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1.
Nanotechnology ; 34(3)2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36228546

RESUMO

2D boron nitride (2D-BN) was synthesized by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy on polycrystalline and monocrystalline Ni substrates using gaseous borazine and active nitrogen generated by a remote plasma source. The excess of nitrogen atoms allows to overcome the thickness self-limitation active on Ni when using borazine alone. The nucleation density and the shape of the 2D-BN domains are clearly related to the Ni substrate preparation and to the growth parameters. Based on spatially-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and on the detection of the π plasmon peak, we discuss the origin of the N1s and B1s components and their relationship with an electronic coupling at the interface. After optimization of the growth parameters, a full 2D-BN coverage is obtained, although the material thickness is not evenly distributed. The 2D-BN presents a granular structure on (111) oriented Ni grains, showing a rather poor cristallographic quality. On the contrary, high quality 2D-BN is found on (101) and (001) Ni grains, where triangular islands are observed whose lateral size is limited to ∼20µm.

2.
Nanotechnology ; 34(4)2022 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36252554

RESUMO

Nearly localized moiré flat bands in momentum space, arising at particular twist angles, are the key to achieve correlated effects in transition-metal dichalcogenides. Here, we use angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) to visualize the presence of a flat band near the Fermi level of van der Waals WSe2/MoSe2heterobilayer grown by molecular beam epitaxy. This flat band is localized near the Fermi level and has a width of several hundred meVs. By combining ARPES measurements with density functional theory calculations, we confirm the coexistence of different domains, namely the reference 2H stacking without layer misorientation and regions with arbitrary twist angles. For the 2H-stacked heterobilayer, our ARPES results show strong interlayer hybridization effects, further confirmed by complementary micro- Raman spectroscopy measurements. The spin-splitting of the valence band atKis determined to be 470 meV. The valence band maximum (VBM) position of the heterobilayer is located at the Γ point. The energy difference between the VBM at Γ and theKpoint is of -60 meV, which is a stark difference compared to individual single monolayer WSe2and monolayer WSe2, showing both a VBM atK.

3.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 13(33): 7861-7869, 2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35977384

RESUMO

To use efficiently the magnetic functionalities emerging at the surfaces or interfaces of novel lanthanides-based materials, there is a need for complementary methods to probe the atomic-layer resolved magnetic properties. Here, we show that 4f photoelectron spectroscopy is highly sensitive to the collective orientation of 4f magnetic moments and, thus, a powerful tool for characterizing the related properties. To demonstrate this, we present the results of systematic study of a family of layered crystalline 4f-materials, which are crystallized in the body-centered tetragonal ThCr2Si2 structure. Analysis of 4f spectra indicates that the 4f moments at the surface experience a strong reorientation with respect to the bulk, caused by changes of the crystal-electric field. The presented database of the computed 4f spectra for all trivalent rare-earth ions in their different MJ states will facilitate the estimation of the orientation of the 4f magnetic moments in the layered 4f-systems for efficient control of their magnetic properties.

4.
Nano Lett ; 22(7): 2971-2977, 2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35294200

RESUMO

Conversion of free-standing graphene into pure graphane─where each C atom is sp3 bound to a hydrogen atom─has not been achieved so far, in spite of numerous experimental attempts. Here, we obtain an unprecedented level of hydrogenation (≈90% of sp3 bonds) by exposing fully free-standing nanoporous samples─constituted by a single to a few veils of smoothly rippled graphene─to atomic hydrogen in ultrahigh vacuum. Such a controlled hydrogenation of high-quality and high-specific-area samples converts the original conductive graphene into a wide gap semiconductor, with the valence band maximum (VBM) ∼ 3.5 eV below the Fermi level, as monitored by photoemission spectromicroscopy and confirmed by theoretical predictions. In fact, the calculated band structure unequivocally identifies the achievement of a stable, double-sided fully hydrogenated configuration, with gap opening and no trace of π states, in excellent agreement with the experimental results.

5.
Sci Adv ; 6(51)2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355138

RESUMO

Magnetic Weyl semimetals are a newly discovered class of topological materials that may serve as a platform for exotic phenomena, such as axion insulators or the quantum anomalous Hall effect. Here, we use angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio calculations to discover Weyl cones in CoS2, a ferromagnet with pyrite structure that has been long studied as a candidate for half-metallicity, which makes it an attractive material for spintronic devices. We directly observe the topological Fermi arc surface states that link the Weyl nodes, which will influence the performance of CoS2 as a spin injector by modifying its spin polarization at interfaces. In addition, we directly observe a minority-spin bulk electron pocket in the corner of the Brillouin zone, which proves that CoS2 cannot be a true half-metal.

6.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(23): 236403, 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337178

RESUMO

The presence of an electrical transport current in a material is one of the simplest and most important realizations of nonequilibrium physics. The current density breaks the crystalline symmetry and can give rise to dramatic phenomena, such as sliding charge density waves, insulator-to-metal transitions, or gap openings in topologically protected states. Almost nothing is known about how a current influences the electron spectral function, which characterizes most of the solid's electronic, optical, and chemical properties. Here we show that angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with a nanoscale light spot provides not only a wealth of information on local equilibrium properties, but also opens the possibility to access the local nonequilibrium spectral function in the presence of a transport current. Unifying spectroscopic and transport measurements in this way allows simultaneous noninvasive local measurements of the composition, structure, many-body effects, and carrier mobility in the presence of high current densities. In the particular case of our graphene-based device, we are able to correlate the presence of structural defects with locally reduced carrier lifetimes in the spectral function and a locally reduced mobility with a spatial resolution of 500 nm.

7.
Science ; 369(6500): 179-183, 2020 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646998

RESUMO

Topological semimetals feature protected nodal band degeneracies characterized by a topological invariant known as the Chern number (C). Nodal band crossings with linear dispersion are expected to have at most [Formula: see text], which sets an upper limit to the magnitude of many topological phenomena in these materials. Here, we show that the chiral crystal palladium gallium (PdGa) displays multifold band crossings, which are connected by exactly four surface Fermi arcs, thus proving that they carry the maximal Chern number magnitude of 4. By comparing two enantiomers, we observe a reversal of their Fermi-arc velocities, which demonstrates that the handedness of chiral crystals can be used to control the sign of their Chern numbers.

8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3507, 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665572

RESUMO

It has recently been proposed that combining chirality with topological band theory results in a totally new class of fermions. Understanding how these unconventional quasiparticles propagate and interact remains largely unexplored so far. Here, we use scanning tunneling microscopy to visualize the electronic properties of the prototypical chiral topological semimetal PdGa. We reveal chiral quantum interference patterns of opposite spiraling directions for the two PdGa enantiomers, a direct manifestation of the change of sign of their Chern number. Additionally, we demonstrate that PdGa remains topologically non-trivial over a large energy range, experimentally detecting Fermi arcs in an energy window of more than 1.6 eV that is symmetrically centered around the Fermi level. These results are a consequence of the deep connection between chirality in real and reciprocal space in this class of materials, and, thereby, establish PdGa as an ideal topological chiral semimetal.

9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3283, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337765

RESUMO

Control of atomic-scale interfaces between materials with distinct electronic structures is crucial for the design and fabrication of most electronic devices. In the case of two-dimensional materials, disparate electronic structures can be realized even within a single uniform sheet, merely by locally applying different vertical gate voltages. Here, we utilize the inherently nano-structured single layer and bilayer graphene on silicon carbide to investigate lateral electronic structure variations in an adjacent single layer of tungsten disulfide (WS2). The electronic band alignments are mapped in energy and momentum space using angle-resolved photoemission with a spatial resolution on the order of 500 nm (nanoARPES). We find that the WS2 band offsets track the work function of the underlying single layer and bilayer graphene, and we relate such changes to observed lateral patterns of exciton and trion luminescence from WS2.

10.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 26(Pt 2): 467-472, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30855257

RESUMO

This article reports on the fabrication and testing of dedicated Fresnel zone plates for use at the nano-ARPES branch of the I05-ARPES beamline of Diamond Light Source to perform angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy with sub-micrometre resolution in real space. The aim of the design was to provide high photon flux combined with sub-micrometre spot sizes. The focusing lenses were tested with respect to efficiency and spatial resolution in the extreme ultraviolet between 50 eV and 90 eV. The experimentally determined diffraction efficiencies of the zone plates are as high as 8.6% at 80 eV, and a real-space resolution of 0.4 µm was demonstrated. Using the zone-plate-based setup, monolayer flakes of the two-dimensional semiconductor WS2 were investigated. This work demonstrates that the local electronic structure can be obtained from an area of a few micrometres across a two-dimensional heterostructure.

11.
Nano Lett ; 17(2): 811-820, 2017 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28032768

RESUMO

Finding ways to create and control the spin-dependent properties of two-dimensional electron states (2DESs) is a major challenge for the elaboration of novel spin-based devices. Spin-orbit and exchange-magnetic interactions (SOI and EMI) are two fundamental mechanisms that enable access to the tunability of spin-dependent properties of carriers. The silicon surface of HoRh2Si2 appears to be a unique model system, where concurrent SOI and EMI can be visualized and controlled by varying the temperature. The beauty and simplicity of this system lie in the 4f moments, which act as a multiple tuning instrument on the 2DESs, as the 4f projections parallel and perpendicular to the surface order at essentially different temperatures. Here we show that the SOI locks the spins of the 2DESs exclusively in the surface plane when the 4f moments are disordered: the Rashba-Bychkov effect. When the temperature is gradually lowered and the system experiences magnetic order, the rising EMI progressively competes with the SOI leading to a fundamental change in the spin-dependent properties of the 2DESs. The spins rotate and reorient toward the out-of-plane Ho 4f moments. Our findings show that the direction of the spins and the spin-splitting of the two-dimensional electrons at the surface can be manipulated in a controlled way by using only one parameter: the temperature.

12.
Nano Lett ; 16(8): 4738-45, 2016 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27357620

RESUMO

Layered transition metal chalcogenides with large spin orbit coupling have recently sparked much interest due to their potential applications for electronic, optoelectronic, spintronics, and valleytronics. However, most current understanding of the electronic structure near band valleys in momentum space is based on either theoretical investigations or optical measurements, leaving the detailed band structure elusive. For example, the exact position of the conduction band valley of bulk MoS2 remains controversial. Here, using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with submicron spatial resolution (micro-ARPES), we systematically imaged the conduction/valence band structure evolution across representative chalcogenides MoS2, WS2, and WSe2, as well as the thickness dependent electronic structure from bulk to the monolayer limit. These results establish a solid basis to understand the underlying valley physics of these materials, and also provide a link between chalcogenide electronic band structure and their physical properties for potential valleytronics applications.

13.
Nano Lett ; 13(10): 4697-701, 2013 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24004050

RESUMO

Unfortunately, the practical applications of Li-O2 batteries are impeded by poor rechargeability. Here, for the first time we show that superoxide radicals generated at the cathode during discharge react with carbon that contains activated double bonds or aromatics to form epoxy groups and carbonates, which limits the rechargeability of Li-O2 cells. Carbon materials with a low amount of functional groups and defects demonstrate better stability thus keeping the carbon will-o'-the-wisp lit for lithium-air batteries.

14.
Nanoscale ; 5(19): 9057-61, 2013 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23945527

RESUMO

We present a multi-technique characterisation of graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and thereafter transferred to and suspended on a grid for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The properties of the electronic band structure are investigated by angle-resolved photoelectron spectromicroscopy, while the structural and crystalline properties are studied by TEM and Raman spectroscopy. We demonstrate that the suspended graphene membrane locally shows electronic properties comparable with those of samples prepared by micromechanical cleaving of graphite. Measurements show that the area of high quality suspended graphene is limited by the folding of the graphene during the transfer.

15.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 13(8): 3394-410, 2011 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21221435

RESUMO

Nitrogen is often used as an inert background atmosphere in solid state studies of electrode and reaction kinetics, of solid state studies of transport phenomena, and in applications e.g. solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), sensors and membranes. Thus, chemical and electrochemical reactions of oxides related to or with dinitrogen are not supposed and in general not considered. We demonstrate by a steady state electrochemical polarisation experiments complemented with in situ photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) that at a temperature of 450 °C dinitrogen can be electrochemically activated at the three phase boundary between N(2), a metal microelectrode and one of the most widely used solid oxide electrolytes--yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ)--at potentials more negative than E = -1.25 V. The process is neither related to a reduction of the electrolyte nor to an adsorption process or a purely chemical reaction but is electrochemical in nature. Only at potentials more negative than E = -2 V did new components of Zr 3d and Y 3d signals with a lower formal charge appear, thus indicating electrochemical reduction of the electrolyte matrix. Theoretical model calculations suggest the presence of anionic intermediates with delocalized electrons at the electrode/electrolyte reaction interface. The ex situ SIMS analysis confirmed that nitrogen is incorporated and migrates into the electrolyte beneath the electrode.

16.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 17(4): 445-50, 2010 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20567075

RESUMO

The extensive upgrade of the experimental end-station of the SPECTROMICROSCOPY-3.2L beamline at Elettra synchrotron light source is reported. After the upgrade, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy from a submicrometre spot and scanning microscopy images monitoring the photoelectron signal inside selected acquisition angle and energy windows can be performed. As a test case, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy from single flakes of highly oriented pyrolitic graphite and imaging of the flakes with image contrast owing to rotation of the band dispersion of different flakes are presented.

17.
Phys Rev Lett ; 99(4): 046803, 2007 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17678388

RESUMO

The diffusion mechanism of indium atoms along multiwalled carbon nanotubes is studied by means of photoemission spectromicroscopy and density functional theory calculations. The unusually high activation temperature for diffusion (approximately 700 K), the complex C 1s and In 3d5/2 spectra, and the calculated adsorption energies and diffusion barriers suggest that the indium transport is controlled by the concentration of defects in the C network and proceeds via hopping of indium adatoms between C vacancies.

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