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1.
Pediatrics ; 147(5)2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875539
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857566

RESUMO

Anaphylaxis to vaccines is historically a rare event. The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic drove the need for rapid vaccine production applying a novel antigen delivery system: messenger RNA vaccines packaged in lipid nanoparticles. Unexpectedly, public vaccine administration led to a small number of severe allergic reactions, with resultant substantial public concern, especially within atopic individuals. We reviewed the constituents of the messenger RNA lipid nanoparticle vaccine and considered several contributors to these reactions: (1) contact system activation by nucleic acid, (2) complement recognition of the vaccine-activating allergic effector cells, (3) preexisting antibody recognition of polyethylene glycol, a lipid nanoparticle surface hydrophilic polymer, and (4) direct mast cell activation, coupled with potential genetic or environmental predispositions to hypersensitivity. Unfortunately, measurement of anti-polyethylene glycol antibodies in vitro is not clinically available, and the predictive value of skin testing to polyethylene glycol components as a coronavirus disease 2019 messenger RNA vaccine-specific anaphylaxis marker is unknown. Even less is known regarding the applicability of vaccine use for testing (in vitro/vivo) to ascertain pathogenesis or predict reactivity risk. Expedient and thorough research-based evaluation of patients who have suffered anaphylactic vaccine reactions and prospective clinical trials in putative at-risk individuals are needed to address these concerns during a public health crisis.

3.
Hosp Pediatr ; 11(3): 215-222, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579748

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine if serum procalcitonin, an indicator of bacterial etiology in pneumonia in all ages and a predictor of severe pneumonia in adults, is associated with disease severity in children with community-acquired pneumonia. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled children 2 months to <18 years with clinical and radiographic pneumonia at 2 children's hospitals (2014-2019). Procalcitonin samples were obtained at presentation. An ordinal outcome scale of pneumonia severity was defined: very severe (intubation, shock, or death), severe (intensive care admission without very severe features and/or high-flow nasal cannula), moderate (hospitalization without severe or very severe features), and mild (discharge). Hospital length of stay (LOS) was also examined. Ordinal logistic regression was used to model associations between procalcitonin and outcomes. We estimated adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for a variety of cut points of procalcitonin ranging from 0.25 to 3.5 ng/mL. RESULTS: The study included 488 children with pneumonia; 30 (6%) were classified as very severe, 106 (22%) as severe, 327 (67%) as moderate, and 25 (5%) as mild. Median procalcitonin in the very severe group was 5.06 (interquartile range [IQR] 0.90-16.83), 0.38 (IQR 0.11-2.11) in the severe group, 0.29 (IQR 0.09-1.90) in the moderate group, and 0.21 (IQR 0.12-1.2) in the mild group. Increasing procalcitonin was associated with increasing severity (range of aORs: 1.03-1.25) and increased LOS (range of aORs: 1.04-1.36). All comparisons were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Higher procalcitonin was associated with increased severity and LOS. Procalcitonin may be useful in helping clinicians evaluate pneumonia severity.

4.
Vaccine ; 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583673

RESUMO

This is a Brighton Collaboration Case Definition of the term "Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome - ARDS" to be utilized in the evaluation of adverse events following immunization. The Case Definition was developed by a group of experts convened by the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) in the context of active development of vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and other emerging pathogens. The case definition format of the Brighton Collaboration was followed to develop a consensus definition and defined levels of certainty, after an exhaustive review of the literature and expert consultation. The document underwent peer review by the Brighton Collaboration Network and by selected Expert Reviewers prior to submission. The comments of the reviewers were taken into consideration and edits incorporated in this final manuscript.

5.
Vaccine ; 39(8): 1339-1348, 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of human influenza A (H7N9) infections has escalated since 2013 with high resultant mortality. We conducted a phase II, randomized, partially-blinded trial to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of an MF59-adjuvanted inactivated, split virion, H7N9 influenza vaccine (H7N9 IIV) administered at various dose levels and schedules in older adults. METHODS: 479 adults ≥ 65 years of age in stable health were randomized to one of six groups to receive either 3.75, 7.5 or 15 µg of influenza A/Shanghai/02/2013 (H7N9) IIV adjuvanted with MF59 given as a 3-dose series either on days 1, 28 and 168 or on days 1, 57 and 168. Immunogenicity was assessed using both hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and microneutralization (MN) assays prior to and 28 days following each dose. Safety was assessed through 1 year following the last dose. RESULTS: Subjects in all groups had only modest immune responses, with the HAI GMT < 20 after the second vaccine dose and <29 after the third vaccine dose. HAI titers ≥ 40 were seen in <37% of subjects after the second dose and <49% after the third dose. There were no significant differences seen between the two dose schedules. MN titers followed similar patterns, although the titers were approximately two-fold higher than the HAI titers. Logistic regression modeling demonstrated no statistically significant associations between the immune responses and age, sex or body mass index whereas recent prior receipt of seasonal influenza vaccine significantly reduced the HAI response [OR 0.13 (95% CI 0.05, 0.33); p < 0.001]. Overall, the vaccine was well tolerated. Two mild potentially immune mediated adverse events occurred, lichen planus and guttate psoriasis. CONCLUSIONS: MF59-adjuvanted H7N9 IIV was only modestly immunogenic in the older adult population following three doses. There were no significant differences in antibody responses noted among the various antigen doses or the two dose schedules.

6.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(568)2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148624

RESUMO

Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common infectious cause of infant brain damage and posttransplant complications worldwide. Despite the high global burden of disease, vaccine development to prevent infection remains hampered by challenges in generating protective immunity. The most efficacious CMV vaccine candidate tested to date is a soluble glycoprotein B (gB) subunit vaccine with MF59 adjuvant (gB/MF59), which achieved 50% protection in multiple historical phase 2 clinical trials. The vaccine-elicited immune responses that conferred this protection have remained unclear. We investigated the humoral immune correlates of protection from CMV acquisition in populations of CMV-seronegative adolescent and postpartum women who received the gB/MF59 vaccine. We found that gB/MF59 immunization elicited distinct CMV-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG)-binding profiles and IgG-mediated functional responses in adolescent and postpartum vaccinees, with heterologous CMV strain neutralization observed primarily in adolescent vaccinees. Using penalized multiple logistic regression analysis, we determined that protection against primary CMV infection in both cohorts was associated with serum IgG binding to gB present on a cell surface but not binding to the soluble vaccine antigen, suggesting that IgG binding to cell-associated gB is an immune correlate of vaccine efficacy. Supporting this, we identified gB-specific monoclonal antibodies that differentially recognized soluble or cell-associated gB, revealing that there are structural differences in cell-associated and soluble gB are relevant to the generation of protective immunity. Our results highlight the importance of the native, cell-associated gB conformation in future CMV vaccine design.

8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104186

RESUMO

In this article, the editors of Clinical Infectious Diseases review some of the most important lessons they have learned about the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection and identify essential questions about COVID-19 that remain to be answered.

9.
Vaccine ; 38(44): 6930-6940, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of an investigational trivalent group B streptococcus (GBS) vaccine in US pregnant women, transplacental serotype-specific antibody transfer and persistence in infants, and serotype-specific antibodies in breast milk. METHODS: This randomized, observer-blind, placebo-controlled trial administered one dose of trivalent GBS vaccine (n = 49) or placebo (n = 26) to healthy pregnant 18-40-year-old women at 240/7-346/7 weeks' gestation. Women were enrolled from March 2014 to August 2015. Safety follow-up continued through postpartum day 180. Primary immunogenicity objectives were to evaluate serotype Ia/Ib/III-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels in sera from women on day 1 (pre-vaccination), day 31, delivery and postpartum days 42 and 90, and from infants at birth (cord blood), days 42 and 90. Antibody transfer ratios (cord blood/maternal sera at delivery) and serotype-specific secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and IgG in breast milk after delivery and on postpartum days 42 and 90 were evaluated. The planned sample size was not based on statistical assumptions for this descriptive study. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. Serious adverse events were reported for 16% of GBS-vaccinated women and 15% of their infants, and 15% of placebo recipients and 12% of their infants; none were fatal or deemed vaccine-related. Serotype-specific IgG geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) were 13-23-fold higher in vaccine vs placebo recipients on day 31 and persisted until postpartum day 90. Median antibody concentrations were substantially higher in women with detectable pre-vaccination antibody concentrations. Antibody transfer ratios in the vaccine group were 0.62-0.82. Infant IgG GMCs and breast milk sIgA GMCs were higher in the vaccine vs the placebo group at all timepoints. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal immunization with the trivalent GBS vaccine in US women had a favorable safety profile, elicited antibodies that were transplacentally transferred and persisted in infants for a minimum of 3 months. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02046148.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925555

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Recent Infectious Disease Society of America guidelines recommend multi-step testing algorithms to diagnose Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), including a combination of nucleic acid amplification-based testing (NAAT) and toxin enzyme immunoassay (EIA). However, the use of these algorithms in children, including the ability to differentiate between C. difficile colonization and CDI, has not been evaluated. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled asymptomatic pediatric patients with cancer, cystic fibrosis (CF), or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and obtained a stool sample for NAAT testing. If positive by NAAT (colonized), EIA was performed. In addition, children with symptomatic CDI who tested positive by NAAT via the clinical laboratory were enrolled, and EIA was performed on residual stool. A functional cell cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA) was also applied to stool samples from both the colonized and symptomatic cohorts. RESULTS: Of the 225 asymptomatic children enrolled in the study, 47 (21%) were colonized with C. difficile including 9/59 (15.5%) with cancer, 30/92 (32.6%) with CF and 8/74 (10.8%) with IBD. An additional 41 children with symptomatic CDI were enrolled. When symptomatic and colonized children were compared, neither EIA positivity (44% versus 26%, P = 0.07) nor CCNA positivity (49% versus 45%, P = 0.70) differed significantly or were able to predict disease severity in the symptomatic cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Use of a multi-step testing algorithm with NAAT followed by EIA failed to differentiate symptomatic CDI from asymptomatic colonization in our pediatric cohort. As multi-step algorithms are moved into clinical care, the pediatric provider will need to be aware of their limitations.

12.
J Immunol ; 205(4): 877-882, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769142

RESUMO

Despite high vaccine coverage in many parts of the world, pertussis is resurging in a number of areas in which acellular vaccines are the primary vaccine administered to infants and young children. This is attributed in part to the suboptimal and short-lived immunity elicited by acellular pertussis vaccines and to their inability to prevent nasal colonization and transmission of the etiologic agent Bordetella pertussis In response to this escalating public health concern, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases held the workshop "Overcoming Waning Immunity in Pertussis Vaccines" in September 2019 to identify issues and possible solutions for the defects in immunity stimulated by acellular pertussis vaccines. Discussions covered aspects of the current problem, gaps in knowledge and possible paths forward. This review summarizes presentations and discussions of some of the key points that were raised by the workshop.

14.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1282, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32670282

RESUMO

Immunization during pregnancy has been recommended in an increasing number of countries. The aim of this strategy is to protect pregnant women and infants from severe infectious disease, morbidity and mortality and is currently limited to tetanus, inactivated influenza, and pertussis-containing vaccines. There have been recent advancements in the development of vaccines designed primarily for use in pregnant women (respiratory syncytial virus and group B Streptococcus vaccines). Although there is increasing evidence to support vaccination in pregnancy, important gaps in knowledge still exist and need to be addressed by future studies. This collaborative consensus paper provides a review of the current literature on immunization during pregnancy and highlights the gaps in knowledge and a consensus of priorities for future research initiatives, in order to optimize protection for both the mother and the infant.

15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681645

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parainfluenza virus (PIV) is a leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections. Although there are several distinct PIV serotypes, few studies have compared the clinical characteristics and severity of infection among the individual PIV serotypes and between PIV and other pathogens in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. METHODS: We conducted active population-based surveillance for radiographically confirmed community-acquired pneumonia hospitalizations among children and adults in eight United States hospitals with systematic collection of clinical data and respiratory, blood, and serological specimens for pathogen detection. We compared clinical features of PIV-associated pneumonia among individual serotypes 1, 2, and 3 and among all PIV infections with other viral, atypical, and bacterial pneumonias. We also compared in-hospital disease severity among groups employing an ordinal scale (mild, moderate, severe) using multivariable proportional odds regression. RESULTS: PIV was more commonly detected in children (155/2354 [6.6%]) than in adults (66/2297 [2.9%]) (p<0.001). Other pathogens were commonly co-detected among PIV cases (110/221 [50%]). Clinical features of PIV-1, PIV-2, and PIV-3 infections were similar to one another in both children and adults with pneumonia. In multivariable analysis, children with PIV-associated pneumonia exhibited similar severity to children with other non-bacterial pneumonia; whereas children with bacterial pneumonia, exhibited increased severity (OR 8.42 [95% CI 1.88, 37.80]). In adults, PIV-associated pneumonia exhibited similar severity to other pneumonia pathogens. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical features did not distinguish among infection with individual PIV serotypes in patients hospitalized with community acquired pneumonia. However, in children, PIV pneumonia was less severe than bacterial pneumonia.

16.
Vaccine ; 38(33): 5355-5363, 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571718

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Inactivated influenza virus vaccines (IIVs) are recommended for all pregnant women in the United States. We conducted a prospective, randomized, double blind study of three licensed seasonal trivalent IIVs (IIV3s) to assess their safety and immunogenicity in pregnant women and determine the level and persistence of passively transferred maternal antibody in infants. STUDY DESIGN: 139 pregnant women ages 18-39 years and 14-33 weeks' gestation, and 44 non-pregnant women, were randomized 1:1:1 to receive a single intramuscular dose of one of three licensed IIV3s (Agriflu®, Fluzone®, or Fluarix®) prior to the 2010-2011 influenza season. Reactogenicity, adverse events (AEs) and pregnancy outcomes were documented. Serum samples for hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and neutralization antibody assays were collected prior to and 28 and 180 days after immunization. Maternal sera and cord blood were collected at the time of delivery and sera were obtained from 44 infants at 6 weeks of age. RESULTS: Pregnant and non-pregnant women experienced similar frequency of injection site (92% and 86%, respectively) and systemic (95% and 87%, respectively) reactions, the majority of which were mild. There were no vaccine-associated maternal or infant serious AEs. Antibody responses to the three vaccine antigens were not different between pregnant and non-pregnant women. The ratios of cord blood (infant) to maternal HAI antibody titers at delivery ranged between 1.1 and 1.7 for each of the vaccine antigens. Influenza antibody concentrations in infants were 70-40% of the birth titer by 6 weeks of age. CONCLUSIONS: The three IIV3s were well tolerated in pregnant women. Antibody responses were comparable in pregnant and non-pregnant women, and after second or third trimester vaccination. Transplacental transfer of maternal antibodies to the infant was efficient. However, antibody titers decline rapidly in the first 6 weeks of life.

18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(25): 14405-14411, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32518111

RESUMO

Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome is the most common periodic fever syndrome in children. The disease appears to cluster in families, but the pathogenesis is unknown. We queried two European-American cohorts and one Turkish cohort (total n = 231) of individuals with PFAPA for common variants previously associated with two other oropharyngeal ulcerative disorders, Behçet's disease and recurrent aphthous stomatitis. In a metaanalysis, we found that a variant upstream of IL12A (rs17753641) is strongly associated with PFAPA (OR 2.13, P = 6 × 10-9). We demonstrated that monocytes from individuals who are heterozygous or homozygous for this risk allele produce significantly higher levels of IL-12p70 upon IFN-γ and LPS stimulation than those from individuals without the risk allele. We also found that variants near STAT4, IL10, and CCR1-CCR3 were significant susceptibility loci for PFAPA, suggesting that the pathogenesis of PFAPA involves abnormal antigen-presenting cell function and T cell activity and polarization, thereby implicating both innate and adaptive immune responses at the oropharyngeal mucosa. Our results illustrate genetic similarities among recurrent aphthous stomatitis, PFAPA, and Behçet's disease, placing these disorders on a common spectrum, with recurrent aphthous stomatitis on the mild end, Behçet's disease on the severe end, and PFAPA intermediate. We propose naming these disorders Behçet's spectrum disorders to highlight their relationship. HLA alleles may be factors that influence phenotypes along this spectrum as we found new class I and II HLA associations for PFAPA distinct from Behçet's disease and recurrent aphthous stomatitis.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Behçet/genética , Febre/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Linfadenite/genética , Faringite/genética , Estomatite Aftosa/genética , Alelos , Síndrome de Behçet/imunologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Febre/imunologia , Genes MHC Classe I/genética , Genes MHC Classe I/imunologia , Genes MHC da Classe II/genética , Genes MHC da Classe II/imunologia , Loci Gênicos/imunologia , Humanos , Linfadenite/imunologia , Faringite/imunologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Estomatite Aftosa/imunologia , Síndrome
19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(9): 2521-2526, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32463883

RESUMO

To commemorate the 100th anniversary of the Nobel prize being awarded to Jules Bordet, the discoverer of Bordetella pertussis, the 12th International Bordetella Symposium was held from 9 to 12 April 2019 at the Université Libre de Bruxelles, where Jules Bordet studied and was Professor of Microbiology. The symposium attracted more than 300 Bordetella experts from 34 countries. They discussed the latest epidemiologic data and clinical aspects of pertussis, Bordetella biology and pathogenesis, immunology and vaccine development, and genomics and evolution. Advanced technological and methodological tools provided novel insights into the genomic diversity of Bordetella and a better understanding of pertussis disease and vaccine performance. New molecular approaches revealed previously unrecognized complexity of virulence gene regulation. Innovative insights into the immune responses to infection by Bordetella resulted in the development of new vaccine candidates. Such discoveries will aid in the design of more effective approaches to control pertussis and other Bordetella-related diseases.

20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32338708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are many pharmacologic therapies that are being used or considered for treatment of COVID-19. There is a need for frequently updated practice guidelines on their use, based on critical evaluation of rapidly emerging literature. OBJECTIVE: Develop evidence-based rapid guidelines intended to support patients, clinicians and other health-care professionals in their decisions about treatment and management of patients with COVID-19. METHODS: IDSA formed a multidisciplinary guideline panel of infectious disease clinicians, pharmacists, and methodologists with varied areas of expertise. Process followed a rapid recommendation checklist. The panel prioritized questions and outcomes. Then a systematic review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature was conducted. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used to assess the certainty of evidence and make recommendations. RESULTS: The IDSA guideline panel agreed on 7 treatment recommendations and provided narrative summaries of other treatments undergoing evaluations. CONCLUSIONS: The panel expressed the overarching goal that patients be recruited into ongoing trials, which would provide much needed evidence on the efficacy and safety of various therapies for COVID-19, given that we could not make a determination whether the benefits outweigh harms for most treatments.

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