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1.
Plants (Basel) ; 13(7)2024 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38611529

RESUMO

Ecological niche partitioning is crucial in reducing interspecific competition, fostering species coexistence, and preserving biodiversity. Our research, conducted in a hybrid mixed oak forest in Yushan, Jiangsu, China, focuses on Quercus acutissima, Q. variabilis, Q. fabri, and Q. serrata var. brevipetiolata. Using Point Pattern Analysis, we investigated the spatial relationships and ecological trait autocorrelation, including total carbon (TC), nitrogen (TN), phosphorus (TP), potassium (TK), and breast height diameter (DBH). Our findings show aggregated distribution patterns within the oak populations. The Inhomogeneous Poisson Point model highlights the impact of environmental heterogeneity on Q. variabilis, leading to distinct distribution patterns, while other species showed wider dispersion. This study reveals aggregated interspecific interactions, with a notable dispersal pattern between Q. acutissima and Q. variabilis. We observed significant variability in nutrient elements, indicating distinct nutrient dynamics and uptake processes. The variations in total carbon (TC), nitrogen (TN), phosphorus (TP), and potassium (TK) suggest distinct nutrient dynamics, with TK showing the highest variability. Despite variations in TC, TK, and TP, the species did not form distinct classes, suggesting overlapping nutritional strategies and environmental adaptations. Furthermore, spatial autocorrelation analysis indicates strong positive correlations for DBH, TC, and TP, whereas TK and TN correlations are non-significant. The results suggest habitat filtering as a key driver in intraspecific relationships, with a finer spatial scale of ecological niche division through TC and TP, which is crucial for maintaining coexistence among these oak species.

2.
New Phytol ; 242(3): 1113-1130, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38418427

RESUMO

Leaf development is a multifaceted and dynamic process orchestrated by a myriad of genes to shape the proper size and morphology. The dynamic genetic network underlying leaf development remains largely unknown. Utilizing a synergistic genetic approach encompassing dynamic genome-wide association study (GWAS), time-ordered gene co-expression network (TO-GCN) analyses and gene manipulation, we explored the temporal genetic architecture and regulatory network governing leaf development in Populus. We identified 42 time-specific and 18 consecutive genes that displayed different patterns of expression at various time points. We then constructed eight TO-GCNs that covered the cell proliferation, transition, and cell expansion stages of leaf development. Integrating GWAS and TO-GCN, we postulated the functions of 27 causative genes for GWAS and identified PtoGRF9 as a key player in leaf development. Genetic manipulation via overexpression and suppression of PtoGRF9 revealed its primary influence on leaf development by modulating cell proliferation. Furthermore, we elucidated that PtoGRF9 governs leaf development by activating PtoHB21 during the cell proliferation stage and attenuating PtoLD during the transition stage. Our study provides insights into the dynamic genetic underpinnings of leaf development and understanding the regulatory mechanism of PtoGRF9 in this dynamic process.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Populus , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
3.
Plant Cell Environ ; 47(5): 1797-1812, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38314665

RESUMO

As the most abundant form of methylation modification in messenger RNA (mRNA), the distribution of N6-methyladenosine (m6A) has been preliminarily revealed in herbaceous plants under salt stress, but its function and mechanism in woody plants were still unknown. Here, we showed that global m6A levels increased during poplar response to salt stress. Methylated RNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeRIP-seq) revealed that m6A significantly enriched in the coding sequence region and 3'-untranslated regions in poplar, by recognising the conserved motifs, AGACU, GGACA and UGUAG. A large number of differential m6A transcripts have been identified, and some have been proved involving in salt response and plant growth and development. Further combined analysis of MeRIP-seq and RNA-seq revealed that the m6A hypermethylated and enrich in the CDS region preferred to positively regulate expression abundance. Writer inhibitor, 3-deazaneplanocin A treatment increased the sensitivity of poplar to salt stress by reducing mRNA stability to regulate the expression of salt-responsive transcripts PagMYB48, PagGT2, PagNAC2, PagGPX8 and PagARF2. Furthermore, we verified that the methyltransferase PagFIP37 plays a positively role in the response of poplar to salt stress, overexpressed lines have stronger salt tolerance, while RNAi lines were more sensitive to salt, which relied on regulating mRNA stability in an m6A manner of salt-responsive transcripts PagMYB48, PagGT2, PagNAC2, PagGPX8 and PagARF2. Collectively, these results revealed the regulatory role of m6A methylation in poplar response to salt stress, and revealed the importance and mechanism of m6A methylation in the response of woody plants to salt stress for the first time.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Populus , 60697 , Estresse Salino/genética , Metiltransferases/genética , Populus/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética
4.
Plants (Basel) ; 13(3)2024 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38337930

RESUMO

Salt stress is a universal abiotic stress that severely affects plant growth and development. Understanding the mechanisms of Maclura tricuspidate's adaptation to salt stress is crucial for developing salt-tolerant plant varieties. This article discusses the integration of physiology, transcriptome, and metabolome to investigate the mechanism of salt adaptation in M. tricuspidata under salt stress conditions. Overall, the antioxidant enzyme system (SOD and POD) of M. tricuspidata exhibited higher activities compared with the control, while the content of soluble sugar and concentrations of chlorophyll a and b were maintained during salt stress. KEGG analysis revealed that deferentially expressed genes were primarily involved in plant hormone signal transduction, phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthesis, alkaloids, and MAPK signaling pathways. Differential metabolites were enriched in amino acid metabolism, the biosynthesis of plant hormones, butanoate, and 2-oxocarboxylic acid metabolism. Interestingly, glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism were found to be important both in the metabolome and transcriptome-metabolome correlation analyses, suggesting their essential role in enhancing the salt tolerance of M. tricuspidata. Collectively, our study not only revealed the molecular mechanism of salt tolerance in M. tricuspidata, but also provided a new perspective for future salt-tolerant breeding and improvement in salt land for this species.

5.
Heredity (Edinb) ; 132(2): 98-105, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38172577

RESUMO

Since their initiation in the 1950s, worldwide selective tree breeding programs followed the recurrent selection scheme of repeated cycles of selection, breeding (mating), and testing phases and essentially remained unchanged to accelerate this process or address environmental contingencies and concerns. Here, we introduce an "end-to-end" selective tree breeding framework that: (1) leverages strategically preselected GWAS-based sequence data capturing trait architecture information, (2) generates unprecedented resolution of genealogical relationships among tested individuals, and (3) leads to the elimination of the breeding phase through the utilization of readily available wind-pollinated (OP) families. Individuals' breeding values generated from multi-trait multi-site analysis were also used in an optimum contribution selection protocol to effectively manage genetic gain/co-ancestry trade-offs and traits' correlated response to selection. The proof-of-concept study involved a 40-year-old spruce OP testing population growing on three sites in British Columbia, Canada, clearly demonstrating our method's superiority in capturing most of the available genetic gains in a substantially reduced timeline relative to the traditional approach. The proposed framework is expected to increase the efficiency of existing selective breeding programs, accelerate the start of new programs for ecologically and environmentally important tree species, and address climate-change caused biotic and abiotic stress concerns more effectively.


Assuntos
Melhoramento Vegetal , Seleção Artificial , Árvores , Colúmbia Britânica , Genômica/métodos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Fenótipo , Seleção Genética , Árvores/genética
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(2)2024 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38279314

RESUMO

Polyploid breeding techniques aid in the cultivation of new forestry cultivars, thus expanding the suite of strategies for the improvement of arboreal traits and innovation within the field of forestry. Compared to diploid Robinia pseudoacacia L. (black locust) 'D26-5①' (2×), its dwarfed homologous tetraploid 'D26-5②' (4×) variety has better application prospects in garden vegetation guardrails and urban landscape. However, the molecular mechanism of the generation and growth of this dwarf variety is still unclear. Here, plant growth and development as well as histological differences between the diploid and its autotetraploid were investigated. Levels of endogenous hormones at three different developmental stages (20, 40, and 70 days) of 2× and homologous 4× tissue culture plantlets were assessed, and it was found that the brassinosteroid (BR) contents of the former were significantly higher than the latter. Transcriptome sequencing data analysis of 2× and homologous 4× showed that differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were significantly enriched in plant hormone synthesis and signal transduction, sugar and starch metabolism, and the plant circadian rhythm pathway, which are closely related to plant growth and development. Therefore, these biological pathways may be important regulatory pathways leading to dwarfism and slow growth in tetraploids. Additionally, utilizing weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA), we identified three crucial differentially expressed genes (DEGs)-PRR5, CYP450, and SPA1-that potentially underlie the observed ploidy variation. This study provides a new reference for the molecular mechanism of dwarfism in dwarfed autotetraploid black locusts. Collectively, our results of metabolite analysis and comparative transcriptomics confirm that plant hormone signaling and the circadian rhythm pathway result in dwarfism in black locusts.


Assuntos
Nanismo , Robinia , Transcriptoma , Tetraploidia , Robinia/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
7.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 254(Pt 1): 127621, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37890750

RESUMO

The CONSTANS-like (COL) genes, as a core transcription factor in the photoperiod regulation pathway, play a key role in plant reproduction development. However, their molecular characterization has rarely been studied in Pinus tabuliformis. Here, 10 PtCOL genes were identified in the P. tabuliformis genome and multiple sequence alignments have indicated that the PtCOL proteins contained highly conserved B-BOX1 and CCT domains. Sequence similarity analysis showed that PtCOL1 and PtCOL3 had the higher similarity with Norway spruce COLs (PaCOL2 and PaCOL1) and Arabidopsis COLs (AtCOL3, 4 and 5), respectively. Phylogeny and gene structure analyses revealed that PtCOLs were divided into three subgroups, each with identical or similar distributions of exons, introns, and motifs. Moreover, 10 PtCOLs were distributed on 6 chromosomes and PtCOL9 has syntenic gene pairs in both Ginkgo biloba and Sequoiadendron giganteum. Interestingly, in transcriptome profiles, most PtCOLs exhibited a diurnal oscillation pattern under both long (LD) and short (SD) day conditions. Additionally, PtCOLs were highly expressed in needles and female cones, and showed different spatial expression patterns. Among the ten PtCOLs, PtCOL1/3 heterologous overexpression Arabidopsis displayed a delayed-flowering phenotype under SD, indicating that they are likely to play a crucial role in the reproductive development. Additionally, PtCOL1 and PtCOL3 were not only capable of interacting with each other, but they were each capable of interacting with themselves. Furthermore, PtCOL1 and PtCOL3 were also involved in the MADS-box protein-protein interaction (PPI) network in P. tabuliformis cone development. Direct interactions of PtDAL11 with PtCOL1/3 impeded PtCOL1/3 translocation into the nucleus. In summary, this study provided comprehensive understanding for the functions of the PtCOL gene family and revealed their biological roles in the photoperiod-dependent P. tabuliformis cone development.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Pinus , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Pinus/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Filogenia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Flores/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(23)2023 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38069325

RESUMO

As a medicinal tree species, ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.) and terpene trilactones (TTLs) extracted from its leaves are the main pharmacologic activity constituents and important economic indicators of its value. The accumulation of TTLs is known to be affected by environmental stress, while the regulatory mechanism of environmental response mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs) at the post-transcriptional levels remains unclear. Here, we focused on grafted ginkgo grown in northwestern, southwestern, and eastern-central China and integrally analyzed RNA-seq and small RNA-seq high-throughput sequencing data as well as metabolomics data from leaf samples of ginkgo clones grown in natural environments. The content of bilobalide was highest among detected TTLs, and there was more than a twofold variation in the accumulation of bilobalide between growth conditions. Meanwhile, transcriptome analysis found significant differences in the expression of 19 TTL-related genes among ginkgo leaves from different environments. Small RNA sequencing and analysis showed that 62 of the 521 miRNAs identified were differentially expressed among different samples, especially the expression of miRN50, miR169h/i, and miR169e was susceptible to environmental changes. Further, we found that transcription factors (ERF, MYB, C3H, HD-ZIP, HSF, and NAC) and miRNAs (miR319e/f, miRN2, miRN54, miR157, miR185, and miRN188) could activate or inhibit the expression of TTL-related genes to participate in the regulation of terpene trilactones biosynthesis in ginkgo leaves by weighted gene co-regulatory network analysis. Our findings provide new insights into the understanding of the regulatory mechanism of TTL biosynthesis but also lay the foundation for ginkgo leaves' medicinal value improvement under global change.


Assuntos
Bilobalídeos , MicroRNAs , MicroRNAs/genética , Ginkgolídeos , Terpenos/metabolismo , Ginkgo biloba/genética , Ginkgo biloba/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais , Lactonas/metabolismo
9.
Planta ; 258(6): 110, 2023 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37910223

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: This work mainly found that the stigma and style of Q. variabilis did not completely lose the specific recognition towards heterologous pollen, a fact which is different from previous studies. Quercus is the foundation species in the Northern Hemisphere, with extreme prevalence for interspecific hybridization. It is not yet entirely understood whether or how the pollen tube-female tissue interaction contributes to the "extensive hybridization" in oaks. Pollen storage conditions correlate with distant hybridization. We conducted hybridization experiments with Q. variabilis as female and Q. variabilis and Q. mongolica as male parents. And the differences in pollen tube (PT) development between intra- and distant interspecific hybridization were studied by fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Our results showed that -20 °C allowed pollen of both species to maintain some viability. Both Q. variabilis and Q. mongolica pollen germinated profusely on the stigmas. SEM results indicated that in the intraspecific hybridization, Q. variabilis pollen started to germinate at 6 h after pollination (hap), PTs elongated significantly at 12 hap, and entered the stigma at 24 hap. By contrast, Q. mongolica pollen germinated at 15 hap, and the PTs entered the stigma at 27 hap. By fluorescence microscopical studies it was observed that some PTs of Q. variabilis gathered at the style-joining at 96 hap, unlike the Q. mongolica which reached the style junction at 144 hap. The above results indicate that the abundant germination of heterologous pollen (HP) on the stigma and the "Feeble specificity recognition" of the stigma and transmitting tract to HP may create opportunities for the "extensive hybridization" of oaks. This work provides a sexual developmental reference for clarifying the causes of Quercus "extensive hybridization".


Assuntos
Polinização , Quercus , Hibridização Genética , Tubo Polínico/genética , Quercus/genética
10.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 2023 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37988335

RESUMO

Wood formation, intricately linked to the carbohydrate metabolism pathway, underpins the capacity of trees to produce renewable resources and offer vital ecosystem services. Despite their importance, the genetic regulatory mechanisms governing wood fibre properties in woody plants remain enigmatic. In this study, we identified a pivotal module comprising 158 high-priority core genes implicated in wood formation, drawing upon tissue-specific gene expression profiles from 22 Populus samples. Initially, we conducted a module-based association study in a natural population of 435 Populus tomentosa, pinpointing PtoDPb1 as the key gene contributing to wood formation through the carbohydrate metabolic pathway. Overexpressing PtoDPb1 led to a 52.91% surge in cellulose content, a reduction of 14.34% in fibre length, and an increment of 38.21% in fibre width in transgenic poplar. Moreover, by integrating co-expression patterns, RNA-sequencing analysis, and expression quantitative trait nucleotide (eQTN) mapping, we identified a PtoDPb1-mediated genetic module of PtoWAK106-PtoDPb1-PtoE2Fa-PtoUGT74E2 responsible for fibre properties in Populus. Additionally, we discovered the two PtoDPb1 haplotypes that influenced protein interaction efficiency between PtoE2Fa-PtoDPb1 and PtoDPb1-PtoWAK106, respectively. The transcriptional activation activity of the PtoE2Fa-PtoDPb1 haplotype-1 complex on the promoter of PtoUGT74E2 surpassed that of the PtoE2Fa-PtoDPb1 haplotype-2 complex. Taken together, our findings provide novel insights into the regulatory mechanisms of fibre properties in Populus, orchestrated by PtoDPb1, and offer a practical module for expediting genetic breeding in woody plants via molecular design.

11.
BMC Plant Biol ; 23(1): 378, 2023 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37528351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most of Camellia oleifera forests have low fruit yield and poor oil quality that are largely associated with soil fertility. Soil physical and chemical properties interact with each other affecting soil fertility and C. oleifera growing under different soil conditions produced different yield and oil composition. Three main soil types were studied, and redundancy, correlation, and double-screening stepwise regression analysis were used for exploring the relationships between C. oleifera nutrients uptake and soil physical and chemical properties, shedding light on the transport law of nutrient elements from root, leaves, and kernel, and affecting the regulation of fruit yield and oil composition. RESULTS: In the present study, available soil elements content of C. oleifera forest were mainly regulated by water content, pH value, and total N, P and Fe contents. Seven elements (N, P, K, Mg, Cu, Mn and C) were key for kernel's growth and development, with N, P, K, Cu and Mn contents determining 74.0% the yield traits. The transport characteristics of these nutrients from root, leaves to the kernel had synergistic and antagonistic effects. Increasing oil production and unsaturated fatty acid content can be accomplished in two ways: one through increasing N, P, Mg, and Zn contents of leaves by applying corresponding N, P, Mg, Zn foliar fertilizers, while the other through maintaining proper soil moisture content by applying Zn fertilizer in the surface layer and Mg and Ca fertilizer in deep gully. CONCLUSION: Soil type controlled nutrient absorption by soil pH, water content and total N, P and Fe content. There were synergistic and antagonistic effects on the inter-organ transport of nutrient elements, ultimately affecting N, P, K, Cu and Mn contents in kernel, which determined the yield and oil composition of C. oleifera.


Assuntos
Camellia , Solo/química , Fertilizantes/análise , Nutrientes/análise , Água/análise
12.
Tree Physiol ; 43(11): 1964-1985, 2023 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37565812

RESUMO

Cold acclimation is a crucial biological process that enables conifers to overwinter safely. The late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein family plays a pivotal role in enhancing freezing tolerance during this process. Despite its importance, the identification, molecular functions and regulatory networks of the LEA protein family have not been extensively studied in conifers or gymnosperms. Pinus tabuliformis, a conifer with high ecological and economic values and with high-quality genome sequence, is an ideal candidate for such studies. Here, a total of 104 LEA genes were identified from P. tabuliformis, and we renamed them according to their subfamily group: PtLEA1-PtLEA92 (group LEA1-LEA6), PtSMP1-PtSMP6 (group seed maturation protein) and PtDHN1-PtDHN6 (group Dehydrin). While the sequence structure of P. tabuliformis  LEA genes are conserved, their physicochemical properties exhibit unique characteristics within different subfamily groupings. Notably, the abundance of low-temperature responsive elements in PtLEA genes was observed. Using annual rhythm and temperature gradient transcriptome data, PtLEA22 was identified as a key gene that responds to low-temperature induction while conforming to the annual cycle of cold acclimation. Overexpression of PtLEA22 enhanced Arabidopsis freezing tolerance. Furthermore, several transcription factors potentially co-expressed with PtLEA22 were validated using yeast one-hybrid and dual-luciferase assays, revealing that PtDREB1 could directly bind PtLEA22 promoter to positively regulate its expression. These findings reveal the genome-wide characterization of P. tabuliformis  LEA genes and their importance in the cold acclimation, while providing a theoretical basis for studying the molecular mechanisms of cold acclimation in conifers.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Pinus , Pinus/genética , Pinus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Arabidopsis/genética , Aclimatação/genética , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
13.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 21(10): 2002-2018, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37392407

RESUMO

Heterozygous alleles are widespread in outcrossing and clonally propagated woody plants. The variation in heterozygosity that underlies population adaptive evolution and phenotypic variation, however, remains largely unknown. Here, we describe a de novo chromosome-level genome assembly of Populus tomentosa, an economic and ecologically important native tree in northern China. By resequencing 302 natural accessions, we determined that the South subpopulation (Pop_S) encompasses the ancestral strains of P. tomentosa, while the Northwest subpopulation (Pop_NW) and Northeast subpopulation (Pop_NE) experienced different selection pressures during population evolution, resulting in significant population differentiation and a decrease in the extent of heterozygosity. Analysis of heterozygous selective sweep regions (HSSR) suggested that selection for lower heterozygosity contributed to the local adaptation of P. tomentosa by dwindling gene expression and genetic load in the Pop_NW and Pop_NE subpopulations. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) revealed that 88 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 63 genes are associated with nine wood composition traits. Among them, the selection for the homozygous AA allele in PtoARF8 is associated with reductions in cellulose and hemicellulose contents by attenuating PtoARF8 expression, and the increase in lignin content is attributable to the selection for decreases in exon heterozygosity in PtoLOX3 during adaptive evolution of natural populations. This study provides novel insights into allelic variations in heterozygosity associated with adaptive evolution of P. tomentosa in response to the local environment and identifies a series of key genes for wood component traits, thereby facilitating genomic-based breeding of important traits in perennial woody plants.


Assuntos
Populus , Alelos , Populus/genética , Populus/metabolismo , Madeira/genética , Madeira/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Melhoramento Vegetal , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Genômica
14.
Plant Cell ; 35(11): 4046-4065, 2023 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37522322

RESUMO

Perennial trees must maintain stem growth throughout their entire lifespan to progressively increase in size as they age. The overarching question of the molecular mechanisms that govern stem perennial growth in trees remains largely unanswered. Here we deciphered the genetic architecture that underlies perennial growth trajectories using genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for measures of growth traits across years in a natural population of Populus tomentosa. By analyzing the stem growth trajectory, we identified PtoP4H9, encoding prolyl 4-hydroxylase 9, which is responsible for the natural variation in the growth rate of diameter at breast height (DBH) across years. Quantifying the dynamic genetic contribution of PtoP4H9 loci to stem growth showed that PtoP4H9 played a pivotal role in stem growth regulation. Spatiotemporal expression analysis showed that PtoP4H9 was highly expressed in cambium tissues of poplars of various ages. Overexpression and knockdown of PtoP4H9 revealed that it altered cell expansion to regulate cell wall modification and mechanical characteristics, thereby promoting stem growth in Populus. We showed that natural variation in PtoP4H9 occurred in a BASIC PENTACYSTEINE transcription factor PtoBPC1-binding promoter element controlling PtoP4H9 expression. The geographic distribution of PtoP4H9 allelic variation was consistent with the modes of selection among populations. Altogether, our study provides important genetic insights into dynamic stem growth in Populus, and we confirmed PtoP4H9 as a potential useful marker for breeding or genetic engineering of poplars.


Assuntos
Populus , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Prolil Hidroxilases/genética , Prolil Hidroxilases/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas , Fenótipo
15.
BMC Genomics ; 24(1): 346, 2023 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37349702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pinus is the largest genus of Pinaceae and the most primitive group of modern genera. Pines have become the focus of many molecular evolution studies because of their wide use and ecological significance. However, due to the lack of complete chloroplast genome data, the evolutionary relationship and classification of pines are still controversial. With the development of new generation sequencing technology, sequence data of pines are becoming abundant. Here, we systematically analyzed and summarized the chloroplast genomes of 33 published pine species. RESULTS: Generally, pines chloroplast genome structure showed strong conservation and high similarity. The chloroplast genome length ranged from 114,082 to 121,530 bp with similar positions and arrangements of all genes, while the GC content ranged from 38.45 to 39.00%. Reverse repeats showed a shrinking evolutionary trend, with IRa/IRb length ranging from 267 to 495 bp. A total of 3,205 microsatellite sequences and 5,436 repeats were detected in the studied species chloroplasts. Additionally, two hypervariable regions were assessed, providing potential molecular markers for future phylogenetic studies and population genetics. Through the phylogenetic analysis of complete chloroplast genomes, we offered novel opinions on the genus traditional evolutionary theory and classification. CONCLUSION: We compared and analyzed the chloroplast genomes of 33 pine species, verified the traditional evolutionary theory and classification, and reclassified some controversial species classification. This study is helpful in analyzing the evolution, genetic structure, and the development of chloroplast DNA markers in Pinus.


Assuntos
Genoma de Cloroplastos , Pinus , Filogenia , Pinus/genética , Genética Populacional , Repetições de Microssatélites
16.
Sci Data ; 10(1): 259, 2023 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37156769

RESUMO

Coriaria nepalensis Wall. (Coriariaceae) is a nitrogen-fixing shrub which forms root nodules with the actinomycete Frankia. Oils and extracts of C. nepalensis have been reported to be bacteriostatic and insecticidal, and C. nepalensis bark provides a valuable tannin resource. Here, by combining PacBio HiFi sequencing and Hi-C scaffolding techniques, we generated a haplotype-resolved chromosome-scale genome assembly for C. nepalensis. This genome assembly is approximately 620 Mb in size with a contig N50 of 11 Mb, with 99.9% of the total assembled sequences anchored to 40 pseudochromosomes. We predicted 60,862 protein-coding genes of which 99.5% were annotated from databases. We further identified 939 tRNAs, 7,297 rRNAs, and 982 ncRNAs. The chromosome-scale genome of C. nepalensis is expected to be a significant resource for understanding the genetic basis of root nodulation with Frankia, toxicity, and tannin biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Magnoliopsida , Haplótipos , Magnoliopsida/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Cromossomos de Plantas
17.
Plant Physiol ; 193(1): 736-755, 2023 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37247391

RESUMO

Drought stress limits woody species productivity and influences tree distribution. However, dissecting the molecular mechanisms that underpin drought responses in forest trees can be challenging due to trait complexity. Here, using a panel of 300 Chinese white poplar (Populus tomentosa) accessions collected from different geographical climatic regions in China, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on seven drought-related traits and identified PtoWRKY68 as a candidate gene involved in the response to drought stress. A 12-bp insertion and/or deletion and three nonsynonymous variants in the PtoWRKY68 coding sequence categorized natural populations of P. tomentosa into two haplotype groups, PtoWRKY68hap1 and PtoWRKY68hap2. The allelic variation in these two PtoWRKY68 haplotypes conferred differential transcriptional regulatory activities and binding to the promoters of downstream abscisic acid (ABA) efflux and signaling genes. Overexpression of PtoWRKY68hap1 and PtoWRKY68hap2 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ameliorated the drought tolerance of two transgenic lines and increased ABA content by 42.7% and 14.3% compared to wild-type plants, respectively. Notably, PtoWRKY68hap1 (associated with drought tolerance) is ubiquitous in accessions in water-deficient environments, whereas the drought-sensitive allele PtoWRKY68hap2 is widely distributed in well-watered regions, consistent with the trends in local precipitation, suggesting that these alleles correspond to geographical adaptation in Populus. Moreover, quantitative trait loci analysis and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (PtoSVP.3) positively regulates the expression of PtoWRKY68 under drought stress. We propose a drought tolerance regulatory module in which PtoWRKY68 modulates ABA signaling and accumulation, providing insight into the genetic basis of drought tolerance in trees. Our findings will facilitate molecular breeding to improve the drought tolerance of forest trees.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Populus , Resistência à Seca , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Populus/metabolismo , Alelos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Secas , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(6)2023 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36982974

RESUMO

Expansins are pH-dependent enzymatic proteins that irreversibly and continuously facilitate cell-wall loosening and extension. The identification and comprehensive analysis of Ginkgo biloba expansins (GbEXPs) are still lacking. Here, we identified and investigated 46 GbEXPs in Ginkgo biloba. All GbEXPs were grouped into four subgroups based on phylogeny. GbEXPA31 was cloned and subjected to a subcellular localization assay to verify our identification. The conserved motifs, gene organization, cis-elements, and Gene Ontology (GO) annotation were predicted to better understand the functional characteristics of GbEXPs. The collinearity test indicated segmental duplication dominated the expansion of the GbEXPA subgroup, and seven paralogous pairs underwent strong positive selection during expansion. A majority of GbEXPAs were mainly expressed in developing Ginkgo kernels or fruits in transcriptome and real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR). Furthermore, GbEXLA4, GbEXLA5, GbEXPA5, GbEXPA6, GbEXPA8, and GbEXPA24 were inhibited under the exposure of abiotic stresses (UV-B and drought) and plant hormones (ABA, SA, and BR). In general, this study expanded our understanding for expansins in Ginkgo tissues' growth and development and provided a new basis for studying GbEXPs in response to exogenous phytohormones.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ginkgo biloba , Ginkgo biloba/genética , Ginkgo biloba/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Genoma de Planta , Hormônios , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Filogenia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
19.
Front Plant Sci ; 14: 1086879, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36923127

RESUMO

Hypocotyl elongation is an important process in plant growth and development, and is under hormonal regulatory signaling pathways. In our study, exogenous 6-BA significantly inhibited Picea crassifolia hypocotyl elongation more than ethylene in the dark, indicating the existence of different regulatory strategies in conifers, therefore, the P. crassifolia transcriptome was studied to explore the responsive genes and their regulatory pathways for exogenous N6-benzyladenine (6-BA) inhibition of hypocotyl elongation using RNA-Sequencing approach. We present the first transcriptome assembly of P. crassifolia obtained from 24.38 Gb clean data. With lowly-expressed and short contigs excluded, the assembly contains roughly 130,612 unigenes with an N50 length of 1,278 bp. Differential expression analysis found 3,629 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and found that the differential expression fold of genes was mainly concentrated between 2 and 8 (1 ≤ log2FoldChange ≤ 3). Functional annotation showed that the GO term with the highest number of enriched genes (83 unigenes) was the shoot system development (GO: 0048367) and the KEGG category, plant hormone signal transduction (ko04075), was enriched 30 unigenes. Further analysis revealed that several cytokinin dehydrogenase genes (PcCTD1, PcCTD3 and PcCTD6) catabolized cytokinins, while xyloglucan endotransglucosylase hydrolase gene (PcXTH31), WALLS ARE THIN 1-like gene (PcWAT1-1) and Small auxin-induced gene (PcSAUR15) were strongly repressed thus synergistically completing the inhibition of hypocotyl elongation in P. crassifolia. Besides, PcbHLH149, PcMYB44 and PcERF14 were predicted to be potential core TFs that may form a multi-layered regulatory network with the above proteins for the regulation of hypocotyl growth.

20.
New Phytol ; 238(5): 2016-2032, 2023 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36792969

RESUMO

Quercus dentata Thunb., a dominant forest tree species in northern China, has significant ecological and ornamental value due to its adaptability and beautiful autumn coloration, with color changes from green to yellow into red resulting from the autumnal shifts in leaf pigmentation. However, the key genes and molecular regulatory mechanisms for leaf color transition remain to be investigated. First, we presented a high-quality chromosome-scale assembly for Q. dentata. This 893.54 Mb sized genome (contig N50 = 4.21 Mb, scaffold N50 = 75.55 Mb; 2n = 24) harbors 31 584 protein-coding genes. Second, our metabolome analyses uncovered pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-arabinoside, and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside as the main pigments involved in leaf color transition. Third, gene co-expression further identified the MYB-bHLH-WD40 (MBW) transcription activation complex as central to anthocyanin biosynthesis regulation. Notably, transcription factor (TF) QdNAC (QD08G038820) was highly co-expressed with this MBW complex and may regulate anthocyanin accumulation and chlorophyll degradation during leaf senescence through direct interaction with another TF, QdMYB (QD01G020890), as revealed by our further protein-protein and DNA-protein interaction assays. Our high-quality genome assembly, metabolome, and transcriptome resources further enrich Quercus genomics and will facilitate upcoming exploration of ornamental values and environmental adaptability in this important genus.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Quercus , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Quercus/genética , Quercus/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Transcriptoma/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Pigmentação/genética , Cromossomos , Glucosídeos , Cor
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