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1.
Hypertension ; 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific hypertensive disorder associated with an imbalance in circulating proangiogenic and antiangiogenic proteins. Preclinical evidence implicates microvascular dysfunction as a potential mediator of preeclampsia-associated cardiovascular risk. METHODS: Women with singleton pregnancies complicated by severe antepartum-onset preeclampsia and a comparator group with normotensive deliveries underwent cardiac positron emission tomography within 4 weeks of delivery. A control group of premenopausal, nonpostpartum women was also included. Myocardial flow reserve, myocardial blood flow, and coronary vascular resistance were compared across groups. sFlt-1 (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-1) and PlGF (placental growth factor) were measured at imaging. RESULTS: The primary cohort included 19 women with severe preeclampsia (imaged at a mean of 15.3 days postpartum), 5 with normotensive pregnancy (mean, 14.4 days postpartum), and 13 nonpostpartum female controls. Preeclampsia was associated with lower myocardial flow reserve (ß, -0.67 [95% CI, -1.21 to -0.13]; P=0.016), lower stress myocardial blood flow (ß, -0.68 [95% CI, -1.07 to -0.29] mL/min per g; P=0.001), and higher stress coronary vascular resistance (ß, +12.4 [95% CI, 6.0 to 18.7] mm Hg/mL per min/g; P=0.001) versus nonpostpartum controls. Myocardial flow reserve and coronary vascular resistance after normotensive pregnancy were intermediate between preeclamptic and nonpostpartum groups. Following preeclampsia, myocardial flow reserve was positively associated with time following delivery (P=0.008). The sFlt-1/PlGF ratio strongly correlated with rest myocardial blood flow (r=0.71; P<0.001), independent of hemodynamics. CONCLUSIONS: In this exploratory cross-sectional study, we observed reduced coronary microvascular function in the early postpartum period following preeclampsia, suggesting that systemic microvascular dysfunction in preeclampsia involves coronary microcirculation. Further research is needed to establish interventions to mitigate the risk of preeclampsia-associated cardiovascular disease.

2.
medRxiv ; 2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38496439

RESUMO

Background: Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific hypertensive disorder associated with an imbalance in circulating pro- and anti-angiogenic proteins. Preclinical evidence implicates microvascular dysfunction as a potential mediator of preeclampsia-associated cardiovascular risk. Methods: Women with singleton pregnancies complicated by severe antepartum-onset preeclampsia and a comparator group with normotensive deliveries underwent cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) within 4 weeks of delivery. A control group of pre-menopausal, non-postpartum women was also included. Myocardial flow reserve (MFR), myocardial blood flow (MBF), and coronary vascular resistance (CVR) were compared across groups. Soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-1 (sFlt-1) and placental growth factor (PlGF) were measured at imaging. Results: The primary cohort included 19 women with severe preeclampsia (imaged at a mean 16.0 days postpartum), 5 with normotensive pregnancy (mean 14.4 days postpartum), and 13 non-postpartum female controls. Preeclampsia was associated with lower MFR (ß=-0.67 [95% CI -1.21 to -0.13]; P=0.016), lower stress MBF (ß=-0.68 [95% CI, -1.07 to -0.29] mL/min/g; P=0.001), and higher stress CVR (ß=+12.4 [95% CI 6.0 to 18.7] mmHg/mL/min/g; P=0.001) vs. non-postpartum controls. MFR and CVR after normotensive pregnancy were intermediate between preeclamptic and non-postpartum groups. Following preeclampsia, MFR was positively associated with time following delivery (P=0.008). The sFlt-1/PlGF ratio strongly correlated with rest MBF (r=0.71; P<0.001), independent of hemodynamics. Conclusions: In this exploratory study, we observed reduced coronary microvascular function in the early postpartum period following severe preeclampsia, suggesting that systemic microvascular dysfunction in preeclampsia involves the coronary microcirculation. Further research is needed to establish interventions to mitigate risk of preeclampsia-associated cardiovascular disease.

3.
NEJM Evid ; 3(2): EVIDra2300273, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38320493

RESUMO

Maternal Cardiovascular Health Post-DobbsPregnancy is associated with increasing morbidity and mortality in the United States. In the post-Dobbs era, many pregnant patients at highest risk no longer have access to abortion, which has been a crucial component of standard medical care.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Sistema Cardiovascular , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Saúde Materna
4.
Am J Prev Med ; 66(3): 418-426, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37844712

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The U.S. has the highest infant mortality rate among peer countries. Restrictive abortion laws may contribute to poor infant health outcomes. This ecological study investigated the association between county-level infant mortality and state-level abortion access legislation in the U.S. from 2014 to 2018. METHODS: A multivariable regression analysis with the outcome of county-level infant mortality rates, controlling for the primary exposure of state-level abortion laws, and county-level factors, county-level distance to an abortion facility, and state Medicaid expansion status was performed. Incidence rate ratios and 95% CIs were reported. Analyses were conducted in 2022-2023. RESULTS: There were 113,397 infant deaths among 19,559,660 live births (infant mortality rate=5.79 deaths/1,000 live births; 95% CI=5.75, 5.82). Black infant mortality rate (10.69/1,000) was more than twice the White infant mortality rate (4.87/1,000). In the multivariable model, increased infant mortality rates were seen in states with ≥8 restrictive laws, with the most restrictive (11-12 laws) having a 16% increased infant mortality level (adjusted incidence rate ratios=1.162; 95% CI=1.103, 1.224). Increased infant mortality rates were associated with increased county-level Black race individuals (adjusted incidence rate ratios=1.031; 95% CI=1.026, 1.037), high school education (adjusted incidence rate ratios=1.018; 95% CI=1.008, 1.029), maternal smoking (adjusted incidence rate ratios=1.025; 95% CI=1.018, 1.033), and inadequate prenatal care (adjusted incidence rate ratios=1.045; 95% CI=1.036, 1.055). CONCLUSIONS: State-level abortion law restrictiveness is associated with higher county-level infant mortality rates. The Supreme Court decision on Dobbs versus Jackson and changes in state laws limiting abortion may affect future infant mortality.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Lactente , Feminino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Humanos , Mortalidade Infantil , Análise de Regressão , Medicaid , Fumar
5.
JACC Case Rep ; 16: 101880, 2023 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37396321

RESUMO

We present the course of 4 pregnancies in 3 women with desmoplakin cardiomyopathy, with a focus on changes in left ventricular ejection fraction and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels from the prepregnancy period through the postpartum period, as well as maternal cardiac, obstetric, and neonatal outcomes. (Level of Difficulty: Advanced.).

6.
Am Heart J ; 262: 66-74, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37072104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exercise in pregnancy has proven health benefits, yet the safety of exercise in patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD) has not been established. Our aim was to determine the feasibility and safety profile of moderate intensity exercise during pregnancy in patients with CVD, compared with those without CVD. METHODS: This is a prospective single center pilot study of a moderate intensity exercise regimen, with data collection through wearable fitness trackers and personal exercise logs in pregnant patients with and without pre-existing CVD. The primary outcome was Doppler umbilical artery systolic to diastolic (S/D) ratio measured between 32 and 34 weeks' gestation. The secondary outcomes were adverse maternal and fetal events, trends in wearable fitness tracker data, C-reactive protein levels, and weight changes. RESULTS: At baseline, the CVD group (62% congenital heart disease) took part in more prepregnancy walking, less weightlifting, and had a higher body mass index compared to the control group, and on average walked 539 fewer steps per day during pregnancy than the control group. Resting heart rate (HR) was found to increase in both groups up to 30 weeks' gestation. The cardiovascular disease group displayed an overall lower exercise intensity, as measured by the ability to increase HR with exercise over resting heart rate 1 hour prior to exercise at study baseline (45% vs 59% P < .001). Umbilical artery S/D ratio was normal in both groups. No differences were seen in adverse events between groups. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study of moderate intensity exercise in pregnant individuals with pre-existing CVD demonstrated that patients with CVD were not able to increase their HR during exercise throughout pregnancy compared to those in the control group. Although a small study group, this data supports the hypothesis that exercise interventions during pregnancy for patients with CVD are feasible without evidence abnormal fetal Doppler profiles. Further studies using wearable fitness trackers may provide the opportunity to understand how to safely tailor exercise programs to pregnant individuals with CVD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal
7.
AJOG Glob Rep ; 3(2): 100182, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36941863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal cardiac arrest is a rare outcome, and thus there are limited opportunities for specialists in obstetrics and gynecology to acquire the skills required to respond to it through routine clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate gaps in medical education in maternal cardiac arrest and whether a simulation-based training program improves resident knowledge and comfort in the diagnosis and treatment of maternal cardiac arrest. STUDY DESIGN: A 2-hour training for obstetrics and gynecology residents at an academic medical center was conducted, consisting of a didactic presentation, defibrillator skills station, and 2 high-fidelity simulations. Consenting residents completed a 21-item pretest followed by a 12-item posttest exploring knowledge of and exposure to maternal cardiac arrest. The McNemar and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to compare pre- and posttest data. RESULTS: Of 21 residents, 15 (71.4%) had no previous education about maternal cardiac arrest, and 17 (81.0%) had never responded to a maternal code. Participants demonstrated increased knowledge about maternal cardiac arrest after the session, providing more correct answers on the reversible causes of pulseless electrical activity arrest (median 4 vs 7 correct responses; P<.01). After the training, more residents were able to identify the correct gestational age to perform a cesarean delivery during maternal cardiac arrest (19.0% vs 90.5%; P<.01) and the correct location for this procedure (52.4% vs 95.2%; P<.01). All residents reported that maternal cardiac arrest training was important and that they would benefit from additional sessions. Median composite comfort level in managing maternal cardiac arrest significantly increased after participation (pretest, 24.0 [interquartile range, 21.5-28.0]; posttest, 37.0 [interquartile range, 34.3-41.3]; P<.01). CONCLUSION: Residents report limited exposure to maternal cardiac arrest and desire more training. Simulation-based training about maternal cardiac arrest is needed during residency to ensure that graduates are prepared to respond to this high-acuity event.

8.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 36(12): 4483-4495, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36195521

RESUMO

Maternal congenital heart disease is increasingly prevalent, and has been associated with a significantly increased risk of maternal, obstetric, and neonatal complications. For patients with CHD who require cardiac interventions during pregnancy, there is little evidence-based guidance with regard to optimal perioperative management. The periprocedural management of pregnant patients with congenital heart disease requires extensive planning and a multidisciplinary teams-based approach. Anesthesia providers must not only be facile in the management of adult congenital heart disease, but cognizant of the normal, but significant, physiologic changes of pregnancy.


Assuntos
Anestesia , Anestésicos , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Adulto , Humanos , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/complicações
9.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 194(3): 597-606, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35715538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guidelines support comparable treatment for women diagnosed with breast cancer during pregnancy (PrBC) and nonpregnant women with limited case-specific modifications to ensure maternal-fetal safety. Experience during pregnancy with modern agents, such as taxanes or granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (GCSF), is limited. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively identified a multi-institutional cohort of PrBC between 1996 and 2020. Propensity score analyses with multiple imputation for missing variables were applied to determine the associations between chemotherapy exposures during pregnancy, with or without taxanes or GCSF, and a compound maternal-fetal outcome including spontaneous preterm birth, preterm premature rupture of membranes, chorioamnionitis, small for gestational age newborns, congenital malformation, or 5-min Apgar score < 7. RESULTS: Among 139 PrBC pregnancies, 82 (59.0%) were exposed to chemotherapy, including 26 (31.7%) to taxane and 18 (22.0%) to GCSF. Chemotherapy use, in general, and inclusion of taxane and/or GCSF, specifically, increased over time. Pregnancies resulting in live singleton births (n = 123) and exposed to chemotherapy were as likely to reach term as those that were not (59.5% vs. 63.6%, respectively, punadjusted = 0.85). Among women treated with chemotherapy, propensity score-matched odds ratios (OR) for the composite maternal-fetal outcome were not significantly increased with taxane (OR 1.24, 95% CI 0.27-5.72) or GCSF (OR 2.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.48-9.22) with similar effects in multiple imputation and sensitivity models. CONCLUSION: The judicious increased use of taxane chemotherapy and/or growth factor support during pregnancy was not associated with unfavorable short-term maternal-fetal outcomes. While these findings are reassuring, case numbers remain limited and continued surveillance of these patients and progeny is warranted.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Nascimento Prematuro , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxoides/efeitos adversos
10.
Am J Perinatol ; 39(5): 554-561, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971558

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Breast cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in pregnancy and is commonly treated with chemotherapy. To date, studies examining effects of chemotherapy during pregnancy on fetal growth have yielded conflicting results, and most are limited by small sample sizes or are nonspecific with respect to cytotoxic regimen or type of cancer treated. We sought to evaluate the effect of chemotherapy for breast cancer in pregnancy on birthweight and small for gestational age infants. STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective cohort study of 74 women diagnosed with pathologically confirmed breast cancer during pregnancy between 1997 and 2018 at one of three academic medical centers, who had a singleton birth with known birthweight. Forty-nine received chemotherapy and 25 did not receive chemotherapy. Linear regression modeling was used to compare birthweight (by gestational age and sex-specific z-score) by chemotherapy exposure. Subanalyses of specific chemotherapy regimen and duration of chemotherapy exposure were also performed. Placental, neonatal, and maternal outcomes were also analyzed by chemotherapy exposure. RESULTS: In the adjusted model, chemotherapy exposure was associated with lower birthweight (Δ z-score = -0.49, p = 0.03), but similar rates of small for gestational age (defined as birthweight <10th percentile for gestational age) infants (8.2 vs. 8.0%, p = 1.0; Fisher's exact test). Each additional week of chemotherapy (Δ z-score = -0.05, p = 0.03) was associated with decreased birthweight, although no association was found with specific chemotherapy regimen. Chemotherapy exposure was associated with lower median placental weight percentile by gestational age (9th vs. 75th, p < 0.05). Secondary maternal outcomes were similar between the group that did and did not receive chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: Chemotherapy for breast cancer in pregnancy in this cohort is associated with lower birthweight but no difference in the rate of small for gestational age infants. KEY POINTS: · Chemotherapy for breast cancer in pregnancy is associated with decreased birthweight but similar rates of small for gestational age infants.. · Birthweight did not differ according to chemotherapy regimen.. · There is no difference in the rate of small for gestational age infants..


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Peso ao Nascer , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Masculino , Placenta , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Am J Perinatol ; 39(11): 1196-1203, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352586

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Guidelines do not exist to determine timing of delivery for women with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in pregnancy. The neonatal benefit of a term delivery as compared with an early term delivery is well described. We sought to examine maternal outcomes in women with CVD who delivered in the early term period (370/7 through 386/7 weeks) compared with those who delivered later. STUDY DESIGN: This is a prospective cohort study examining cardiac and obstetric outcomes in women with CVD delivering between September 2011 and December 2016. The associations between gestational age at delivery and maternal, fetal, and obstetric characteristics were evaluated. RESULTS: Two-hundred twenty-five women with CVD were included, 83 (37%) delivered in the early term period and 142 (63%) delivered at term. While the early term group had significantly higher rates of any hypertension during pregnancy (18.1 vs. 7%, p = 0.01) and intrauterine growth restriction (22.9 vs. 2.8%, p < 0.001), there was no difference in high-risk cardiac or obstetric characteristics. No difference in composite cardiac morbidity was found (4.8 vs. 3.5%, p = 0.24). Women in the early term group were more likely to undergo cesarean delivery than women in the term group (43.4 vs. 24.7%, p = 0.004). CONCLUSION: There is no maternal benefit of an early term delivery in otherwise healthy women with CVD. Given the known fetal consequences of early term delivery, this study offers support to existing literature suggesting term delivery in these women. KEY POINTS: · Question of delivery timing in women with cardiac disease.. · No difference in cardiac morbidity, term versus early term.. · Term delivery in women with asymptomatic cardiac disease..


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico , Cardiopatias , Cesárea , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Eur Heart J ; 42(41): 4224-4240, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405872

RESUMO

The growing population of women with heart disease of reproductive age has been associated with an increasing number of high-risk pregnancies. Pregnant women with heart disease are a very heterogeneous population, with different risks for maternal cardiovascular, obstetric, and foetal complications. Adverse cardiovascular events during pregnancy pose significant clinical challenges, with uncertainties regarding diagnostic and therapeutic approaches potentially compromising maternal and foetal health. This review summarizes best practice for the treatment of common cardiovascular complications during pregnancy, based on expert opinion, current guidelines, and available evidence. Topics covered include heart failure (HF), arrhythmias, coronary artery disease, aortic and thromboembolic events, and the management of mechanical heart valves during pregnancy. Cardiovascular pathology is the leading cause of non-obstetric morbidity and mortality during pregnancy in developed countries. For women with pre-existing cardiac conditions, preconception counselling and structured follow-up during pregnancy are important measures for reducing the risk of acute cardiovascular complications during gestation and at the time of delivery. However, many women do not receive pre-pregnancy counselling often due to gaps in what should be lifelong care, and physicians are increasingly encountering pregnant women who present acutely with cardiac complications, including HF, arrhythmias, aortic events, coronary syndromes, and bleeding or thrombotic events. This review provides a summary of recommendations on the management of acute cardiovascular complication during pregnancy, based on available literature and expert opinion. This article covers the diagnosis, risk stratification, and therapy and is organized according to the clinical presentation and the type of complication, providing a reference for the practicing cardiologist, obstetrician, and acute medicine specialist, while highlighting areas of need and potential future research.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Cardiopatias , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/terapia , Resultado da Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal
13.
Heart ; 107(17): 1390-1397, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33234672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Pregnancy may potentiate the inherent hypercoagulability of the Fontan circulation, thereby amplifying adverse events. This study sought to evaluate thrombosis and bleeding risk in pregnant women with a Fontan. METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational cohort study across 13 international centres and recorded data on thrombotic and bleeding events, antithrombotic therapies and pre-pregnancy thrombotic risk factors. RESULTS: We analysed 84 women with Fontan physiology undergoing 108 pregnancies, average gestation 33±5 weeks. The most common antithrombotic therapy in pregnancy was aspirin (ASA, 47 pregnancies (43.5%)). Heparin (unfractionated (UFH) or low molecular weight (LMWH)) was prescribed in 32 pregnancies (30%) and vitamin K antagonist (VKA) in 10 pregnancies (9%). Three pregnancies were complicated by thrombotic events (2.8%). Thirty-eight pregnancies (35%) were complicated by bleeding, of which 5 (13%) were severe. Most bleeds were obstetric, occurring antepartum (45%) and postpartum (42%). The use of therapeutic heparin (OR 15.6, 95% CI 1.88 to 129, p=0.006), VKA (OR 11.7, 95% CI 1.06 to 130, p=0.032) or any combination of anticoagulation medication (OR 13.0, 95% CI 1.13 to 150, p=0.032) were significantly associated with bleeding events, while ASA (OR 5.41, 95% CI 0.73 to 40.4, p=0.067) and prophylactic heparin were not (OR 4.68, 95% CI 0.488 to 44.9, p=0.096). CONCLUSIONS: Current antithrombotic strategies appear effective at attenuating thrombotic risk in pregnant women with a Fontan. However, this comes with high (>30%) bleeding risk, of which 13% are life threatening. Achieving haemostatic balance is challenging in pregnant women with a Fontan, necessitating individualised risk-adjusted counselling and therapeutic approaches that are monitored during the course of pregnancy.


Assuntos
Fibrinolíticos , Técnica de Fontan/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez , Risco Ajustado/métodos , Trombofilia , Trombose , Adulto , Quimioprevenção/métodos , Quimioprevenção/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Fibrinolíticos/classificação , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia/terapia , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Gravidez , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/etiologia , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/terapia , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/etiologia , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/terapia , Trombofilia/tratamento farmacológico , Trombofilia/etiologia , Trombose/epidemiologia , Trombose/etiologia , Trombose/terapia
14.
Pediatr Cardiol ; 41(8): 1795-1799, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915291

RESUMO

Increasing numbers of women with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) are reaching reproductive age and seek counseling regarding their cardiovascular risks related to pregnancy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize changes in left ventricular (LV) strain in women with rTOF during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. Seventeen pregnancies in women with rTOF were included (mean age at repair = 3.2 years ± 5.5 years; mean age at delivery = 32.7 ± 4 years). Echocardiograms from three time periods were analyzed; baseline (prior to conception or in the first trimester), third trimester, and 4-6 weeks postpartum. Sixty-five percent of the patients had at least mild pulmonary regurgitation. Eight patients (47%) had undergone at least one pulmonary valve replacement. There were no changes in LV ejection fraction (EF) or circumferential strain across the three time periods. Significant differences were present in longitudinal strain within the three time points (p = 0.01). Postpartum strain decreased in magnitude compared to the third trimester value (- 17.7 ± 4.1 vs. - 21 ± 5, p-value = 0.003) but was not different when compared to baseline strain (- 17.7 ± 4.1 vs. - 19.4 ± 3.4; p-value = 0.15). In conclusion, in women with rTOF, changes in longitudinal strain were observed during pregnancy with a return to baseline after delivery; EF did not change. These findings provide evidence that pregnancy does not adversely impact LV mechanics in the short term in this potentially vulnerable patient population.


Assuntos
Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Tetralogia de Fallot/fisiopatologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Adulto , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Insuficiência da Valva Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Volume Sistólico , Tetralogia de Fallot/cirurgia
15.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 31(5): 1105-1113, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100356

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe a single institutional experience managing fetuses with supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) and to identify associations between patient characteristics and fetal and postnatal outcomes. BACKGROUND: Sustained fetal SVT is associated with significant morbidity and mortality if untreated, yet the optimal management strategy remains unclear. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study including fetuses diagnosed with sustained SVT (>50% of the diagnostic echocardiogram) between 1985 and 2018. Fetuses with congenital heart disease were excluded. RESULTS: Sustained SVT was diagnosed in 65 fetuses at a median gestational age of 30 weeks (range, 14-37). Atrioventricular re-entrant tachycardia and atrial flutter were the most common diagnoses, seen in 41 and 16 cases, respectively. Moderate/severe ventricular dysfunction was present in 20 fetuses, and hydrops fetalis was present in 13. Of the 57 fetuses initiated on transplacental drug therapy, 47 received digoxin first-line, yet 39 of 57 (68%) required advanced therapy with sotalol, flecainide, or amiodarone. Rate or rhythm control was achieved in 47 of 57 treated fetuses. There were no cases of intrauterine fetal demise. Later gestational age at fetal diagnosis (odds ratio [OR], 1.1, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.2, P = .02) and moderate/severe fetal ventricular dysfunction (OR, 6.1, 95% CI, 1.7-21.6, P = .005) were associated with postnatal SVT. Two postnatal deaths occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Fetuses with structurally normal hearts and sustained SVT can be effectively managed with transplacental drug therapy with minimal risk of intrauterine fetal demise. Treatment requires multiple antiarrhythmic agents in over half of cases. Later gestational age at fetal diagnosis and the presence of depressed fetal ventricular function, but not hydrops, predict postnatal arrhythmia burden.


Assuntos
Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Fetais/tratamento farmacológico , Coração Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Frequência Cardíaca Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Taquicardia Supraventricular/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Antiarrítmicos/efeitos adversos , Ecocardiografia , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Morte Fetal , Doenças Fetais/diagnóstico , Doenças Fetais/mortalidade , Doenças Fetais/fisiopatologia , Coração Fetal/diagnóstico por imagem , Coração Fetal/fisiopatologia , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Troca Materno-Fetal , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Taquicardia Supraventricular/diagnóstico , Taquicardia Supraventricular/mortalidade , Taquicardia Supraventricular/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Adulto Jovem
16.
Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med ; 22(1): 3, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989331

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of maternal death and cases of cardiovascular death are often associated with failure to provide timely risk-appropriate care. This review outlines considerations for creation of a team focused on the care of women with CVD during pregnancy and beyond. RECENT FINDINGS: Improved outcomes for women with complex medical or obstetric conditions managed by a multidisciplinary care team inspired national guidelines advising the creation of a Pregnancy Heart Team for women with CVD in pregnancy. The recommendations from the European Society of Cardiology provide general guidance for risk-appropriate care without elaborating on the details of these specialized care teams. A Pregnancy Heart Team led by providers from cardiology, maternal-fetal medicine, obstetrics, obstetric anesthesia, pharmacy, and nursing support a holistic approach to patient care while facilitating opportunities for cross-disciplinary education. This team should focus on frequent antepartum risk stratification, multidisciplinary delivery planning, and comprehensive preconception and postpartum care. Available evidence suggests that a consistent and integrated approach to care for women with CVD in pregnancy has the potential to decrease severe maternal morbidity and mortality. The cost-effectiveness of this approach and the impact of this comprehensive care model on a woman's long-term cardiovascular health warrant future study.

17.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 222(1): 77.e1-77.e11, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although consensus guidelines on the management of cardiovascular disease in pregnancy reserve cesarean delivery for obstetric indications, there is a paucity of data to support this approach. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to compare cardiovascular and obstetric morbidity in women with cardiovascular disease according to the plan for vaginal birth or cesarean delivery. STUDY DESIGN: We assembled a prospective cohort of women delivering at an academic tertiary care center with a protocolized multidisciplinary approach to management of cardiovascular disease between September 2011 and December 2016. Our practice is to encourage vaginal birth in women with cardiovascular disease unless there is an obstetric indication for cesarean delivery. We allow women attempting vaginal birth a trial of Valsalva in the second stage with the ability to provide operative vaginal delivery if pushing leads to changes in hemodynamics or symptoms. Women were classified according to planned mode of delivery: either vaginal birth or cesarean delivery. We then used univariate analysis to compare adverse outcomes according to planned mode of delivery. The primary composite cardiac outcome of interest included sustained arrhythmia, heart failure, cardiac arrest, cerebral vascular accident, need for cardiac surgery or intervention, or death. Secondary obstetric and neonatal outcomes were also considered. RESULTS: We included 276 consenting women with congenital heart disease (68.5%), arrhythmias (11.2%), connective tissue disease (9.1%), cardiomyopathy (8.0%), valvular disease (1.4%), or vascular heart disease (1.8%) at or beyond 24 weeks' gestation. Seventy-six percent (n = 210) planned vaginal birth and 24% (n = 66) planned cesarean delivery. Women planning vaginal birth had lower rates of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, multiparity, and preterm delivery. All women attempting vaginal birth were allowed Valsalva. Among planned vaginal deliveries 86.2% (n = 181) were successful, with a 9.5% operative vaginal delivery rate. Five women underwent operative vaginal delivery for the indication of cardiovascular disease without another obstetric indication at the discretion of the delivering provider. Four of these patients tolerated trials of Valsalva ranging from 15 to 75 minutes prior to delivery. Adverse cardiac outcomes were similar between planned vaginal birth and cesarean delivery groups (4.3% vs 3.0%, P = 1.00). Rates of postpartum hemorrhage (1.9% vs 10.6%, P < .01) and transfusion (1.9% vs 9.1%, P = .01) were lower in the planned vaginal birth group. There were no differences in adverse cardiac, obstetric, or neonatal outcomes in the cohort overall or the subset of women with high-risk cardiovascular disease or a high burden of obstetric comorbidity. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that cesarean delivery does not reduce adverse cardiovascular outcomes and lend support to a planned vaginal birth for the majority of women with cardiovascular disease including those with high-risk disease.


Assuntos
Cesárea/métodos , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Cardiopatias , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez , Adulto , Arritmias Cardíacas , Cardiomiopatias , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Gerenciamento Clínico , Extração Obstétrica/métodos , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas , Humanos , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Manobra de Valsalva
18.
JACC Case Rep ; 2(6): 847-851, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34317364

RESUMO

Increasing numbers of women with congenital heart disease are undergoing pregnancy after transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (TPVR). We present the course of 9 pregnancies in 7 women with TPVR, noting pre-pregnancy, antepartum, and postpartum gradients, as well as maternal cardiac, obstetric, and neonatal outcomes. (Level of Difficulty: Intermediate.).

19.
Am Heart J ; 217: 112-120, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Validated protocols for diagnostic testing and management of pregnant women with cardiovascular disease (CVD) do not exist. Our objective was to establish a prospective standardized protocol for the clinical evaluation of pregnant women with CVD. METHODS: The Standardized Outcomes in Reproductive Cardiovascular Care (STORCC) initiative prospectively enrolled pregnant women with CVD into a standardized diagnostic testing and assessment protocol. Detailed cardiac and obstetric data were collected during the antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum periods. Each woman was assigned a STORCC color code of perceived risk at a monthly multidisciplinary conference. RESULTS: In 250 pregnancies of 207 women with CVD, the standardized care protocol was followed in 136 and routine care in 114. The median age of the subjects was 32 years, and the most common form of heart disease was congenital heart disease (77%). Women enrolled in standardized care protocol had high compliance with second- and third-trimester visits (93%) and postpartum visits (76%). Maternal cardiac complications occurred in 10%. The STORCC cardiac and obstetric color codes predicted adverse outcomes within each respective category (P = .02, .01). CONCLUSIONS: The STORCC protocol for prospective diagnostic testing and follow-up of pregnant women with CVD was successfully established, and compliance was high. The strength of a standardized testing and care protocol as well as detailed classification of labor and delivery characteristics allows for robust analyses into specific questions regarding testing protocols, and mode and timing of delivery.


Assuntos
Protocolos Clínicos/normas , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Adulto , Algoritmos , Feminino , Humanos , Cuidado Pós-Natal , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Padrão de Cuidado , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(4): 457-476, 2019 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30704579

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease complicating pregnancy is rising in prevalence secondary to advanced maternal age, cardiovascular risk factors, and the successful management of congenital heart disease conditions. The physiological changes of pregnancy may alter drug properties affecting both mother and fetus. Familiarity with both physiological and pharmacological attributes is key for the successful management of pregnant women with cardiac disease. This review summarizes the published data, available guidelines, and recommendations for use of cardiovascular medications during pregnancy. Care of the pregnant woman with cardiovascular disease requires a multidisciplinary team approach with members from cardiology, maternal fetal medicine, anesthesia, and nursing.


Assuntos
Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Aleitamento Materno , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/farmacocinética , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/complicações , Feminino , Fármacos Hematológicos/uso terapêutico , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Gravidez , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/etiologia , Teratógenos
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