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1.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3737, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702313

RESUMO

Twisted bilayer graphene (tBLG) provides a fascinating platform for engineering flat bands and inducing correlated phenomena. By designing the stacking architecture of graphene layers, twisted multilayer graphene can exhibit different symmetries with rich tunability. For example, in twisted monolayer-bilayer graphene (tMBG) which breaks the C2z symmetry, transport measurements reveal an asymmetric phase diagram under an out-of-plane electric field, exhibiting correlated insulating state and ferromagnetic state respectively when reversing the field direction. Revealing how the electronic structure evolves with electric field is critical for providing a better understanding of such asymmetric field-tunable properties. Here we report the experimental observation of field-tunable dichotomic electronic structure of tMBG by nanospot angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (NanoARPES) with operando gating. Interestingly, selective enhancement of the relative spectral weight contributions from monolayer and bilayer graphene is observed when switching the polarity of the bias voltage. Combining experimental results with theoretical calculations, the origin of such field-tunable electronic structure, resembling either tBLG or twisted double-bilayer graphene (tDBG), is attributed to the selectively enhanced contribution from different stacking graphene layers with a strong electron-hole asymmetry. Our work provides electronic structure insights for understanding the rich field-tunable physics of tMBG.

2.
Nat Mater ; 2024 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38658674

RESUMO

Magic-angle twisted bilayer graphene exhibits correlated phenomena such as superconductivity and Mott insulating states related to the weakly dispersing flat band near the Fermi energy. Such a flat band is expected to be sensitive to both the moiré period and lattice relaxations. Thus, clarifying the evolution of the electronic structure with the twist angle is critical for understanding the physics of magic-angle twisted bilayer graphene. Here we combine nano-spot angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy to resolve the fine electronic structure of the flat band and remote bands, as well as their evolution with twist angle from 1.07° to 2.60°. Near the magic angle, the dispersion is characterized by a flat band near the Fermi energy with a strongly reduced band width. Moreover, we observe a spectral weight transfer between remote bands at higher binding energy, which allows to extract the modulated interlayer spacing near the magic angle. Our work provides direct spectroscopic information on flat band physics and highlights the important role of lattice relaxations.

3.
Nano Lett ; 23(22): 10342-10349, 2023 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37922394

RESUMO

Exfoliated magnetic 2D materials enable versatile tuning of magnetization, e.g., by gating or providing proximity-induced exchange interaction. However, their electronic band structure after exfoliation has not been probed, presumably due to their photochemical sensitivity. Here, we provide micrometer-scale angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of the exfoliated intralayer antiferromagnet MnPS3 above and below the Néel temperature down to one monolayer. Favorable comparison with density functional theory calculations enables identifying the orbital character of the observed bands. Consistently, we find pronounced changes across the Néel temperature for bands consisting of Mn 3d and 3p levels of adjacent S atoms. The deduced orbital mixture indicates that the superexchange is relevant for the magnetic interaction. There are only minor changes between monolayer and thicker films, demonstrating the predominant 2D character of MnPS3. The novel access is transferable to other MPX3 materials (M: transition metal, P: phosphorus, X: chalcogenide), providing several antiferromagnetic arrangements.

4.
Science ; 381(6658): 677-681, 2023 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37561852

RESUMO

Moiré superlattices in twisted two-dimensional materials have generated tremendous excitement as a platform for achieving quantum properties on demand. However, the moiré pattern is highly sensitive to the interlayer atomic registry, and current assembly techniques suffer from imprecise control of the average twist angle, spatial inhomogeneity in the local twist angle, and distortions caused by random strain. We manipulated the moiré patterns in hetero- and homobilayers through in-plane bending of monolayer ribbons, using the tip of an atomic force microscope. This technique achieves continuous variation of twist angles with improved twist-angle homogeneity and reduced random strain, resulting in moiré patterns with tunable wavelength and ultralow disorder. Our results may enable detailed studies of ultralow-disorder moiré systems and the realization of precise strain-engineered devices.

5.
Nanoscale Adv ; 5(12): 3225-3232, 2023 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37325527

RESUMO

In two dimensional materials, substitutional doping during growth can be used to alter the electronic properties. Here, we report on the stable growth of p-type hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) using Mg-atoms as substitutional impurities in the h-BN honeycomb lattice. We use micro-Raman spectroscopy, angle-resolved photoemission measurements (nano-ARPES) and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) to study the electronic properties of Mg-doped h-BN grown by solidification from a ternary Mg-B-N system. Besides the observation of a new Raman line at ∼1347 cm-1 in Mg-doped h-BN, nano-ARPES reveals p-type carrier concentration. Our nano-ARPES experiments demonstrate that the Mg dopants can significantly alter the electronic properties of h-BN by shifting the valence band maximum about 150 meV toward higher binding energies with respect to pristine h-BN. We further show that, Mg doped h-BN exhibits a robust, almost unaltered, band structure compared to pristine h-BN, with no significant deformation. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) confirms the p-type doping, with a reduced Fermi level difference between pristine and Mg-doped h-BN crystals. Our findings demonstrate that conventional semiconductor doping by Mg as substitutional impurities is a promising route to high-quality p-type doped h-BN films. Such stable p-type doping of large band h-BN is a key feature for 2D materials applications in deep ultra-violet light emitting diodes or wide bandgap optoelectronic devices.

6.
Nanoscale ; 15(21): 9440-9448, 2023 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37158270

RESUMO

As nanocrystal-based devices gain maturity, a comprehensive understanding of their electronic structure is necessary for further optimization. Most spectroscopic techniques typically examine pristine materials and disregard the coupling of the active material to its actual environment, the influence of an applied electric field, and possible illumination effects. Therefore, it is critical to develop tools that can probe device in situ and operando. Here, we explore photoemission microscopy as a tool to unveil the energy landscape of a HgTe NC-based photodiode. We propose a planar diode stack to facilitate surface-sensitive photoemission measurements. We demonstrate that the method gives direct quantification of the diode's built-in voltage. Furthermore, we discuss how it is affected by particle size and illumination. We show that combining SnO2 and Ag2Te as electron and hole transport layers is better suited for extended-short-wave infrared materials than materials with larger bandgaps. We also identify the effect of photodoping over the SnO2 layer and propose a strategy to overcome it. Given its simplicity, the method appears to be of utmost interest for screening diode design strategies.

7.
Nano Lett ; 23(1): 170-176, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36562744

RESUMO

Electron doping of graphene has been extensively studied on graphene-supported surfaces, where the metallicity is influenced by the substrate. Herewith we propose potassium adsorption on free-standing nanoporous graphene, thus eluding any effect due to the substrate. We monitor the electron migration in the π* downward-shifted conduction band. In this rigid band shift, we correlate the spectral density of the π* state in the upper Dirac cone with the associated plasmon, blue-shifted with increasing K dose, as deduced by electron energy loss spectroscopy. These results are confirmed by the Dirac plasmon activated by the C 1s emitted electrons, thanks to spatially resolved photoemission. This crosscheck constitutes a reference on the correlation between the electronic π* states in the conduction band and the Dirac plasmon evolution upon in situ electron doping of fully free-standing graphene.

8.
Nanotechnology ; 34(3)2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36228546

RESUMO

2D boron nitride (2D-BN) was synthesized by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy on polycrystalline and monocrystalline Ni substrates using gaseous borazine and active nitrogen generated by a remote plasma source. The excess of nitrogen atoms allows to overcome the thickness self-limitation active on Ni when using borazine alone. The nucleation density and the shape of the 2D-BN domains are clearly related to the Ni substrate preparation and to the growth parameters. Based on spatially-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and on the detection of the π plasmon peak, we discuss the origin of the N1s and B1s components and their relationship with an electronic coupling at the interface. After optimization of the growth parameters, a full 2D-BN coverage is obtained, although the material thickness is not evenly distributed. The 2D-BN presents a granular structure on (111) oriented Ni grains, showing a rather poor cristallographic quality. On the contrary, high quality 2D-BN is found on (101) and (001) Ni grains, where triangular islands are observed whose lateral size is limited to ∼20µm.

9.
Nanotechnology ; 34(4)2022 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36252554

RESUMO

Nearly localized moiré flat bands in momentum space, arising at particular twist angles, are the key to achieve correlated effects in transition-metal dichalcogenides. Here, we use angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) to visualize the presence of a flat band near the Fermi level of van der Waals WSe2/MoSe2heterobilayer grown by molecular beam epitaxy. This flat band is localized near the Fermi level and has a width of several hundred meVs. By combining ARPES measurements with density functional theory calculations, we confirm the coexistence of different domains, namely the reference 2H stacking without layer misorientation and regions with arbitrary twist angles. For the 2H-stacked heterobilayer, our ARPES results show strong interlayer hybridization effects, further confirmed by complementary micro- Raman spectroscopy measurements. The spin-splitting of the valence band atKis determined to be 470 meV. The valence band maximum (VBM) position of the heterobilayer is located at the Γ point. The energy difference between the VBM at Γ and theKpoint is of -60 meV, which is a stark difference compared to individual single monolayer WSe2and monolayer WSe2, showing both a VBM atK.

10.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 13(33): 7861-7869, 2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35977384

RESUMO

To use efficiently the magnetic functionalities emerging at the surfaces or interfaces of novel lanthanides-based materials, there is a need for complementary methods to probe the atomic-layer resolved magnetic properties. Here, we show that 4f photoelectron spectroscopy is highly sensitive to the collective orientation of 4f magnetic moments and, thus, a powerful tool for characterizing the related properties. To demonstrate this, we present the results of systematic study of a family of layered crystalline 4f-materials, which are crystallized in the body-centered tetragonal ThCr2Si2 structure. Analysis of 4f spectra indicates that the 4f moments at the surface experience a strong reorientation with respect to the bulk, caused by changes of the crystal-electric field. The presented database of the computed 4f spectra for all trivalent rare-earth ions in their different MJ states will facilitate the estimation of the orientation of the 4f magnetic moments in the layered 4f-systems for efficient control of their magnetic properties.

11.
Nano Lett ; 22(7): 2971-2977, 2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35294200

RESUMO

Conversion of free-standing graphene into pure graphane─where each C atom is sp3 bound to a hydrogen atom─has not been achieved so far, in spite of numerous experimental attempts. Here, we obtain an unprecedented level of hydrogenation (≈90% of sp3 bonds) by exposing fully free-standing nanoporous samples─constituted by a single to a few veils of smoothly rippled graphene─to atomic hydrogen in ultrahigh vacuum. Such a controlled hydrogenation of high-quality and high-specific-area samples converts the original conductive graphene into a wide gap semiconductor, with the valence band maximum (VBM) ∼ 3.5 eV below the Fermi level, as monitored by photoemission spectromicroscopy and confirmed by theoretical predictions. In fact, the calculated band structure unequivocally identifies the achievement of a stable, double-sided fully hydrogenated configuration, with gap opening and no trace of π states, in excellent agreement with the experimental results.

12.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(23): 236403, 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337178

RESUMO

The presence of an electrical transport current in a material is one of the simplest and most important realizations of nonequilibrium physics. The current density breaks the crystalline symmetry and can give rise to dramatic phenomena, such as sliding charge density waves, insulator-to-metal transitions, or gap openings in topologically protected states. Almost nothing is known about how a current influences the electron spectral function, which characterizes most of the solid's electronic, optical, and chemical properties. Here we show that angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with a nanoscale light spot provides not only a wealth of information on local equilibrium properties, but also opens the possibility to access the local nonequilibrium spectral function in the presence of a transport current. Unifying spectroscopic and transport measurements in this way allows simultaneous noninvasive local measurements of the composition, structure, many-body effects, and carrier mobility in the presence of high current densities. In the particular case of our graphene-based device, we are able to correlate the presence of structural defects with locally reduced carrier lifetimes in the spectral function and a locally reduced mobility with a spatial resolution of 500 nm.

13.
Sci Adv ; 6(51)2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355138

RESUMO

Magnetic Weyl semimetals are a newly discovered class of topological materials that may serve as a platform for exotic phenomena, such as axion insulators or the quantum anomalous Hall effect. Here, we use angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio calculations to discover Weyl cones in CoS2, a ferromagnet with pyrite structure that has been long studied as a candidate for half-metallicity, which makes it an attractive material for spintronic devices. We directly observe the topological Fermi arc surface states that link the Weyl nodes, which will influence the performance of CoS2 as a spin injector by modifying its spin polarization at interfaces. In addition, we directly observe a minority-spin bulk electron pocket in the corner of the Brillouin zone, which proves that CoS2 cannot be a true half-metal.

14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3507, 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665572

RESUMO

It has recently been proposed that combining chirality with topological band theory results in a totally new class of fermions. Understanding how these unconventional quasiparticles propagate and interact remains largely unexplored so far. Here, we use scanning tunneling microscopy to visualize the electronic properties of the prototypical chiral topological semimetal PdGa. We reveal chiral quantum interference patterns of opposite spiraling directions for the two PdGa enantiomers, a direct manifestation of the change of sign of their Chern number. Additionally, we demonstrate that PdGa remains topologically non-trivial over a large energy range, experimentally detecting Fermi arcs in an energy window of more than 1.6 eV that is symmetrically centered around the Fermi level. These results are a consequence of the deep connection between chirality in real and reciprocal space in this class of materials, and, thereby, establish PdGa as an ideal topological chiral semimetal.

15.
Science ; 369(6500): 179-183, 2020 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646998

RESUMO

Topological semimetals feature protected nodal band degeneracies characterized by a topological invariant known as the Chern number (C). Nodal band crossings with linear dispersion are expected to have at most [Formula: see text], which sets an upper limit to the magnitude of many topological phenomena in these materials. Here, we show that the chiral crystal palladium gallium (PdGa) displays multifold band crossings, which are connected by exactly four surface Fermi arcs, thus proving that they carry the maximal Chern number magnitude of 4. By comparing two enantiomers, we observe a reversal of their Fermi-arc velocities, which demonstrates that the handedness of chiral crystals can be used to control the sign of their Chern numbers.

16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3283, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337765

RESUMO

Control of atomic-scale interfaces between materials with distinct electronic structures is crucial for the design and fabrication of most electronic devices. In the case of two-dimensional materials, disparate electronic structures can be realized even within a single uniform sheet, merely by locally applying different vertical gate voltages. Here, we utilize the inherently nano-structured single layer and bilayer graphene on silicon carbide to investigate lateral electronic structure variations in an adjacent single layer of tungsten disulfide (WS2). The electronic band alignments are mapped in energy and momentum space using angle-resolved photoemission with a spatial resolution on the order of 500 nm (nanoARPES). We find that the WS2 band offsets track the work function of the underlying single layer and bilayer graphene, and we relate such changes to observed lateral patterns of exciton and trion luminescence from WS2.

17.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 26(Pt 2): 467-472, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30855257

RESUMO

This article reports on the fabrication and testing of dedicated Fresnel zone plates for use at the nano-ARPES branch of the I05-ARPES beamline of Diamond Light Source to perform angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy with sub-micrometre resolution in real space. The aim of the design was to provide high photon flux combined with sub-micrometre spot sizes. The focusing lenses were tested with respect to efficiency and spatial resolution in the extreme ultraviolet between 50 eV and 90 eV. The experimentally determined diffraction efficiencies of the zone plates are as high as 8.6% at 80 eV, and a real-space resolution of 0.4 µm was demonstrated. Using the zone-plate-based setup, monolayer flakes of the two-dimensional semiconductor WS2 were investigated. This work demonstrates that the local electronic structure can be obtained from an area of a few micrometres across a two-dimensional heterostructure.

18.
Nano Lett ; 17(2): 811-820, 2017 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28032768

RESUMO

Finding ways to create and control the spin-dependent properties of two-dimensional electron states (2DESs) is a major challenge for the elaboration of novel spin-based devices. Spin-orbit and exchange-magnetic interactions (SOI and EMI) are two fundamental mechanisms that enable access to the tunability of spin-dependent properties of carriers. The silicon surface of HoRh2Si2 appears to be a unique model system, where concurrent SOI and EMI can be visualized and controlled by varying the temperature. The beauty and simplicity of this system lie in the 4f moments, which act as a multiple tuning instrument on the 2DESs, as the 4f projections parallel and perpendicular to the surface order at essentially different temperatures. Here we show that the SOI locks the spins of the 2DESs exclusively in the surface plane when the 4f moments are disordered: the Rashba-Bychkov effect. When the temperature is gradually lowered and the system experiences magnetic order, the rising EMI progressively competes with the SOI leading to a fundamental change in the spin-dependent properties of the 2DESs. The spins rotate and reorient toward the out-of-plane Ho 4f moments. Our findings show that the direction of the spins and the spin-splitting of the two-dimensional electrons at the surface can be manipulated in a controlled way by using only one parameter: the temperature.

19.
Nano Lett ; 16(8): 4738-45, 2016 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27357620

RESUMO

Layered transition metal chalcogenides with large spin orbit coupling have recently sparked much interest due to their potential applications for electronic, optoelectronic, spintronics, and valleytronics. However, most current understanding of the electronic structure near band valleys in momentum space is based on either theoretical investigations or optical measurements, leaving the detailed band structure elusive. For example, the exact position of the conduction band valley of bulk MoS2 remains controversial. Here, using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with submicron spatial resolution (micro-ARPES), we systematically imaged the conduction/valence band structure evolution across representative chalcogenides MoS2, WS2, and WSe2, as well as the thickness dependent electronic structure from bulk to the monolayer limit. These results establish a solid basis to understand the underlying valley physics of these materials, and also provide a link between chalcogenide electronic band structure and their physical properties for potential valleytronics applications.

20.
Nano Lett ; 13(10): 4697-701, 2013 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24004050

RESUMO

Unfortunately, the practical applications of Li-O2 batteries are impeded by poor rechargeability. Here, for the first time we show that superoxide radicals generated at the cathode during discharge react with carbon that contains activated double bonds or aromatics to form epoxy groups and carbonates, which limits the rechargeability of Li-O2 cells. Carbon materials with a low amount of functional groups and defects demonstrate better stability thus keeping the carbon will-o'-the-wisp lit for lithium-air batteries.

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