrumental, and/or emotional support from family/friends, employers/co-workers, and healthcare providers. The requested supports are most often related to the side effects of prostate cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Neoplasias da Próstata , Humanos , Masculino , Negro ou Afro-Americano , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Sobrevivência , Brancos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38394227

RESUMO

Background: Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) commonly receive cancer care in the community setting, but the availability of treatment options, resources, and support services for this population is not well known. The National Cancer Institute Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) funds a network of practices whose mission is to increase access to cancer care and clinical trials in the community setting. We describe our interdisciplinary methodological approach to identify and characterize NCORP practices where AYAs receive cancer care. Methods: NCORP practices completed a cross-sectional Landscape Assessment to describe resources and practice characteristics. We established an interdisciplinary team of stakeholders to analyze the Landscape Assessment data relating to AYAs. Through an iterative process, we assessed NCORP practice responses to questions assessing AYA cancer care capacity, determined a threshold to define practices treating AYAs, and characterized these practices. Results: We determined that practices provide cancer care to AYAs if the following criteria were met: (1) endorsed having an AYA program (n = 20), (2) AYAs comprised ≥5% of annual cancer cases (n = 55), or (3) the practice treated ≥50 AYA cancer cases annually (n = 70). Of 271 NCORP practices, 100 (37%) met any criteria, whereas 87 (32%) did not; 84 (31%) could not be classified due to missing or unknown data. Conclusion: Using an interdisciplinary process, we define practices that treat AYAs in the community. We posit a uniform approach to examine resources and practice capacity for AYAs receiving cancer care across the United States to guide future AYA-focused cancer care delivery research development.

6.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 20(2): 239-246, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38175992

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Oncology advanced practice providers (APPs), including nurse practitioners, clinical nurse specialists, physician assistants, and clinical pharmacists, contribute significantly to quality cancer care. Understanding the research-related roles of APPs in the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) could lead to enhanced protocol development, trial conduct, and accrual. METHODS: The 2022 NCORP Landscape Assessment Survey asked two questions about the utilization and roles of APPs in the NCORP. RESULTS: A total of 271 practice groups completed the 2022 survey, with a response rate of 90%. Of the 259 nonpediatric exclusive practice groups analyzed in this study, 92% used APPs for clinical care activities and 73% used APPs for research activities. APPs most often provided clinical care for patients enrolled in trials (97%), followed by assistance with coordination (65%), presenting/explaining clinical trials (59%), screening patients (49%), ordering investigational drugs (37%), and consenting participants (24%). Some groups reported APPs as an enrolling investigator (18%) and/or participating in institutional oversight/selection of trials (15%). Only 5% of NCORP sites reported APPs as a site primary investigator for trials, and very few (3%) reported APPs participating in protocol development. CONCLUSION: Practice groups report involving APPs in clinical research within the NCORP network; however, opportunities for growth exists. As team-based care has enhanced clinical practice in oncology, this same approach can be used to enhance successful research. Suggested strategies include supporting APP research-related time, recognition, and education. The findings of this survey and subsequent recommendations may be applied to all adult oncology practices that participate in clinical research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Profissionais de Enfermagem , Adulto , Estados Unidos , Humanos , National Cancer Institute (U.S.) , Neoplasias/terapia , Oncologia , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde
7.
BMC Cancer ; 24(1): 158, 2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38297229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend cardiovascular risk assessment and counseling for cancer survivors. For effective implementation, it is critical to understand survivor cardiovascular health (CVH) profiles and perspectives in community settings. We aimed to (1) Assess survivor CVH profiles, (2) compare self-reported and EHR-based categorization of CVH factors, and (3) describe perceptions regarding addressing CVH during oncology encounters. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis utilized data from an ongoing NCI Community Oncology Research Program trial of an EHR heart health tool for cancer survivors (WF-1804CD). Survivors presenting for routine care after potentially curative treatment recruited from 8 oncology practices completed a pre-visit survey, including American Heart Association Simple 7 CVH factors (classified as ideal, intermediate, or poor). Medical record abstraction ascertained CVD risk factors and cancer characteristics. Likert-type questions assessed desired discussion during oncology care. RESULTS: Of 502 enrolled survivors (95.6% female; mean time since diagnosis = 4.2 years), most had breast cancer (79.7%). Many survivors had common cardiovascular comorbidities, including high cholesterol (48.3%), hypertension or high BP (47.8%) obesity (33.1%), and diabetes (20.5%); 30.5% of survivors received high cardiotoxicity potential cancer treatment. Less than half had ideal/non-missing levels for physical activity (48.0%), BMI (18.9%), cholesterol (17.9%), blood pressure (14.1%), healthy diet (11.0%), and glucose/ HbA1c (6.0%). While > 50% of survivors had concordant EHR-self-report categorization for smoking, BMI, and blood pressure; cholesterol, glucose, and A1C were unknown by survivors and/or missing in the EHR for most. Most survivors agreed oncology providers should talk about heart health (78.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Tools to promote CVH discussion can fill gaps in CVH knowledge and are likely to be well-received by survivors in community settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03935282, Registered 10/01/2020.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Colesterol , Estudos Transversais , Seguimentos , Glucose , Nível de Saúde , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Sobreviventes , Estados Unidos , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto
8.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 8(1)2024 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38268476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: National cancer organizations recommend provision of nutrition, physical activity, and mental health supportive services to cancer survivors. However, the availability of these services across diverse community oncology settings remains unclear. METHODS: The National Cancer Institute Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) is a national network of community oncology practices engaged in cancer research. The 2022 NCORP Landscape Assessment (5UG1CA189824) assessed individual practices' establishment of survivorship clinics and nutrition, physical activity, and mental health services, resources, and/or referrals. Descriptive statistics summarized and logistic regression quantified the association between services, practice, and patient characteristics. RESULTS: Of 46 NCORP community sites, 45 (98%) responded to the survey, representing 259 adult practice groups. A total of 41% had a survivorship clinic; 96% offered mental health, 94% nutrition, and 53% physical activity services, resources, and/or referrals. All 3 services were offered in various formats (eg, in-house, referrals, education) by 51% and in-house only by 25% of practices. Practices with advanced practice providers were more likely to have a survivorship clinic (odds ratio [OR] = 3.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04 to 9.76). Practices with at least 30% Medicare patients (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.39 to 4.66) and more oncology providers (OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.04) were more likely to have all 3 services in any format. Practices with at least 30% Medicare patients (OR = 3.41, 95% CI = 1.50 to 7.77) and a survivorship clinic (OR = 2.84, 95% CI = 1.57 to 5.14) were more likely to have all 3 services in-house. CONCLUSIONS: Larger oncology practices and those caring for more survivors on Medicare provided more supportive services, resources, and/or referrals. Smaller practices and those without survivorship clinics may need strategies to address potential gaps in supportive services.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Neoplasias , Idoso , Adulto , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , National Cancer Institute (U.S.) , Medicare , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Oncologia
9.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 116(2): 324-333, 2024 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37738445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite their vital roles, informal caregivers of adult cancer patients are commonly overlooked in cancer care. This study describes processes for identifying cancer caregivers and processes for distress screening and management among caregivers and patients in the understudied community oncology setting. METHODS: Supportive care leaders from the National Cancer Institute Community Oncology Research Program practices completed online survey questions regarding caregiver identification, caregiver and patient distress screening, and distress management strategies. We described practice group characteristics and prevalence of study outcomes. Multivariable logistic regression explored associations between practice group characteristics and caregiver identification in the electronic health record (EHR). RESULTS: Most (64.9%, 72 of 111) supportive care leaders reported routine identification and documentation of informal caregivers; 63.8% record this information in the EHR. Only 16% routinely screen caregivers for distress, though 92.5% screen patients. Distress management strategies for caregivers and patients are widely available, yet only 12.6% are routinely identified and screened and had at least 1 referral strategy for caregivers with distress; 90.6% are routinely screened and had at least 1 referral strategy for patients. Practices with a free-standing outpatient clinic (odds ratio [OR] = 0.29, P = .0106) and academic affiliation (OR = 0.01, P = .04) were less likely to identify and document caregivers in the EHR. However, higher oncologist volume was associated with an increased likelihood of recording caregiver information in the EHR (OR = 1.04, P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: Despite high levels of patient distress screening and management, few practices provide comprehensive caregiver engagement practices. Existing patient engagement protocols may provide a promising platform to build capacity to better address caregiver needs.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Neoplasias , Adulto , Humanos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 12(17): e031182, 2023 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37642035

RESUMO

Background Overweight and obesity are associated with adverse functional outcomes in people with peripheral artery disease (PAD). The effects of weight loss in people with overweight/obesity and PAD are unknown. Methods The PROVE (Promote Weight Loss in Obese PAD Patients to Prevent Mobility Loss) Trial is a multicentered randomized clinical trial with the primary aim of testing whether a behavioral intervention designed to help participants with PAD lose weight and walk for exercise improves 6-minute walk distance at 12-month follow-up, compared with walking exercise alone. A total of 212 participants with PAD and body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 will be randomized. Interventions are delivered using a Group Mediated Cognitive Behavioral intervention model, a smartphone application, and individual telephone coaching. The primary outcome is 12-month change in 6-minute walk distance. Secondary outcomes include total minutes of walking exercise/wk at 12-month follow-up and 12-month change in accelerometer-measured physical activity, the Walking Impairment Questionnaire distance score, and the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System mobility questionnaire. Tertiary outcomes include 12-month changes in perceived exertional effort at the end of the 6-minute walk, diet quality, and the Short Physical Performance Battery. Exploratory outcomes include changes in gastrocnemius muscle biopsy measures of mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase activity, mitochondrial biogenesis, capillary density, and inflammatory markers. Conclusions The PROVE randomized clinical trial will evaluate the effects of exercise with an intervention of coaching and a smartphone application designed to achieve weight loss, compared with exercise alone, on walking performance in people with PAD and overweight/obesity. Results will inform optimal treatment for the growing number of patients with PAD who have overweight/obesity. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT04228978.


Assuntos
Obesidade , Doença Arterial Periférica , Programas de Redução de Peso , Humanos , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/terapia , Doença Arterial Periférica/complicações , Doença Arterial Periférica/terapia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Terapia por Exercício , Caminhada , Seguimentos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Gynecol Oncol ; 174: 208-212, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37224793

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Despite considerable burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD), data on endometrial cancer survivors' CVD perceptions are lacking. We assessed survivors' perspectives on addressing CVD risk during oncology care. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis utilized data from an ongoing trial of an EHR heart health tool (R01CA226078 & UG1CA189824) conducted through the NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP, WF-1804CD). Endometrial cancer survivors post-potentially curative treatment were recruited from community practices and completed a pre-visit baseline survey, including American Heart Association Simple 7 CVD factors. Likert-type questions assessed confidence in understanding CVD risk, CVD risk perception, and desired discussion during oncology care. Medical record abstraction ascertained data on CVD and cancer characteristics. RESULTS: Survivors (N = 55, median age = 62; 62% 0-2 years post-diagnosis) were predominately white, non-Hispanic (87%). Most agreed/strongly agreed heart disease poses a risk to their health (87%) and oncology providers should talk to patients about heart health (76%). Few survivors reported smoking (12%) but many had poor/intermediate values for blood pressure (95%), body mass index (93%), fasting glucose/A1c (60%), diet (60%), exercise (47%) and total cholesterol (53%). 16% had not seen a PCP in the last year; these survivors were more likely to report financial hardship (22% vs 0%; p = 0.02). Most reported readiness to take steps to maintain or improve heart health (84%). CONCLUSIONS: Discussions of CVD risk during routine oncology care are likely to be well received by endometrial cancer survivors. Strategies are needed to implement CVD risk assessment guidelines and to enhance communication and referrals with primary care. Clinical Trials #: NCT03935282.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Neoplasias do Endométrio , Neoplasias , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/terapia , Neoplasias/terapia , Sobreviventes
12.
Cancer Med ; 12(11): 12847-12860, 2023 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37096778

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Initial cancer survivorship care planning efforts focused on information sharing demonstrated limited impact on patient health outcomes. We designed the Shared Healthcare Actions & Reflections Electronic Systems in survivorship (SHARE-S) program to enhance survivorship guideline implementation by transitioning some effort from clinicians to technology and patients through supporting health self-management (e.g., healthy lifestyles). METHODS: We conducted a single-group hybrid implementation-effectiveness pilot study. SHARE-S incorporated three strategies: (1) e-referral from the clinical team for patient engagement, (2) three health self-management coach calls, and (3) text messages to enhance coaching. Our primary implementation measure was the proportion of patients e-referred who enrolled (target >30%). Secondary implementation measures assessed patient engagement. We also measured effectiveness by describing changes in patient health outcomes. RESULTS: Of the 118 cancer survivor patients e-referred, 40 engaged in SHARE-S (proportion enrolled = 34%). Participants had a mean age of 57.4 years (SD = 15.7), 73% were female, 23% were Black/African American, and 5 (12.5%) were from a rural location. Patient-level adherence to coach calls was >90%. Changes from baseline to follow-up showed at least a small effect (Cohen's d = 0.2) for improvements in: mindful attention, alcohol use, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, days of mindfulness practice, depressive symptoms, ability to participate in social roles and activities, cancer-specific quality of life, benefits of having cancer, and positive feelings. CONCLUSION: The SHARE-S program successfully engaged cancer survivor patients. Once enrolled, patients showed promising improvements in health outcomes. Supporting patient self-management is an important component of optimizing delivery of cancer survivorship care.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Sobrevivência , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias/terapia , Participação do Paciente
13.
Integr Cancer Ther ; 22: 15347354231164406, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37029555

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Anxiety and dyspnea are 2 common symptoms for lung cancer survivors. Although research suggests decreasing respiration rate can reduce anxiety in several populations, potential benefits of device-guided breathing have not been studied in lung cancer survivors. This feasibility study (WF-01213) provides estimates of accrual, adherence, retention, and preliminary efficacy of 2 doses of a device-guided breathing intervention versus a usual breathing control group for improving self-reported anxiety and dyspnea in post-treatment lung cancer survivors. METHODS: Stage I-IV lung cancer survivors were recruited through the NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) and randomized to 12 weeks of a device-guided breathing intervention (high dose vs. low dose) or control device. Self-reported outcomes (anxiety, depression, dyspnea, cancer-related worry, fatigue) were assessed at baseline, mid-intervention (Week-6), and post-intervention (Week-12). RESULTS: Forty-six participants (ages 41-77, median = 65; 78% White) were randomized to the high-dose intervention (n = 14), low-dose intervention (n = 14), or control (n = 18) groups between July 2015 and September 2019. Study accrual rate was 0.92 per month for 50 months (projected accrual was 6.3/month). Fourteen participants (30%) withdrew early from the study, with almost half of those discontinuing at or immediately following baseline assessment. No participants were adherent with the intervention per protocol specifications. The proportion minimally adherent (using device at least 1x/week) was 43% (6/14), 64% (9/14), and 61% (11/18) for high-dose, low-dose, and control groups, respectively. Anxiety significantly decreased from baseline for all groups at Week 12. Adherence to the intervention was low across all treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study did not establish feasibility of a community-based randomized trial of 2 doses of device-guided breathing and a control group using an identical-looking device for lung cancer survivors. In both the high-dose and control groups, there were significant improvements from baseline for anxiety and dyspnea. In the low-dose group, there were significant improvements from baseline for anxiety and depression. Ratings and feedback on the intervention were mixed (although leaned in a positive direction). Participants reported liking the feeling of relaxation/calm, helping others, breathing awareness, and music. Participants reporting liking least finding/making time to use the device, frustration with the device, and completing study forms. TRIAL REGISTRATION: CLINICAL TRIALS ID: NCT02063828, clinicaltrials.gov.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Estudos de Viabilidade , Depressão/terapia , Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/terapia , Dispneia/etiologia , Dispneia/terapia , Pulmão , Qualidade de Vida
14.
Chest ; 164(2): 531-543, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36931460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One-half of all people who undergo lung cancer screening (LCS) currently use tobacco. However, few published studies have explored how to implement effective tobacco use treatment optimally during the LCS encounter. RESEARCH QUESTION: Was the Optimizing Lung Screening intervention (OaSiS) effective at reducing tobacco use among patients undergoing LCS in community-based radiology facilities? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The OaSiS study (National Cancer Institute [NCI] Protocol No.: WF-20817CD) is an effectiveness-implementation hybrid type II cluster randomized trial of radiology facilities conducted in partnership with the Wake Forest National Cancer Institute Community Oncology Research Program research base. We randomly assigned 26 radiology facilities in 20 states to the intervention or usual care group. Staff at intervention facilities implemented a variety of strategies targeting the clinic and care team. Eligible patient participants were aged 55 to 77 years undergoing LCS and currently using tobacco. Of 1,094 who completed a baseline survey (523 intervention group, 471 control group) immediately before the LCS appointment, 956 completed the 6-month follow-up (86% retention rate). Fifty-four percent of those who reported not using tobacco at 6 months completed biochemical verification via mailed cotinine assay. Generalized estimating equation marginal models were used in an intention-to-treat analysis to predict 7-day tobacco use abstinence. RESULTS: The average self-reported abstinence among participants varied considerably across facilities (0%-27%). Despite a significant increase in average cessation rate over time (0% at baseline to approximately 13% at 6 months; P < .0001), tobacco use did not differ by trial group at 14 days (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.46-1.99; P = .90), 3 months (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.69-1.99; P = .56), or 6 months (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.65-1.43; P = .87). INTERPRETATION: The OaSiS trial participants showed a significant reduction in tobacco use over time, but no difference by trial arm was found. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT03291587; URL: www. CLINICALTRIALS: gov.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Abandono do Uso de Tabaco , Humanos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Pulmão
15.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 17(2): 148-154, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36697280

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk outcomes of overweight/obese adults with prediabetes. METHODS: Using data from a randomized control trial of digital diabetes prevention program (d-DPP) with 599 participants. We applied the atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) risk calculator to predict 10-year CVD risk for d-DPP and small education (comparison) groups. Between-group risk changes at 4 and 12 months were compared using a repeated measures linear mixed-effect model. We examined within-group differences in proportion of participants over time for specific CVD risk factors using generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: We found no differences between baseline 10-year ASCVD risk. Relative to the comparison group, the d-DPP group experienced greater reductions in predicted 10-year ASCVD risk at each follow-up visit and a significant group difference at 4 months (-0.96%; 95% confidence interval: -1.58%, -0.34%) (but not at 12 months). Additionally, we observed that the d-DPP group experienced a decreased proportion of individuals with hyperlipidemia (18% and 16% from baseline to 4 and 12 months), high-risk total cholesterol (8% from baseline to 12 months), and being insufficiently active (26% and 22% from baseline to 4 and 12 months at follow-up time points. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that a digitally adapted DPP may promote the prevention of cardiometabolic disease among overweight/obese individuals with prediabetes. However, given the lack of maintenance of effect on ASCVD risk at 12 months, there may also be a need for additional interventions to sustain the effect detected at 4 months.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Estado Pré-Diabético , Adulto , Humanos , Estado Pré-Diabético/diagnóstico , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso , Fatores de Risco , Obesidade/complicações , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas
16.
Contemp Clin Trials Commun ; 29: 100981, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36033360

RESUMO

Purpose: Urological cancer clinical trials face accrual challenges, which may stem from structural barriers within cancer programs. We sought to describe the extent to which urology cancer care providers are available within community cancer research programs and explore the role of oncology practice group ownership in their access to urology practices to participate in research. Materials and methods: We conducted secondary analysis of organizational survey data collected in 2017 among National Cancer Institute Community Oncology Research Program practice groups. We used logistic regression to assess the association of self-reported access to urologists to participate in research and oncology practice group ownership type: independent, payor-provider, health-system, or public ownership. Results: Of the 209 community oncology practice groups in the analysis sample, 133 (63.6%) had access to urologists for research participation. Ownership was not statistically significantly associated with access to urology practices after controlling for other covariates (p = 0.4). Instead, having a hospital outpatient clinic (p = 0.008) and identifying as a safety-net hospital (p = 0.035) were both positively significantly associated with access to urologists to participate in research. Conclusions: Two-thirds of community cancer research groups have access to urology. Oncology ownership status was not associated with access to urologists for research. Research groups may need support to increase their capacity to engage non-oncology cancer care providers in research.

18.
Am J Prev Med ; 62(4): 567-577, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35151522

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In light of the need to expand the reach and access of clinically proven digital Diabetes Prevention Programs (d-DPPs) and the need for rigorous evidence of effectiveness, the purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a digital Diabetes Prevention Program for improving weight, HbA1c, and cardiovascular risk factors among people with prediabetes compared to enhanced standard care plus waitlist control. STUDY DESIGN: This was a single-blind RCT among participants at risk of developing type 2 diabetes and included 12 months of follow-up. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: A total of 599 volunteer patients with prediabetes were recruited primarily through electronic medical records and primary care practices. INTERVENTION: Participants were randomized to either a d-DPP (n=299) or a single-session small-group diabetes-prevention education class (n=300) focused on action planning for weight loss. The d-DPPs consisted of 52 weekly sessions, lifestyle coaching, virtual peer support, and behavior tracking tools. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was a change in HbA1c from baseline to 12 months using intent-to-treat analyses. On the basis of multiple comparisons of endpoints, 95% CIs are presented and 2-sided p<0.025 was required for statistical significance. Secondary outcomes included body weight and cardiovascular disease risk factors. RESULTS: Among 599 randomized participants (mean age=55.4 years, 61.4% women), 483 (80%) completed the study. The d-DPPs produced significantly greater reductions in HbA1c (0.08%, 95% CI= -0.12, -0.03) and percentage change in body weight (-5.5% vs -2.1%, p<0.001) at 12 months. A greater proportion of the d-DPPs group achieved a clinically significant weight loss ≥5% (43% vs 21%, p<0.001), and more participants shifted from prediabetes to normal HbA1c range (58% vs 48%, p=0.04). Engagement in d-DPPs was significantly related to improved HbA1c and weight loss. CONCLUSIONS: This d-DPPs demonstrated clinical effectiveness and has significant potential for widespread dissemination and impact, particularly considering the growing demand for telemedicine in preventive healthcare services. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study is registered at www. CLINICALTRIALS: gov (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03312764).


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Estado Pré-Diabético , Telemedicina , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/terapia , Método Simples-Cego , Redução de Peso
19.
J Music Ther ; 59(1): 36-61, 2022 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738100

RESUMO

Experiencing a stroke can lead to difficulties with emotion regulation and mood disorders like depression. It is well documented that poststroke depression (PSD) affects a third of all stroke survivors. Higher levels of depression and depressive symptoms are associated with less efficient use of rehabilitation services, poor functional outcomes, negative impacts on social participation, and increased mortality. Mood in the acute phases of stroke recovery may be a key factor influencing the depression trajectory with early depression predicting poor longitudinal outcomes. The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of one active music therapy (AMT) treatment on mood following a first-time ischemic stroke during acute hospitalization. Forty-four adults received AMT defined as music-making interventions that elicit and encourage active participation. The Faces Scale was used to assess mood immediately prior to and following the treatment. A significant change in mood was found following one treatment. Comment analysis indicated that participants viewed music therapy as a positive experience. Findings here support the use of brief AMT to provide early psychological support to stroke survivors. Continued investigation into the role of music therapy in early stroke recovery is recommended.


Assuntos
Musicoterapia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adulto , Afeto , Depressão/terapia , Humanos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
NEJM Evid ; 1(9)2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36908314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Statins taken for cardiovascular indications by patients with breast cancer and lymphoma during doxorubicin treatment may attenuate left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) decline, but the effect of statins on LVEF among patients with no cardiovascular indications is unknown. METHODS: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, 24-month randomized trial of 40 mg of atorvastatin per day administered to patients with breast cancer and lymphoma receiving doxorubicin was conducted within the National Cancer Institute Community Oncology Research Program across 31 sites in the United States. At pretreatment and then 6 and 24 months after initiating doxorubicin, we assessed left ventricular (LV) volumes, strain, mass, and LVEF through cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, along with cognitive function and serum markers of inflammation. The primary outcome was the difference in 24-month LVEF between placebo and treatment groups, adjusted for pretreatment LVEF. RESULTS: A total of 279 participants were enrolled in the trial. Participants had a mean (±SD) age of 49±12 years; 92% were women; and 83% were White. The mean (±SD) LVEF values were 61.7±5.5% before treatment and 57.4±6.8% at 24 months in the placebo group and 62.6±6.4% before treatment and 57.7±5.6% at 24 months in the atorvastatin group. On the basis of a multiple imputed data set for missing data and adjusted for each individual's pretreatment LVEF, 24-month declines in LVEF averaged 3.3±0.6 percentage points and 3.2±0.7 percentage points, for those randomly assigned to placebo versus statins, respectively (P=0.93). Across both treatment arms, similar percentages of individuals experienced changes of more than 10 percentage points in LVEF, LV strain, LV mass, cognition, and inflammation biomarkers, including among those with greater than 90% drug compliance. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with breast cancer and lymphoma with no existing indication for statin therapy, prospective statin administration did not affect LVEF declines 2 years after doxorubicin. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01988571.).

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