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1.
Front Psychiatry ; 15: 1286135, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38435971

RESUMO

Introduction: Toxoplasma gondii (TG) is a common protozoan parasite infecting approximately one third of the human population. Animal studies have shown that this parasite can manipulate its host behavior. Based on this, human studies have assessed if TG can be involved in mental health disorders associated with important behavioral modifications such as schizophrenia. However, results have been discrepant. Given that TG has a strong impact on fear and risk-taking processes in animal studies and that fear and risk-taking behaviors are associated with the human stress response, we tested whether glucocorticoid biomarkers (salivary and hair) differ in people with schizophrenia and controls as a function of TG status. Methods: We measured TG antibodies in blood samples, as well as salivary and hair glucocorticoid levels in 226 people with schizophrenia (19.9% women, mean age = 39 years old) and 129 healthy individuals (controls) (45.7% women, mean age = 41 years old). Results: The results showed that people with schizophrenia infected with TG presented significantly higher hair glucocorticoid concentrations than non-infected people with schizophrenia. This effect was not found in control participants. No effect was observed for salivary glucocorticoid levels. Additionally, there were no associations between TG infection and positive psychotic symptoms nor impulsivity. Discussion: These results show that people with schizophrenia present high levels of hair glucocorticoid levels only when they are infected with TG. Further studies performed in populations suffering from other mental health disorders are needed to determine if this effect is specific to schizophrenia, or whether it is generalized across mental health disorders.

2.
Evol Appl ; 17(3): e13670, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38468711

RESUMO

Since the emergence of a transmissible cancer, devil facial tumour disease (DFT1), in the 1980s, wild Tasmanian devil populations have been in decline. In 2016, a second, independently evolved transmissible cancer (DFT2) was discovered raising concerns for survival of the host species. Here, we applied experimental and modelling frameworks to examine competition dynamics between the two transmissible cancers in vitro. Using representative cell lines for DFT1 and DFT2, we have found that in monoculture, DFT2 grows twice as fast as DFT1 but reaches lower maximum cell densities. Using co-cultures, we demonstrate that DFT2 outcompetes DFT1: the number of DFT1 cells decreasing over time, never reaching exponential growth. This phenomenon could not be replicated when cells were grown separated by a semi-permeable membrane, consistent with exertion of mechanical stress on DFT1 cells by DFT2. A logistic model and a Lotka-Volterra competition model were used to interrogate monoculture and co-culture growth curves, respectively, suggesting DFT2 is a better competitor than DFT1, but also showing that competition outcomes might depend on the initial number of cells, at least in the laboratory. We provide theories how the in vitro results could be translated to observations in the wild and propose that these results may indicate that although DFT2 is currently in a smaller geographic area than DFT1, it could have the potential to outcompete DFT1. Furthermore, we provide a framework for improving the parameterization of epidemiological models applied to these cancer lineages, which will inform future disease management.

3.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2016): 20232666, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351808

RESUMO

Wildlife is increasingly exposed to sublethal transient cancer risk factors, including mutagenic substances, which activates their anti-cancer defences, promotes tumourigenesis, and may negatively impact populations. Little is known about how exposure to cancer risk factors impacts the behaviour of wildlife. Here, we investigated the effects of a sublethal, short-term exposure to a carcinogen at environmentally relevant concentrations on the activity patterns of wild Girardia tigrina planaria during a two-phase experiment, consisting of a 7-day exposure to cadmium period followed by a 7-day recovery period. To comprehensively explore the effects of the exposure on activity patterns, we employed the double hierarchical generalized linear model framework which explicitly models residual intraindividual variability in addition to the mean and variance of the population. We found that exposed planaria were less active compared to unexposed individuals and were able to recover to pre-exposure activity levels albeit with a reduced variance in activity at the start of the recovery phase. Planaria showing high activity levels were less predictable with larger daily activity variations and higher residual variance. Thus, the shift in behavioural variability induced by an exposure to a cancer risk factor can be quantified using advanced tools from the field of behavioural ecology. This is required to understand how tumourous processes affect the ecology of species.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Neoplasias , Humanos , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Animais Selvagens , Fatores de Risco
4.
Mol Ecol ; 33(6): e17283, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38288572

RESUMO

Avian embryos develop in an egg composition which reflects both maternal condition and the recent environment of their mother. In birds, yolk corticosterone (CORT) influences development by impacting pre- and postnatal growth, as well as nestling stress responses and development. One possible mechanism through which maternal CORT may affect offspring development is via changes to offspring DNA methylation. We sought to investigate this, for the first time in birds, by quantifying the impact of manipulations to maternal CORT on offspring DNA methylation. We non-invasively manipulated plasma CORT concentrations of egg-laying female zebra finches (Taeniopygia castanotis) with an acute dose of CORT administered around the time of ovulation and collected their eggs. We then assessed DNA methylation in the resulting embryonic tissue and in their associated vitelline membrane blood vessels, during early development (5 days after lay), using two established methods - liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and methylation-sensitive amplification fragment length polymorphism (MS-AFLP). LC-MS analysis showed that global DNA methylation was lower in embryos from CORT-treated mothers, compared to control embryos. In contrast, blood vessel DNA from eggs from CORT-treated mothers showed global methylation increases, compared to control samples. There was a higher proportion of global DNA methylation in the embryonic DNA of second clutches, compared to first clutches. Locus-specific analyses using MS-AFLP did not reveal a treatment effect. Our results indicate that an acute elevation of maternal CORT around ovulation impacts DNA methylation patterns in their offspring. This could provide a mechanistic understanding of how a mother's experience can affect her offspring's phenotype.


Assuntos
Corticosterona , Passeriformes , Animais , Feminino , Corticosterona/farmacologia , Corticosterona/análise , Metilação de DNA , Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados , DNA
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 913: 169491, 2024 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38154641

RESUMO

The presence of doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI) in bivalves represents a unique mode of mitochondrial transmission, whereby paternal (male-transmitted M-type) and maternal (female-transmitted F-type) haplotypes are transmitted to offspring separately. Male embryos retain both haplotypes, but the M-type is selectively removed from females. Due to the presence of heteroplasmy in males, mtDNA can recombine resulting in a 'masculinized' haplotype referred to as Mf-type. While mtDNA recombination is usually rare, it has been recorded in multiple mussel species across the Northern Hemisphere. Given that mitochondria are the powerhouse of the cell, different mtDNA haplotypes may have different selective advantages under diverse environmental conditions. This may be particularly important for sperm fitness and fertilization success. In this study we aimed to i) determine the presence, prevalence of the Mf-type in Australian blue mussels (Mytilus sp.) and ii) investigate the effect of Mf-mtDNA on sperm performance (a fitness correlate). We found a high prevalence of recombined mtDNA (≈35 %) located within the control region of the mitochondrial genome, which occurred only in specimens that contained Southern Hemisphere mtDNA. The presence of two female mitotypes were identified in the studied mussels, one likely originating from the Northern Hemisphere, and the other either representing the endemic M. planulatus species or introduced genotypes from the Southern Hemisphere. Despite having recombination events present in a third of the studied population, analysis of sperm performance indicated no difference in fertilization success related to mitotype.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Mytilus edulis , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Austrália , Sêmen , Mitocôndrias , DNA Mitocondrial , Bivalves/genética , Fertilização , Recombinação Genética
7.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 19825, 2023 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37963956

RESUMO

The inability to control cell proliferation results in the formation of tumors in many multicellular lineages. Nonetheless, little is known about the extent of conservation of the biological traits and ecological factors that promote or inhibit tumorigenesis across the metazoan tree. Particularly, changes in food availability have been linked to increased cancer incidence in humans, as an outcome of evolutionary mismatch. Here, we apply evolutionary oncology principles to test whether food availability, regardless of the multicellular lineage considered, has an impact on tumorigenesis. We used two phylogenetically unrelated model systems, the cnidarian Hydra oligactis and the fish Danio rerio, to investigate the impact of resource availability on tumor occurrence and progression. Individuals from healthy and tumor-prone lines were placed on four diets that differed in feeding frequency and quantity. For both models, frequent overfeeding favored tumor emergence, while lean diets appeared more protective. In terms of tumor progression, high food availability promoted it, whereas low resources controlled it, but without having a curative effect. We discuss our results in light of current ideas about the possible conservation of basic processes governing cancer in metazoans (including ancestral life history trade-offs at the cell level) and in the framework of evolutionary medicine.


Assuntos
Cnidários , Hydra , Neoplasias , Animais , Humanos , Evolução Biológica , Carcinogênese , Neoplasias/etiologia
8.
Ecol Evol ; 13(9): e10547, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37745791

RESUMO

The hygiene hypothesis, according to which the recent reduction of exposure to infectious agents in the human species would be the origin of various diseases, including autoimmune diseases and cancer, has often been proposed but not properly tested on animals. Here, we evaluated the relevance of this hypothesis to cancer risk in mammals in an original way, namely by using information on zoo mammals. We predicted that a higher richness of parasitic cohorts in the species' natural habitat would result in a greater occurrence of evolutionary mismatch due to the reduction of parasites in captive conditions. This, in turn, could contribute to an increased risk of developing lethal cancers. Using a comparative analysis of 112 mammalian species, we explored the potential relationship between cancer risk and parasite species richness using generalized phylogenetic least squares regressions to relate parasite species richness to cancer risk data. We found no strong evidence that parasite species richness increased cancer risk in zoo mammals for any of the parasite groups we tested. Without constituting definitive proof of the irrelevance of the hygienic hypothesis, our comparative study using zoo mammals does not support it, at least with respect to cancer risks.

9.
Proc Biol Sci ; 290(2001): 20230940, 2023 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37357861

RESUMO

Reproduction is a central activity for all living organisms but is also associated with a diversity of costs that are detrimental for survival. Until recently, the cost of cancer as a selective force has been poorly considered. Considering 191 mammal species, we found cancer mortality was more likely to be detected in species having large, rather than low, litter sizes and long lactation lengths regardless of the placentation types. However, increasing litter size and gestation length are not per se associated with an enhanced cancer mortality risk. Contrary to basic theoretical expectations, the species with the highest cancer mortality were not those with the most invasive (i.e. haemochorial) placentation, but those with a moderately invasive (i.e. endotheliochorial) one. Overall, these results suggest that (i) high reproductive efforts favour oncogenic processes' dynamics, presumably because of trade-offs between allocation in reproduction effort and anti-cancer defences, (ii) cancer defence mechanisms in animals are most often adjusted to align reproductive lifespan, and (iii) malignant cells co-opt existing molecular and physiological pathways for placentation, but species with the most invasive placentation have also selected for potent barriers against lethal cancers. This work suggests that the logic of Peto's paradox seems to be applicable to other traits that promote tumorigenesis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Placentação , Gravidez , Animais , Feminino , Placentação/fisiologia , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Lactação/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Mamíferos , Neoplasias/etiologia
10.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 7449, 2023 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37156860

RESUMO

Hydras are freshwater cnidarians widely used as a biological model to study different questions such as senescence or phenotypic plasticity but also tumoral development. The spontaneous tumors found in these organisms have been so far described in two female lab strains domesticated years ago (Hydra oligactis and Pelmatohydra robusta) and the extent to which these tumors can be representative of tumors within the diversity of wild hydras is completely unknown. In this study, we examined individuals isolated from recently sampled wild strains of different sex and geographical origin, which have developed outgrowths looking like tumors. These tumefactions have common features with the tumors previously described in lab strains: are composed of an accumulation of abnormal cells, resulting in a similar enlargement of the tissue layers. However, we also found diversity within these new types of tumors. Indeed, not only females, but also males seem prone to form these tumors. Finally, the microbiota associated to these tumors is different from the one involved in the previous lineages exhibiting tumors. We found that tumorous individuals hosted yet undescribed Chlamydiales vacuoles. This study brings new insights into the understanding of tumor susceptibility and diversity in brown hydras from different origins.


Assuntos
Chlamydiales , Hydra , Animais , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Água Doce
11.
Evol Med Public Health ; 11(1): 45-52, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36945299

RESUMO

Background: Why humans historically began to incorporate spices into their diets is still a matter of unresolved debate. For example, a recent study (Bromham et al. There is little evidence that spicy food in hot countries is an adaptation to reducing infection risk. Nat Hum Behav 2021;5:878-91.) did not support the most popular hypothesis that spice consumption was a practice favoured by selection in certain environments to reduce food poisoning, parasitic infections, and foodborne diseases. Methods: Because several spices are known to have anticancer effects, we explored the hypothesis that natural selection and/or cultural evolution may have favoured spice consumption as an adaptive prophylactic response to reduce the burden of cancer pathology. We used linear models to investigate the potential relationship between age-standardized gastrointestinal cancer rates and spice consumption in 36 countries. Results: Patterns of spice are not consistent with a cancer mitigation mechanism: the age-standardized rate of almost all gastrointestinal cancers was not related to spice consumption. Conclusions: Direction other than foodborne pathogens and cancers should be explored to understand the health reasons, if any, why our ancestors developed a taste for spices.

12.
Mol Ecol ; 31(24): 6531-6540, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36205590

RESUMO

A plethora of intrinsic and environmental factors have been shown to influence the length of telomeres, the protector of chromosome ends. Despite the growing interest in infection-telomere interactions, there is very limited knowledge on how transmissible cancers influence telomere maintenance. An emblematic example of transmissible cancer occurs in the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii), whose populations have been dramatically reduced by infectious cancer cells. To investigate associations between telomere dynamics and the transmissible cancer, we used longitudinal data from a Tasmanian devil population that has been exposed to the disease for over 15 years. We detected substantial temporal variation in individual telomere length (TL), and a positive significant association between TL and age, as well as a marginally significant trend for devils with devil facial tumour disease (DFTD) having longer telomeres. A proportional hazard analysis yielded no significant effect of TL on the development of DFTD. Like previous studies, we show the complexity that TL dynamics may exhibit across the lifetime of organisms. Our work highlights the importance of long-term longitudinal sampling for understanding the effects of wildlife diseases on TL.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Faciais , Marsupiais , Animais , Animais Selvagens/genética , Neoplasias Faciais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Faciais/genética , Neoplasias Faciais/patologia , Marsupiais/genética , Telômero/genética
13.
Med ; 3(8): 523-525, 2022 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35963232

RESUMO

The survival duration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the vasculature is a critical parameter in the establishment of the metastatic cascade. Diamantopoulou and colleagues demonstrate that the metastatic capacity of CTCs is strongly influenced by circadian rhythms, suggesting a rationale for the time-controlled interrogation and treatment of metastatic cancers.


Assuntos
Células Neoplásicas Circulantes , Contagem de Células , Humanos , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patologia
14.
Mol Ecol ; 31(23): 6273-6285, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35510763

RESUMO

Recent developments in telomere and cancer evolutionary ecology demonstrate a very complex relationship between the need of tissue repair and controlling the emergence of abnormally proliferating cells. The trade-off is balanced by natural and sexual selection and mediated via both intrinsic and environmental factors. Here, we explore the effects of telomere-cancer dynamics on life history traits and strategies as well as on the cumulative effects of genetic and environmental factors. We show that telomere-cancer dynamics constitute an incredibly complex and multifaceted process. From research to date, it appears that the relationship between telomere length and cancer risk is likely nonlinear with good evidence that both (too) long and (too) short telomeres can be associated with increased cancer risk. The ability and propensity of organisms to respond to the interplay of telomere dynamics and oncogenic processes, depends on the combination of its tissue environments, life history strategies, environmental challenges (i.e., extreme climatic conditions), pressure by predators and pollution, as well as its evolutionary history. Consequently, precise interpretation of telomere-cancer dynamics requires integrative and multidisciplinary approaches. Finally, incorporating information on telomere dynamics and the expression of tumour suppressor genes and oncogenes could potentially provide the synergistic overview that could lay the foundations to study telomere-cancer dynamics at ecosystem levels.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Neoplasias , Humanos , Encurtamento do Telômero/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Evolução Biológica , Telômero/genética
15.
Pathogens ; 11(2)2022 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35215185

RESUMO

Although the true prevalence of transmissible cancers is not known, these atypical malignancies are likely rare in the wild. The reasons behind this rarity are only partially understood, but the "Perfect Storm hypothesis" suggests that transmissible cancers are infrequent because a precise confluence of tumor and host traits is required for their emergence. This explanation is plausible as transmissible cancers, like all emerging pathogens, will need specific biotic and abiotic conditions to be able to not only emerge, but to spread to detectable levels. Because those conditions would be rarely met, transmissible cancers would rarely spread, and thus most of the time disappear, even though they would regularly appear. Thus, further research is needed to identify the most important factors that can facilitate or block the emergence of transmissible cancers and influence their evolution. Such investigations are particularly relevant given that human activities are increasingly encroaching into wild areas, altering ecosystems and their processes, which can influence the conditions needed for the emergence and spread of transmissible cell lines.

16.
Infect Genet Evol ; 98: 105221, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35065301

RESUMO

The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) is a carnivorous marsupial threatened by a transmissible cancer, devil facial tumour disease (DFTD). While we have a good understanding of the effect of the transmissible cancer on its host, little information is available about its potential interactions with ectoparasites. With this study, we aimed to determine the factors driving tick loads in a DFTD affected Tasmanian devil population, using long-term mark-recapture data. We investigated the effect of a range of life history traits (age, weight, sex, body condition) and of DFTD (time since DFTD arrival and presence of tumours) on the ectoparasitic tick load of the devils. Mixed effect models revealed that tick load in Tasmanian devils was primarily driven by season, weight, body condition and age. Young devils had more ticks compared to older or healthier devils. The reduction in Tasmanian devil population size over the past 14 years at the studied site had little effect on tick infestation. We also found that devils infected by DFTD had a similar tick load compared to those free of observable tumours, suggesting no interaction between the transmissible cancer and tick load. Our study highlights seasonality and life cycle as primary drivers of tick infestation in Tasmanian devils and the need for further investigations to integrate devil stress and immune dynamics with ectoparasite counts.


Assuntos
Marsupiais , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Carrapatos/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Masculino , Neoplasias/etiologia , Estações do Ano , Tasmânia , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia
17.
Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer ; 1877(1): 188644, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737023

RESUMO

Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the world. Because tumors detected at early stages are easier to treat, the search for biomarkers-especially non-invasive ones-that allow early detection of malignancies remains a central goal to reduce cancer mortality. Cancer, like other pathologies, often alters body odors, and much has been done by scientists over the last few decades to assess the value of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as signatures of cancers. We present here a quantitative review of 208 studies carried out between 1984 and 2020 that explore VOCs as potential biomarkers of cancers. We analyzed the main findings of these studies, listing and classifying VOCs related to different cancer types while considering both sampling methods and analysis techniques. Considering this synthesis, we discuss several of the challenges and the most promising prospects of this research direction in the war against cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Odorantes , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149923, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487898

RESUMO

While it is often assumed that oncogenic processes in metazoans can influence species interactions, empirical evidence is lacking. Here, we use the cnidarian Hydra oligactis to experimentally explore the consequences of tumor associated phenotypic alterations for its predation ability, relationship with commensal ciliates and vulnerability to predators. Unexpectedly, hydra's predation ability was higher in tumorous polyps compared to non-tumorous ones. Commensal ciliates colonized preferentially tumorous hydras than non-tumorous ones, and had a higher replication rate on the former. Finally, in a choice experiment, tumorous hydras were preferentially eaten by a fish predator. This study, for the first time, provides evidence that neoplastic growth has the potential, through effect(s) on host phenotype, to alter biotic interactions within ecosystems and should thus be taken into account by ecologists.


Assuntos
Cnidários , Hydra , Neoplasias , Animais , Ecossistema , Água Doce
19.
Pathogens ; 10(10)2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684244

RESUMO

Several cancer risk factors (exposure to ultraviolet-B, pollution, toxins and pathogens) have been identified for wildlife, to form a "cancer risk landscape." However, information remains limited on how the spatiotemporal variability of these factors impacts the prevalence of cancer in wildlife. Here, we evaluated the cancer risk landscape at 49 foraging sites of the globally distributed green turtle (Chelonia mydas), a species affected by fibropapillomatosis, by integrating data from a global meta-analysis of 31 publications (1994-2019). Evaluated risk factors included ultraviolet light exposure, eutrophication, toxic phytoplanktonic blooms, sea surface temperature, and the presence of mechanical vectors (parasites and symbiotic species). Prevalence was highest in areas where nutrient concentrations facilitated the emergence of toxic phytoplankton blooms. In contrast, ultraviolet light exposure and the presence of parasitic and/or symbiotic species did not appear to impact disease prevalence. Our results indicate that, to counter outbreaks of fibropapillomatosis, management actions that reduce eutrophication in foraging areas should be implemented.

20.
Evol Appl ; 14(10): 2516-2526, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548882

RESUMO

Quantifying the extent to which animals detect and respond to human presence allows us to identify pressure (disturbance) and inform conservation management objectively; however, obtaining baselines against which to compare human impact is hindered in areas where human activities are already well established. For example, Zakynthos Island (Greece, Mediterranean) receives around 850,000 visitors each summer, while supporting an important loggerhead sea turtle rookery (~300 individuals/season). The coronavirus (COVID-19)-driven absence of tourism in May-June 2020 provided an opportunity to evaluate the distribution dynamics of this population in the absence (2020) vs. presence (2018 and 2019) of visitors using programmed unmanned aerial system (UAS) surveys. Ambient sea temperature transitioned from suboptimal for breeding in May to optimal in late June, with turtle distribution appearing to shift from shallow (to benefit from waters 3-5°C above ambient) to deeper waters in 2018 and 2019, but not 2020. The 2020 data set demonstrated that increased tourism pressure, not temperature, drives turtles offshore. Specifically, >50% of turtles remained within 100 m of shore at densities of 25-50 visitors/km, even when sea temperature rose, with 2018 and 2019 data supporting this trend. Reduced access to warmer, nearshore waters by tourism could delay the onset of nesting and increase the length of the egg maturation period between nesting events (internesting interval) at this site. A coastal refuge zone could be delimited in May-June where touristic infrastructure is minimal, but also where turtles frequently aggregate. In conclusion, sea turtles appear capable of perceiving changes in the level of human pressure at fine spatial and temporal scales and adjusting their distribution accordingly.

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