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1.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231842

RESUMO

Asthenoteratospermia is a common cause of male infertility. Recent studies have revealed that CFAP65 mutations lead to severe asthenoteratospermia due to acrosome hypoplasia and flagellum malformations. However, the molecular mechanism underlying CFAP65-associated sperm malformation is largely unclear. Here, we initially examined the role of CFAP65 during spermiogenesis using Cfap65 knockout (Cfap65-/-) mice. The results showed that Cfap65-/- male mice exhibited severe asthenoteratospermia characterized by morphologically defective sperm heads and flagella. In Cfap65-/- mouse testes, hyper-constricted sperm heads were apparent in step 9 spermatids accompanied by abnormal manchette development, and acrosome biogenesis was abnormal in the maturation phase. Moreover, subsequent flagellar elongation was also severely affected and characterized by disrupted assembly of the mitochondrial sheath (MS) in Cfap65-/- male mice. Furthermore, the proteomic analysis revealed that the proteostatic system during acrosome formation, manchette organization, and MS assembly was disrupted when CFAP65 was lost. Importantly, endogenous immunoprecipitation and immunostaining experiments revealed that CFAP65 may form a cytoplasmic protein network comprising MNS1, RSPH1, TPPP2, ZPBP1, and SPACA1. Overall, these findings provide insights into the complex molecular mechanisms of spermiogenesis by uncovering the essential roles of CFAP65 during sperm head shaping, acrosome biogenesis, and MS assembly.

2.
Diagn Pathol ; 16(1): 60, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CCND1 copy number increase is characteristic of acral melanoma and is useful in distinguishing benign and malignant acral melanocytic lesions. Increase of the gene copy number may result in protein overexpression. This raises the possibility that detection of high expression of cyclin D1 by immunohistochemistry (IHC) may be used as a surrogate for direct evaluation of increase in the CCND1 gene copy number. METHODS: We examined increases in CCND1 copy number with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and examined cyclin D1 protein expression with IHC in 61 acral melanomas. RESULTS: Using FISH, 29 acral melanomas (29/61, 47.5%) showed increase in the CCND1 copy number, including 8 (8/61, 13.1%) which showed low-level increase in the CCND1 copy number and 21 (21/61, 34.4%) with high-level increase in the CCND1 copy number. By analysis of IHC, the median IHC score was 15% (range: 1-80%) in acral melanomas with no CCND1 copy number alteration. In acral melanomas with low-level CCND1 copy number increase, the median IHC score was 25% (range: 3-90%). In acral melanomas with high-level CCND1 copy number increase, the median IHC score was 60% (range: 1-95%). Comparing FISH and IHC, cyclin D1 protein expression level has no corelation with the CCND1 copy number in acral melanomas which have no CCND1 copy number alteration and low-level CCND1 copy number increase (P = 0.108). Cyclin D1 protein expression level correlated positively with CCND1 copy number in acral melanomas with high-level CCND1 copy number increase (P = 0.038). The sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of using cyclin D1 IHC to predict CCND1 FISH result was 72.4, 62.5 and 63.6%. Increase in CCND1 copy number was associated with Breslow thickness in invasive acral melanoma. CONCLUSION: High-level increase in the CCND1 copy number can induce high cyclin D1 protein expression in acral melanomas. However low-level increase and normal CCND1 copy number have no obvious correlation with protein expression. Cyclin D1 IHC cannot serve as a surrogate for CCND1 FISH in acral melanomas.

3.
Org Lett ; 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236201

RESUMO

A mild visible-light-induced Pd-catalyzed intermolecular radical cascade reaction of N-arylacrylamides with unactivated alkyl bromides is disclosed. Photoexcited Pd complexes transfer a single electron in this protocol, and hybrid alkyl Pd-radical species are involved as the key reaction intermediates. Sophisticated bioactive oxindole derivatives bearing various substituents and substitution patterns can be efficiently afforded through this approach.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34309506

RESUMO

A novel Gram-stain-negative and rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated as 4Y14T, was isolated from aquaculture water and characterized by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Strain 4Y14T was found to grow at 10-40 °C (optimum, 28 °C), at pH 7.0-9.0 (optimum, 7.0-8.0) and with 0-2 % NaCl (optimum, 1 %, w/v). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain 4Y14T belonged to the genus Chitinilyticum with high levels of similarity to Chitinilyticum litopenaei c1T (97.8 %) and Chitinilyticum aquatile c14T (97.2 %). Phylogenomic analysis indicated that strain 4Y14T formed an independent branch distinct from the two type strains above. Digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) and average nucleotide identity (ANI) values between strain 4Y14T and the two type strains were, respectively, 25.3 and 25.0 %, and 81.2 and 80.3 %, which were well below the thresholds of 70 % DDH and 95-96 % ANI for species definition, implying that strain 4Y14T should represent a novel genospecies. The predominant cellular fatty acids of strain 4Y14T were summed feature 3 (C16 : 1 ω7c and/or C16 : 1 ω6c) and iso-C16 : 0; the major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine; and the sole respiratory quinone was Q-8. The genomic DNA G+C content was 60.1 mol%. Based on the phenotypic and genotypic analyses, strain 4Y14T is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Chitinilyticum, for which the name Chitinilyticum piscinae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the species is 4Y14T (=GDMCC 1.1934T=KACC 22080T).


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Betaproteobacteria/classificação , Filogenia , Microbiologia da Água , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Betaproteobacteria/isolamento & purificação , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ubiquinona/química
5.
Chemistry ; 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34319620

RESUMO

Recent years have witnessed various fascinating phenomena arising from the interactions of noncovalent bonds with homogeneous external electric fields (EEFs). Here we performed a computational study to interpret the sensitivity of intrinsic bond strengths to EEFs in terms of steric effect and orbital interactions. The block-localized wavefunction (BLW) method, which combines the advantages of both ab initio valence bond (VB) theory and molecular orbital (MO) theory, and the subsequent energy decomposition (BLW-ED) approach were adopted. The sensitivity was monitored and analyzed using the induced energy term, which is the variation in each energy component along the EEF strength. Systems with single or multiple hydrogen (H) or halogen (X) bond(s) were also examined. It was found that the X-bond strength change EEFs mainly stems from the covalency change, while generally the steric effect rules the response of H-bonds to EEFs. Furthermore, X-bonds are more sensitive to EEFs, with the key difference between H- and X-bonds lying in the charge transfer interaction. Since phenylboronic acid has been experimentally used as a smart linker in EEFs, switchable sensitivity was scrutinized with the example of the phenylboronic acid dimer, which exhibits two conformations with either antiparallel or parallel H-bonds, thereby, opposite or consistent responses to EEFs. Among the studied systems, the quadruple X-bonds in molecular capsules exhibit remarkable sensitivity, with its interaction energy increased by -95.2 kJ/mol at the EEF strength 0.005 a.u..

6.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 12(1): 377, 2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215342

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Over the past decades, many studies focused on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) therapy for bone regeneration. Due to the efficiency of topical application has been widely dicussed and systemic application was also a feasible way for new bone formation, the aim of this study was to systematically review systemic therapy of MSCs for bone regeneration in pre-clinical studies. METHODS: The article search was conducted in PubMed and Embase databases. Original research articles that assessed potential effect of systemic application of MSCs for bone regeneration in vivo were selected and evaluated in this review, according to eligibility criteria. The efficacy of MSC systemic treatment was analyzed by random effects meta-analysis, and the outcomes were expressed in standard mean difference (SMD) and its 95% confidence interval. Subgroup analyses were conducted on animal species and gender, MSCs types, frequency and time of injection, and bone diseases. RESULTS: Twenty-three articles were selected in this review, of which 21 were included in meta-analysis. The results showed that systemic therapy increased bone mineral density (SMD 3.02 [1.84, 4.20]), bone volume to tissue volume ratio (2.10 [1.16, 3.03]), and the percentage of new bone area (7.03 [2.10, 11.96]). Bone loss caused by systemic disease tended to produce a better response to systemic treatment (p=0.05 in BMD, p=0.03 in BV/TV). CONCLUSION: This study concluded that systemic therapy of MSCs promotes bone regeneration in preclinical experiments. These results provided important information for the systemic application of MSCs as a potential application of bone formation in further animal experiments.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Animais , Regeneração Óssea , Osso e Ossos , Osteogênese
7.
Eur J Med Chem ; 224: 113702, 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303873

RESUMO

The emergence and dissemination of metallo-ß-lactamases (MBLs) producing Enterobacterales is a great concern for public health due to the limited therapeutic options. No MBL inhibitors are currently available in clinical practice. Herein, we synthesized a series of H2dpa derivatives containing pentadentate-chelating ligands and evaluated their inhibitory activity against MBLs. Related compounds inhibited clinically relevant MBLs (Imipenemase, New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase (NDM) and Verona integron-encoded metallo-ß-lactamase) with IC50 values of 1-4.9 µM. In vitro, the most promising compounds, 5b and 5c, which had a chiral methyl at the acid adjacent to 5a, demonstrated potent synergistic activity against engineered strains, with fractional inhibitory concentration index values as low as 0.07-0.18. The addition of 5b and 5c restored meropenem efficacy against 42 MBL-producing Enterobacterales and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to satisfactory clinical levels. In addition, safety tests revealed that 5b/5c showed no toxicity in red blood cells, cell lines or mouse model. Further studies demonstrated that compounds 5b and 5c were non-competitive MBL inhibitors. In vivo compounds 5b and 5c potentiated meropenem efficacy and increased the survival rate from 0 to at least 83% in mice with sepsis caused by an NDM-1-positive clinical strain. The activity of the compounds exhibited consistency at the molecular, cellular, and in vivo levels. These data indicated that H2dpa derivatives 5b and 5c containing pentadentate-chelating ligands may be worthy of further study.

8.
Oncoimmunology ; 10(1): 1942673, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34249476

RESUMO

The prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is extremely poor, of which hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HBV-HCC) accounts for the majority in China. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have become an effective immunotherapy method for the treatment of HCC, but they are mainly used for T cells. NK cells play a vital role as the first line of defense against tumors. Therefore, we explored the characteristic expression pattern of immune checkpoints on NK cells of HBV-HCC patients. We analyzed the correlation between the co-expression of TIGIT and TIM-3 and the clinical progress of patients with HBV-HCC. The co-expression of TIGIT and TIM-3 on NK cells is elevated in patients with HBV-HCC. TIGIT+TIM-3+NK cells showed exhausted phenotypic characteristics and displayed dysfunction manifested as weakened killing function, reduced cytokine production, and proliferation function. TIGIT+TIM-3+NK cells participate in NK cells function exhaustion and are closely related to the disease progression of patients with HBV-HCC, suggesting a new target for future immunotherapy.

9.
Stem Cell Res ; 54: 102450, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218115

RESUMO

Apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (APOE4) is a minor allele of the APOE gene associated with a higher risk for Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Vascular Dementia (VD). While lipid deposition and chronic inflammation in glia are the commonalities between atherosclerosis, VD, and AD. Hence, we presented an iPSC line of an AD male donor suffering from Cerebrovascular Atherosclerosis with APOE-ε4/ε4 alleles background. Furthermore, we differentiated the iPSCs into astrocyte to explore pathogenesis in APOE4 related dementia. The characterized iPSC line expressed typical pluripotency markers and showed differentiation potential and normal karyotype.

10.
Neurobiol Aging ; 2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34275688

RESUMO

To analyze the mutational spectrum of known ALS causative genes in China ALS patients. We comprehensively analyzed 51 ALS causative genes by combining different sequencing technologies in 753 unrelated ALS patients from Central South China. The mean age at onset (AAO) was 53.7±11.4 years. The AAO was earlier in the autosomal dominant (AD) ALS patients than in the sporadic ALS (sALS) patients. Bulbar onset was more frequent in females than in males. SOD1 was the most frequently mutated gene in the AD-ALS and the sALS patients, followed by the ATXN2 and FUS genes in the AD-ALS patients and the NEK1 and CACNA1H genes in the sALS patients. Patients with RDVs in the SOD1 or FUS genes had an earlier AAO than the mean AAO of all the patients, while the patients with RDVs in the NEK1 gene showed later onset. SOD1 gene was the most commonly mutated gene in ALS patients in China, followed by ATXN2 and NEK1. The phenotype might be determined synergistically by sex and genetic variants.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270400

RESUMO

A novel Gram-stain-negative, aerobic and rod-shaped bacterial strain designated as 6D45AT was isolated from mangrove soil and characterized using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Strain 6D45AT was found to grow at 10-37 °C (optimum, 28 °C), at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum, 7.0) and in 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2%). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain 6D45AT fell into the genus Salipiger and shared 99.1 % identity with the closest type strain Salipiger pacificus CGMCC 1.3455T and less than 97.2 % identity with other type strains of this genus. The 34.8 % digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) and 88.3 % average nucleotide identity (ANI) values between strain 6D45AT and the closest relative above were well below recognized thresholds of 70 % DDH and 95-96 % ANI for species definition, implying that strain 6D45AT should represent a novel genospecies. The phylogenomic analysis indicated that strain 6D45AT formed an independent branch distinct from reference strains. The predominant cellular fatty acid of strain 6D45AT was summed feature 8 (C18 : 1 ω6c and/or C18 : 1 ω7c, 66.9 %); the polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, two unidentified aminolipids, two unidentified glycolipids and an unknown lipid; the respiratory quinone was Q-10. The genomic DNA G+C content was 66.5 mol %. Based on the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, strain 6D45AT is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Salipiger, for which the name Salipiger mangrovisoli sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain of the species is 6D45AT (=GDMCC 1.1960T=KCTC 82334T). We also propose the reclassification of Paraphaeobacter pallidus as Salipiger pallidus comb. nov. and 'Pelagibaca abyssi' as a species of the genus Salipiger.


Assuntos
Alphaproteobacteria/classificação , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo , Alphaproteobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Glicolipídeos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rhodobacteraceae/classificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Ubiquinona/química , Áreas Alagadas
13.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287665

RESUMO

Previous studies have identified that Th17/Treg cells were involved in the occurrence and development of Graves' disease (GD). This study aimed at clarifying the association between GD susceptibility and nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Th17/Treg cell-related genes, including IL2RA, miR27a, miR182, and FoxO1. A two-stage association study was performed in 650 GD patients and 1300 healthy controls. PCR-RFLP assays, real-time PCR, and ELISA were performed. In the first stage, association analysis has identified that IL2RA/rs3118470 TT genotype (Pc = 0.027, OR = 1.688) and IL2RA/rs2104286 AA genotype (Pc = 0.027, OR = 1.658) has significantly increased frequencies in patients with GD than control subjects. In the second stage, the result of rs2104286 was consistent with the first-stage results (AA genotype: Pc = 0.006, OR = 1.618). The combined data showed that IL2RA/rs2104286 AA genotype had increased frequencies in patients with GD (Pc = 8.772 × 10-6, OR = 1.636). Stratification analysis also revealed that rs2104286 AA genotype was significantly associated with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) susceptibility (Pc = 9.150 × 10-4, OR = 1.851). Functional studies showed that carriers of the rs2104286 AA genotype had lower IL2RA mRNA expression than AG genotype carriers (P = 0.021). Cytokine analyses revealed that the rs2104286 AA genotype individuals had lower IL-10 levels (P = 0.015) and increased IL-17 levels than AG genotype carriers (P = 1.467 × 10-4). In conclusion, our findings suggested that IL2RA/rs2104286 was associated with GD and GO susceptibility in Southwest Chinese Han population, which may be involved in the occurrence of GD and GO by affecting the mRNA expression of IL2RA gene and the cytokine production. KEY MESSAGES: We identified that IL2RA/rs2104286 locus contributed to the predisposition of Graves' disease (GD) and Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). Functional analyses suggested that IL2RA/rs2104286 may participate in the occurrence of GD and GO by affecting the mRNA expression of IL2RA and cytokine (IL-10 and IL-17) secretion. We found that IL2RA (rs3118470, rs7093069), miR27a/rs895819, miR182/rs76481776, and FoxO1 (rs2297626, rs17592236, rs9549241, rs12585277) loci polymorphisms were not associated with GD susceptibility.

14.
J Clin Pharm Ther ; 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312870

RESUMO

WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Mycophenolate mofetil, an ester prodrug of mycophenolic acid (MPA), is widely used to prevent graft rejection after kidney transplantation. The pharmacokinetic (PK) of MPA has been extensively studied, which revealed a high degree of variability. An integrated population PK (PopPK) model of MPA and its main metabolite mycophenolic acid glucuronide (MPAG) was developed using the adult patients who underwent kidney transplant and were administered oral mycophenolate mofetil combined with tacrolimus. METHODS: In total, 917 MPA and 740 MPAG concentrations in191 adult patients were analysed via nonlinear mixed-effects modelling. The concentration-time data were adequately described using a chain compartment model, including central and peripheral compartments for MPA and a central compartment for MPAG. Stepwise forward inclusion and backward elimination procedures were used to investigate the effects of genetic polymorphisms, including in UGT1A8, UGT1A9, UGT2B7, ABCB1, ABCC2, ABCG2, SLCO1B1, SLCO1B3, and HNF1α. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: These genetic polymorphisms in metabolic enzymes and transporters have no obvious impact on the PK of MPA in adult patients who underwent kidney transplant and were co-treated with tacrolimus. The post-transplant time, serum albumin, and creatinine clearance were identified as significant covariates affecting the PK of MPA and MPAG, which should be considered in the clinical use of mycophenolate mofetil. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: We established a PopPK model of MPA and MPAG in Chinese adult patients who underwent kidney transplant and were co-treated with tacrolimus. Genetic polymorphisms in metabolic enzymes and transporters showed no obvious impact on MMF PK. A model-informed dosing strategy was proposed by the established model, and MMF dose adjustment should be based on ALB levels and the post-transplantation time.

15.
Ann Clin Biochem ; : 45632211026961, 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34120477

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Carbohydrate antigen 72-4 (CA72-4) is widely used in the diagnosis and monitoring of many cancers. However, there are few studies on the differences of CA72-4 concentrations in terms of age and gender. METHODS: A total of 10,957 healthy subjects were divided into two groups according to gender and three age groups. The serum CA72-4 were detected. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS. RESULTS: The CA72-4 concentration in female group was significantly higher than that in male group. The concentration of CA72-4 gradually decreased with age. Compared with the age >60 group, the CA72-4 concentrations were increased in the age 46-60 group and 16-45 group (P >0.05, respectively). To better observe the age difference, the age 16-45 and 46-60 groups were combined into the age 16-60 group. In comparison to the age >60 group, the CA72-4 concentration of age 16-60 group was significantly increased (P = 0.000). In the age >60 group, there was no difference between genders. Nevertheless, the difference between the sexes in the age 16-60 group was significant (P = 0.023). CONCLUSIONS: The reference interval of CA72-4 for local healthy population was established. CA72-4 concentrations gradually decreased with the increase of age, and CA72-4 concentration in females aged 16-60 years (0-18.0 U/mL) was higher than in males (0-14.5 U/mL); however, there was no gender difference in the age group above 60 years old (0-14.5 U/mL). Moreover, in male CA72-4 there was no significant difference among all age groups, while the potential mechanism of female changes with age needs further study.

16.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 601: 467-473, 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091305

RESUMO

Biomass is a common carbon precursor, because of its low cost, easy access and wide sources. However, direct pyrolysis of biomass usually leads to some disadvantages such as morphology destruction, low surface area and poor porosity. Herein, a silica-confined activation strategy is developed to prepare nitrogen-doped (N-doped) porous carbon microcapsule using the renewable biomass carbon precursor of yeasts. The yeasts are wrapped by a dense silica shell, forming a limited space, which can effectively avoid the destruction of yeast morphology during pyrolysis. The pyrolysis gas derived from yeast cannot overflow due to the limitation of confined space, and it plays an in-situ activator to result in layer structure with thin wall, abundant pores and high specific surface area (870 m2 g-1). Moreover, the N-doped porous carbon microcapsule possesses a higher certain of N-doping than the carbon product derived from direct pyrolysis of yeasts. As electrode materials in supercapacitor, the N-doped porous carbon microcapsule exhibits high capacitance of 316 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 with obvious enhancement of electrochemical performance compared with the carbon product derived from direct pyrolysis of yeasts, indicating the promise as a new electrode material in energy storage.

17.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 28(7): 604-613, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34168372

RESUMO

The Ca2+-activated TRPM5 channel plays essential roles in taste perception and insulin secretion. However, the mechanism by which Ca2+ regulates TRPM5 activity remains elusive. We report cryo-EM structures of the zebrafish TRPM5 in an apo closed state, a Ca2+-bound open state, and an antagonist-bound inhibited state. We define two novel ligand binding sites: a Ca2+ site (CaICD) in the intracellular domain and an antagonist site in the transmembrane domain (TMD). The CaICD site is unique to TRPM5 and has two roles: modulating the voltage dependence and promoting Ca2+ binding to the CaTMD site, which is conserved throughout TRPM channels. Conformational changes initialized from both Ca2+ sites cooperatively open the ion-conducting pore. The antagonist NDNA wedges into the space between the S1-S4 domain and pore domain, stabilizing the transmembrane domain in an apo-like closed state. Our results lay the foundation for understanding the voltage-dependent TRPM channels and developing new therapeutic agents.

18.
Life Sci ; 281: 119720, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144056

RESUMO

AIMS: Asthma is characterized by chronic inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). It is controllable, but not curable. Ubiquitin-specific peptidase 4 (USP4) has been verified as a regulator of regulatory T (Treg) cells and Th17 cells in vitro. In this study, we aim to investigate whether USP4 could serve as a therapeutic target for asthma. MAIN METHODS: Age-matched USP4 wild-type and knockout mice received an intraperitoneal injection of 100 µg ovalbumin (OVA) mixed in 2 mg aluminum hydroxide in 1 × PBS on days 0, 7 and 14. On days 21 to 27, the mice were challenged with aerosolized 1% OVA in 1 × PBS for 30 min. Tissue histology, ELISA and flow cytometry were applied 24 h after the last OVA challenge. KEY FINDINGS: USP4 deficiency protected mice from OVA-induced AHR and decreased the production of several inflammatory cytokines in T cells in vivo. Compared to the lung cells isolated from WT mice, Usp4-/- lung cells decreased secretion of IL-4, IL-13 and IL-17A upon stimulation in vitro. Meanwhile, the percentage of CD4+Foxp3+ Treg cells was elevated, with more CCR6+Foxp3+ Treg cells accumulating in the lungs of OVA-challenged USP4 deficient mice than in their wild-type counterparts. Treatment with the USP4 inhibitor, Vialinin A, reduced inflammatory cell infiltration in the lungs of OVA-challenged mice in vivo. SIGNIFICANCE: We found USP4 deficiency contributes to attenuated airway inflammation and AHR in allergen-induced murine asthma, and Vialinin A treatment alleviates asthma pathogenesis and may serve as a promising therapeutic target for asthma.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34185271

RESUMO

To identify the effect of influent salinity on substrate selection, a study was conducted in pilot-scale surface flow constructed wetlands (SFCWs). Compared with gravel and sand SFCWs, soil SFCWs performed similarly or worse at low salinities, while at high salinities, soil SFCWs performed similarly or better in removal efficiency (RE) of salt, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorous (TP), and chemical oxygen demand (COD). Soil generally increased macrophyte growth (especially at high salinity) in terms of biomass, leaf chlorophyll concentration, root activity, and root catalase and superoxide dismutase activities. A general decrease in bacterial α-diversity in the rhizosphere was observed at high salinity, while compared with gravel or sand, soil improved rhizosphere bacterial community stability at varying salinities. At high salinity, compared with that of gravel or sand, the soil support of macrophytes and rhizosphere microorganisms increased pollutant RE in SFCWs. This finding highlights the necessity of varying substrate selection in SFCWs with influent salinities for both increasing pollutant RE and reducing input cost, with soil recommended at high influent salinity.

20.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 96: 107795, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162157

RESUMO

The occurrence and progress of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is closely related to the inflammatory response; however, inflammation contributes to behavioral abnormalities and sleep disorders. Dexmedetomidine has anti-inflammatory effects against various diseases. Whether dexmedetomidine improves MHE and the underlying mechanism is yet unclear. The present study aimed to explore the effects of dexmedetomidine on sleep structure, neurobehavior, and brain morphology of MHE rats and investigate its underlying mechanism. A rat MHE model was established by intraperitoneal injection of thioacetamide (TAA). Dexmedetomidine or yohimbine was administered intraperitoneally to investigate the role of α2 adrenoreceptor in the protection conferred by dexmedetomidine. The 24-h sleep, neurobehavioral changes, the liver function, blood ammonia and morphological changes of the liver and brain were assessed. Also, the microglia, astrocytes, neurons, the expression of pro-inflammatory factors (IL-1ß, TNF-α, IL-18), and NLRP3 inflammasomes were detected. The results showed that marked sleep disorders, cognitive impairment, anxiety, abnormal liver function and pathological damage of liver and brain were detected in the MHE rats. The microglia in the prefrontal cortex was highly activated along with the increased expression of pro-inflammatory factors and NLRP3 inflammasomes. Interestingly, dexmedetomidine improved above indicators, however, yohimbine significantly abolished the protection of dexmedetomidine. These findings showed that dexmedetomidine restored the changes in the sleep disorders and neurobehavior in rats and reduced brain damage. The mechanism might be partially related to the activation of α2 adrenergic receptors, reduction of neuroinflammatory response, and inhibition of the activation of microglia and NLRP3/Caspase1 signaling pathway.

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