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1.
Sci Data ; 8(1): 259, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599197

RESUMO

We provide the raw acoustic data collected from the R/V Hesperides during the global Malaspina 2010 Spanish Circumnavigation Expedition (14th December 2010, Cádiz-14th July 2011, Cartagena) using a Simrad EK60 scientific echosounder operating at 38 and 120 kHz. The cruise was divided into seven legs: leg 1 (14th December 2010, Cádiz-13th January 2011, Rio de Janeiro), leg 2 (17th January 2011, Rio de Janeiro-6th February 2011, Cape Town), leg 3 (11th February 2011, Cape Town-13th March 2011, Perth), leg 4 (17th March 2011, Perth-30th March 2011, Sydney), leg 5 (16th April 2011, Auckland-8th May 2011, Honolulu), leg 6 (13th May 2011, Honolulu-10th June 2011, Cartagena de Indias) and leg 7 (19th June 2011, Cartagena de Indias-14th July 2011, Cartagena). The echosounder was calibrated at the start of the expedition and calibration parameters were updated in the data acquisition software (ER60) i.e., the logged raw data are calibrated. We also provide a data summary of the acoustic data in the form of post-processed products.

2.
Glob Chang Biol ; 27(21): 5532-5546, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391212

RESUMO

Our understanding of the response of reef-building corals to changes in their physical environment is largely based on laboratory experiments, analysis of long-term field data, and model projections. Experimental data provide unique insights into how organisms respond to variation of environmental drivers. However, an assessment of how well experimental conditions cover the breadth of environmental conditions and variability where corals live successfully is missing. Here, we compiled and analyzed a globally distributed dataset of in-situ seasonal and diurnal variability of key environmental drivers (temperature, pCO2 , and O2 ) critical for the growth and livelihood of reef-building corals. Using a meta-analysis approach, we compared the variability of environmental conditions assayed in coral experimental studies to current and projected conditions in their natural habitats. We found that annual temperature profiles projected for the end of the 21st century were characterized by distributional shifts in temperatures with warmer winters and longer warm periods in the summer, not just peak temperatures. Furthermore, short-term hourly fluctuations of temperature and pCO2 may regularly expose corals to conditions beyond the projected average increases for the end of the 21st century. Coral reef sites varied in the degree of coupling between temperature, pCO2 , and dissolved O2 , which warrants site-specific, differentiated experimental approaches depending on the local hydrography and influence of biological processes on the carbonate system and O2 availability. Our analysis highlights that a large portion of the natural environmental variability at short and long timescales is underexplored in experimental designs, which may provide a path to extend our understanding on the response of corals to global climate change.

4.
Glob Chang Biol ; 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343392

RESUMO

Over this century, coral reefs will run the gauntlet of climate change, as marine heatwaves (MHWs) become more intense and frequent, and ocean acidification (OA) progresses. However, we still lack a quantitative assessment of how, and to what degree, OA will moderate the responses of corals to MHWs as they intensify throughout this century. Here, we first projected future MHW intensities for tropical regions under three future greenhouse gas emissions scenario (representative concentration pathways, RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) for the near-term (2021-2040), mid-century (2041-2060) and late-century (2081-2100). We then combined these MHW intensity projections with a global data set of 1,788 experiments to assess coral attribute performance and survival under the three emissions scenarios for the near-term, mid-century and late-century in the presence and absence of OA. Although warming and OA had predominately additive impacts on the coral responses, the contribution of OA in affecting most coral attributes was minor relative to the dominant role of intensifying MHWs. However, the addition of OA led to greater decreases in photosynthesis and survival under intermediate and unrestricted emissions scenario for the mid- and late-century than if intensifying MHWs were considered as the only driver. These results show that role of OA in modulating coral responses to intensifying MHWs depended on the focal coral attribute and extremity of the scenario examined. Specifically, intensifying MHWs and OA will cause increasing instances of coral bleaching and substantial declines in coral productivity, calcification and survival within the next two decades under the low and intermediate emissions scenario. These projections suggest that corals must rapidly adapt or acclimatize to projected ocean conditions to persist, which is far more likely under a low emissions scenario and with increasing efforts to manage reefs to enhance resilience.

5.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255505, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329351

RESUMO

The increase of the temperature in the Red Sea basin due to global warming could have a large negative effect on its marine ecosystem. Consequently, there is a growing interest, from the scientific community and public organizations, in obtaining reliable projections of the Red Sea temperatures throughout the 21st century. However, the main tool used to do climate projections, the global climate models (GCM), may not be well suited for that relatively small region. In this work we assess the skills of the CMIP5 ensemble of GCMs in reproducing different aspects of the Red Sea 3D temperature variability. The results suggest that some of the GCMs are able to reproduce the present variability at large spatial scales with accuracy comparable to medium and high-resolution hindcasts. In general, the skills of the GCMs are better inside the Red Sea than outside, in the Gulf of Aden. Based on their performance, 8 of the original ensemble of 43 GCMs have been selected to project the temperature evolution of the basin. Bearing in mind the GCM limitations, this can be an useful benchmark once the high resolution projections are available. Those models project an averaged warming at the end of the century (2080-2100) of 3.3 ±> 0.6°C and 1.6 ±> 0.4°C at the surface under the scenarios RCP8.5 and RCP4.5, respectively. In the deeper layers the warming is projected to be smaller, reaching 2.2 ±> 0.5°C and 1.5 ±> 0.3°C at 300 m. The projected warming will largely overcome the natural multidecadal variability, which could induce temporary and moderate decrease of the temperatures but not enough to fully counteract it. We have also estimated how the rise of the mean temperature could modify the characteristics of the marine heatwaves in the region. The results show that the average length of the heatwaves would increase ~15 times and the intensity of the heatwaves ~4 times with respect to the present conditions under the scenario RCP8.5 (10 time and 3.6 times, respectively, under scenario RCP4.5).

6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(31)2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312236

RESUMO

Concerns over overexploitation have fueled an ongoing debate on the current state and future prospects of global capture fisheries, associated threats to marine biodiversity, and declining yields available for human consumption. Management reforms have aimed to reduce fishing pressure and recover depleted stocks to biomass and exploitation rates that allow for maximum sustainable yield. Recent analyses suggest that scientifically assessed stocks, contributing over half of global marine fish catch, have, on average, reached or even exceeded these targets, suggesting a fundamental shift in the effectiveness of fisheries governance. However, such conclusions are based on calculations requiring specific choices to average over high interstock variability to derive a global trend. Here we evaluate the robustness of these conclusions by examining the distribution of recovery rates across individual stocks and by applying a diversity of plausible averaging techniques. We show that different methods produce markedly divergent trajectories of global fisheries status, with 4 of 10 methods suggesting that recovery has not yet been achieved, with up to 48% of individual stocks remaining below biomass targets and 40% exploited above sustainable rates. Furthermore, recent rates of recovery are only marginally different from zero, with up to 46% of individual stocks trending downward in biomass and 29% of stocks trending upward in exploitation rate. These results caution against overoptimistic assessments of fisheries writ large and support a precautionary management approach to ensure full rebuilding of depleted fisheries worldwide.

7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11511, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34075103

RESUMO

Exponential rise of metagenomics sequencing is delivering massive functional environmental genomics data. However, this also generates a procedural bottleneck for on-going re-analysis as reference databases grow and methods improve, and analyses need be updated for consistency, which require acceess to increasingly demanding bioinformatic and computational resources. Here, we present the KAUST Metagenomic Analysis Platform (KMAP), a new integrated open web-based tool for the comprehensive exploration of shotgun metagenomic data. We illustrate the capacities KMAP provides through the re-assembly of ~ 27,000 public metagenomic samples captured in ~ 450 studies sampled across ~ 77 diverse habitats. A small subset of these metagenomic assemblies is used in this pilot study grouped into 36 new habitat-specific gene catalogs, all based on full-length (complete) genes. Extensive taxonomic and gene annotations are stored in Gene Information Tables (GITs), a simple tractable data integration format useful for analysis through command line or for database management. KMAP pilot study provides the exploration and comparison of microbial GITs across different habitats with over 275 million genes. KMAP access to data and analyses is available at https://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/aamg/kmap.start .

8.
Int J Infect Dis ; 109: 50-53, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147667

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the efforts deployed by different nations and territories in sequencing SARS-CoV-2 isolates, thus enabling detection of variants, known and novel, of concern. METHODS: The sources of over one million full genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 virus available in the COVID-19 virus Mutation Tracker (CovMT) were analyzed to determine the number of variants in the RBD region of the genome determining infectivity detected in the various nations and territories. RESULTS: The number of detected variants increased as the square root of sequencing effort by nations. Eight nations have contributed 79% of all SARS-CoV-2 isolates that have been sequenced, with two-thirds of all unique variants, adding to 1118 RBD variants, reported by five nations. The median number of sequenced isolates required to detect, on average, one novel RBD variant is 24.05, which is a threshold achieved by 70 nations. CONCLUSIONS: Many developing nations have not contributed any sequences due to lack of capacity. This poses a risk of dangerous virus variants in these under-sampled regions spreading globally before being detected. A collaborative program to sequence SARS-CoV-2 isolates, and other pathogens of concern, is needed to monitor, track, and control the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Mutação , Pandemias
9.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 604, 2021 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34021239

RESUMO

The deep sea, the largest ocean's compartment, drives planetary-scale biogeochemical cycling. Yet, the functional exploration of its microbial communities lags far behind other environments. Here we analyze 58 metagenomes from tropical and subtropical deep oceans to generate the Malaspina Gene Database. Free-living or particle-attached lifestyles drive functional differences in bathypelagic prokaryotic communities, regardless of their biogeography. Ammonia and CO oxidation pathways are enriched in the free-living microbial communities and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium and H2 oxidation pathways in the particle-attached, while the Calvin Benson-Bassham cycle is the most prevalent inorganic carbon fixation pathway in both size fractions. Reconstruction of the Malaspina Deep Metagenome-Assembled Genomes reveals unique non-cyanobacterial diazotrophic bacteria and chemolithoautotrophic prokaryotes. The widespread potential to grow both autotrophically and heterotrophically suggests that mixotrophy is an ecologically relevant trait in the deep ocean. These results expand our understanding of the functional microbial structure and metabolic capabilities of the largest Earth aquatic ecosystem.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Ciclo do Carbono , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Metagenoma , Fotossíntese , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/análise
10.
Biol Conserv ; : 109175, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34035536

RESUMO

The global lockdown to mitigate COVID-19 pandemic health risks has altered human interactions with nature. Here, we report immediate impacts of changes in human activities on wildlife and environmental threats during the early lockdown months of 2020, based on 877 qualitative reports and 332 quantitative assessments from 89 different studies. Hundreds of reports of unusual species observations from around the world suggest that animals quickly responded to the reductions in human presence. However, negative effects of lockdown on conservation also emerged, as confinement resulted in some park officials being unable to perform conservation, restoration and enforcement tasks, resulting in local increases in illegal activities such as hunting. Overall, there is a complex mixture of positive and negative effects of the pandemic lockdown on nature, all of which have the potential to lead to cascading responses which in turn impact wildlife and nature conservation. While the net effect of the lockdown will need to be assessed over years as data becomes available and persistent effects emerge, immediate responses were detected across the world. Thus initial qualitative and quantitative data arising from this serendipitous global quasi-experimental perturbation highlights the dual role that humans play in threatening and protecting species and ecosystems. Pathways to favorably tilt this delicate balance include reducing impacts and increasing conservation effectiveness.

11.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 168: 112444, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984578

RESUMO

Ecosystem services provided by coral reefs may be susceptible to the combined effects of benthic species shifts and anthropogenic nutrient pollution, but related field studies are scarce. We thus investigated in situ how dissolved inorganic nutrient enrichment, maintained for two months, affected community-wide biogeochemical functions of intact coral- and degraded algae-dominated reef patches in the central Red Sea. Results from benthic chamber incubations revealed 87% increased gross productivity and a shift from net calcification to dissolution in algae-dominated communities after nutrient enrichment, but the same processes were unaffected by nutrients in neighboring coral communities. Both community types changed from net dissolved organic nitrogen sinks to sources, but the increase in net release was 56% higher in algae-dominated communities. Nutrient pollution may, thus, amplify the effects of community shifts on key ecosystem services of coral reefs, possibly leading to a loss of structurally complex habitats with carbonate dissolution and altered nutrient recycling.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Recifes de Corais , Animais , Ecossistema , Oceano Índico , Nutrientes , Solubilidade
12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(12): 7770-7775, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34027665

RESUMO

Plastic pollution has become one of the most pressing environmental challenges and has received commensurate widespread attention. Although it is a top priority for policymakers and scientists alike, the knowledge required to guide decisions, implement mitigation actions, and assess their outcomes remains inadequate. We argue that an integrated, global monitoring system for plastic pollution is needed to provide comprehensive, harmonized data for environmental, societal, and economic assessments. The initial focus on marine ecosystems has been expanded here to include atmospheric transport and terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. An earth-system-level plastic observation system is proposed as a hub for collecting and assessing the scale and impacts of plastic pollution across a wide array of particle sizes and ecosystems including air, land, water, and biota and to monitor progress toward ameliorating this problem. The proposed observation system strives to integrate new information and to identify pollution hotspots (i.e., production facilities, cities, roads, ports, etc.) and expands monitoring from marine environments to encompass all ecosystem types. Eventually, such a system will deliver knowledge to support public policy and corporate contributions to the relevant United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Plásticos , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Políticas
13.
Glob Chang Biol ; 27(11): 2592-2607, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843114

RESUMO

The introduction and establishment of exotic species often result in significant changes in recipient communities and their associated ecosystem services. However, usually the magnitude and direction of the changes are difficult to quantify because there is no pre-introduction data. Specifically, little is known about the effect of marine exotic macrophytes on organic carbon sequestration and storage. Here, we combine dating sediment cores (210 Pb) with sediment eDNA fingerprinting to reconstruct the chronology of pre- and post-arrival of the Red Sea seagrass Halophila stipulacea spreading into the Eastern Mediterranean native seagrass meadows. We then compare sediment organic carbon storage and burial rates before and after the arrival of H. stipulacea and between exotic (H. stipulacea) and native (C. nodosa and P. oceanica) meadows since the time of arrival following a Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) approach. This analysis revealed that H. stipulacea arrived at the areas of study in Limassol (Cyprus) and West Crete (Greece) in the 1930s and 1970s, respectively. Average sediment organic carbon after the arrival of H. stipulacea to the sites increased in the exotic meadows twofold, from 8.4 ± 2.5 g Corg  m-2  year-1 to 14.7 ± 3.6 g Corg  m-2  year-1 , and, since then, burial rates in the exotic seagrass meadows were higher than in native ones of Cymodocea nodosa and Posidonia oceanica. Carbon isotopic data indicated a 50% increase of the seagrass contribution to the total sediment Corg pool since the arrival of H. stipulacea. Our results demonstrate that the invasion of H. stipulacea may play an important role in maintaining the blue carbon sink capacity in the future warmer Mediterranean Sea, by developing new carbon sinks in bare sediments and colonizing areas previously occupied by the colder thermal affinity P. oceanica.


Assuntos
Alismatales , Hydrocharitaceae , Carbono/análise , Sequestro de Carbono , Ecossistema , Sedimentos Geológicos , Oceano Índico , Mar Mediterrâneo
16.
Environ Pollut ; 277: 116730, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652184

RESUMO

Beach litter assessments rely on time inefficient and high human cost protocols, mining the attainment of global beach litter estimates. Here we show the application of an emerging technique, the use of drones for acquisition of high-resolution beach images coupled with machine learning for their automatic processing, aimed at achieving the first national-scale beach litter survey completed by only one operator. The aerial survey had a time efficiency of 570 ± 40 m2 min-1 and the machine learning reached a mean (±SE) detection sensitivity of 59 ± 3% with high resolution images. The resulting mean (±SE) litter density on Saudi Arabian shores of the Red Sea is of 0.12 ± 0.02 litter items m-2, distributed independently of the population density in the area around the sampling station. Instead, accumulation of litter depended on the exposure of the beach to the prevailing wind and litter composition differed between islands and the main shore, where recreational activities are the major source of anthropogenic debris.


Assuntos
Praias , Plásticos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Oceano Índico , Aprendizado de Máquina , Arábia Saudita , Resíduos/análise
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 772: 145520, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770872

RESUMO

Nearshore biogenic habitats are known to trap sediments, and may therefore also accumulate biofouled, non-buoyant microplastics. Using a current-generating field flume (TiDyFLOW), we experimentally assessed the mechanisms of microplastic trapping of two size classes, 0.5 mm and 2.5 mm particle size, by three contrasting types of biogenic habitats: 1) seagrasses, 2) macroalgae, and 3) scleractinian corals. Results showed that benthic organisms with a complex architecture and rough surface - such as hard corals - trap the highest number of microplastics in their aboveground structure. Sediment was however the major microplastic sink, accumulating 1 to 2 orders of magnitude more microplastics than the benthic structure. Microplastic accumulation in the sediment could be explained by near-bed turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), indicating that this is governed by the same hydrodynamic processes leading to sediment trapping. Thus, the most valuable biogenic habitats in terms of nursery and coastal protection services also have the highest capacity of accumulating microplastics in their sediments. A significantly larger fraction of 0.5 mm particles was trapped in the sediment compared to 2.5 mm particles, because especially the smaller microplastics are entrained into the sediment. Present observations contribute to explaining why especially microplastics smaller than 1 mm are missing in surface waters.

18.
Science ; 371(6529)2021 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542110

RESUMO

Oceans have become substantially noisier since the Industrial Revolution. Shipping, resource exploration, and infrastructure development have increased the anthrophony (sounds generated by human activities), whereas the biophony (sounds of biological origin) has been reduced by hunting, fishing, and habitat degradation. Climate change is affecting geophony (abiotic, natural sounds). Existing evidence shows that anthrophony affects marine animals at multiple levels, including their behavior, physiology, and, in extreme cases, survival. This should prompt management actions to deploy existing solutions to reduce noise levels in the ocean, thereby allowing marine animals to reestablish their use of ocean sound as a central ecological trait in a healthy ocean.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/fisiologia , Audição , Ruído , Animais , Oceanos e Mares
19.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 11(1)2021 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561229

RESUMO

The gray mangrove [Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh.] is the most widely distributed mangrove species, ranging throughout the Indo-West Pacific. It presents remarkable levels of geographic variation both in phenotypic traits and habitat, often occupying extreme environments at the edges of its distribution. However, subspecific evolutionary relationships and adaptive mechanisms remain understudied, especially across populations of the West Indian Ocean. High-quality genomic resources accounting for such variability are also sparse. Here we report the first chromosome-level assembly of the genome of A. marina. We used a previously release draft assembly and proximity ligation libraries Chicago and Dovetail HiC for scaffolding, producing a 456,526,188-bp long genome. The largest 32 scaffolds (22.4-10.5 Mb) accounted for 98% of the genome assembly, with the remaining 2% distributed among much shorter 3,759 scaffolds (62.4-1 kb). We annotated 45,032 protein-coding genes using tissue-specific RNA-seq data in combination with de novo gene prediction, from which 34,442 were associated to GO terms. Genome assembly and annotated set of genes yield a 96.7% and 95.1% completeness score, respectively, when compared with the eudicots BUSCO dataset. Furthermore, an FST survey based on resequencing data successfully identified a set of candidate genes potentially involved in local adaptation and revealed patterns of adaptive variability correlating with a temperature gradient in Arabian mangrove populations. Our A. marina genomic assembly provides a highly valuable resource for genome evolution analysis, as well as for identifying functional genes involved in adaptive processes and speciation.


Assuntos
Avicennia , Genoma de Planta , Avicennia/genética , Ambientes Extremos , Genômica , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Fenótipo
20.
Sci Adv ; 7(9)2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33637531

RESUMO

Fisheries in waters beyond national jurisdiction ("high seas") are difficult to monitor and manage. Their regulation for sustainability requires critical information on how fishing effort is distributed across fishing and landing areas, including possible border effects at the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) limits. We infer the global network linking harbors supporting fishing vessels to fishing areas in high seas from automatic identification system tracking data in 2014, observing a modular structure, with vessels departing from a given harbor fishing mostly in a single province. The top 16% of these harbors support 84% of fishing effort in high seas, with harbors in low- and middle-income countries ranked among the top supporters. Fishing effort concentrates along narrow strips attached to the boundaries of EEZs with productive fisheries, identifying a free-riding behavior that jeopardizes efforts by nations to sustainably manage their fisheries, perpetuating the tragedy of the commons affecting global fishery resources.

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