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1.
Internet Interv ; 35: 100720, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38328277

RESUMO

Background: Loneliness is a widespread phenomenon associated with a number of negative health outcomes. Older individuals may constitute one important target group with a need for effective interventions. However, despite evidence showing that addressing maladaptive social cognition (e.g., via cognitive behavioral therapy [CBT]) is the most effective intervention strategy for reducing loneliness, most existing programs aimed at older individuals do not use that method. Further, in terms of mental health service use, older individuals have been found to be an extremely undertreated population. When developing interventions, active involvement of end users in the development process is essential to increase later uptake. Objective: The aim of the present study was to develop an internet-based CBT intervention for loneliness in older individuals (i.e., aged ≥65 years) applying a user-centered design. The present report provides an in-depth description of the development process. Methods: Two phases of qualitative data collection were conducted in parallel with intervention development using a sample of N = 12 participants including both potential end users (i.e., older adults) as well as experts (i.e., psychotherapists). Measures included semi-structured interviews and usability testing. Results: In Phase 1 interviews, participants indicated that they were predominantly positive about the idea of an internet-based program for loneliness targeting older individuals. Individualization and interactivity were named as crucial features. In Phase 2, usability testing of a prototype program provided important insights into technical barriers to intervention use. Further, participants reported that they were missing content on philosophy/theology and the role of descendants/relatives. Valuable insights from Phase 1 and Phase 2 were incorporated into the intervention program resulting in a 7-module internet-based self-help CBT intervention. Discussion: Findings of this study highlight the significance of including relevant stakeholders in the development process of an intervention. Additionally, results emphasize the high acceptance of internet-based interventions in this population, but also underline the need for considering age-specific aspects when developing treatments.

2.
Eur Eat Disord Rev ; 31(5): 655-669, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37293697

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Disordered eating cognitions and behaviours in childhood and adolescence have been identified as precursors for the development of eating disorders. Another important contributor to eating disorder risk is maladaptive emotion regulation. However, while the regulation of negative affect has been the focus of much research, the literature on the role of positive emotion regulation in eating pathology is extremely limited. The present study extends previous research by examining the regulation of both positive and negative affect in disordered eating using two waves of a daily diary design. METHOD: Every evening for 21 days, 139 youths (8-15 years) reported their use of rumination, dampening, and disordered eating cognitions and behaviours. 1 year later, during the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, 115 of these youths were followed-up. RESULTS: As predicted, higher levels of rumination and dampening were found to be associated with a higher frequency of weight concerns and restrictive eating on person-level (both Waves) and day-level (Wave 2). Further, a higher frequency of rumination at Wave 1 predicted increases in the frequency of restrictive eating 1 year later. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings underline the importance of examining regulation of both positive and negative emotion in order to understand eating disorder risk.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Regulação Emocional , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Adolescente , Pandemias , Emoções/fisiologia
3.
Internet Interv ; 27: 100498, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35141136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although a high proportion of older adults suffer from common mental disorder symptoms and psychosocial problems, only a small number of older individuals seek psychological treatment. Internet-based interventions have the potential to bridge this treatment gap. However, while there is extensive literature on internet-based treatments in younger to middle-aged adults, research on older individuals is lacking. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to summarize narratively and empirically the existing literature on the efficacy of internet-based interventions for the treatment of common mental disorder symptoms and psychosocial problems (loneliness, stress) in older individuals. METHODS: This systematic review and meta-analysis was registered in PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42021235129). Systematic literature searches were conducted in PsycInfo, Ageline, Medline, CINHAL, and Psyndex. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they a) focused on older adults, b) assessed the efficacy of an internet-delivered psychological intervention, c) included a control condition and d) assessed common mental disorder symptoms or psychosocial problems as outcomes. Meta-analyses were conducted based on studies that included a passive, minimally active or placebo control condition to estimate pooled effects on overall symptom severity as well as on specific psychological outcomes. RESULTS: 11 Studies met inclusion criteria, with the majority of interventions focusing on depression or anxiety symptoms and being based on CBT principles. Significant large effect of internet-based interventions for older adults were found for overall symptom severity (depression, anxiety, PTSD, stress) as well as for depression symptom severity. No significant effects were found for anxiety symptom severity. DISCUSSION: Our findings provide preliminary support that internet-based interventions might be a feasible and effective intervention method for the treatment of common mental disorder symptoms and stress in older adults. However, research in this area is still at an early stage. More studies are needed to shed light on the role of various treatment and patient characteristics in the efficacy of internet-delivered treatments.

5.
Front Public Health ; 9: 625640, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746067

RESUMO

Background: The current COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic is an emergency on a global scale, with huge swathes of the population required to remain indoors for prolonged periods to tackle the virus. In this new context, individuals' health-promoting routines are under greater strain, contributing to poorer mental and physical health. Additionally, individuals are required to keep up to date with latest health guidelines about the virus, which may be confusing in an age of social-media disinformation and shifting guidelines. To tackle these factors, we developed Elena+, a smartphone-based and conversational agent (CA) delivered pandemic lifestyle care intervention. Methods: Elena+ utilizes varied intervention components to deliver a psychoeducation-focused coaching program on the topics of: COVID-19 information, physical activity, mental health (anxiety, loneliness, mental resources), sleep and diet and nutrition. Over 43 subtopics, a CA guides individuals through content and tracks progress over time, such as changes in health outcome assessments per topic, alongside user-set behavioral intentions and user-reported actual behaviors. Ratings of the usage experience, social demographics and the user profile are also captured. Elena+ is available for public download on iOS and Android devices in English, European Spanish and Latin American Spanish with future languages and launch countries planned, and no limits on planned recruitment. Panel data methods will be used to track user progress over time in subsequent analyses. The Elena+ intervention is open-source under the Apache 2 license (MobileCoach software) and the Creative Commons 4.0 license CC BY-NC-SA (intervention logic and content), allowing future collaborations; such as cultural adaptions, integration of new sensor-related features or the development of new topics. Discussion: Digital health applications offer a low-cost and scalable route to meet challenges to public health. As Elena+ was developed by an international and interdisciplinary team in a short time frame to meet the COVID-19 pandemic, empirical data are required to discern how effective such solutions can be in meeting real world, emergent health crises. Additionally, clustering Elena+ users based on characteristics and usage behaviors could help public health practitioners understand how population-level digital health interventions can reach at-risk and sub-populations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Saúde Mental , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2
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