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1.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506321

RESUMO

Platycladus orientalis is an ecologically important native conifer in Northern China and exotic species in many parts of the world; however, knowledge about the species' genetics and genome are very limited. The availability of well-developed battery of genetic markers, with large genome coverage, is a prerequisite for the species genetic dissection of adaptive attributes and efficient selective breeding. Here, we present a genome-wide genotyping method with double-digestion restriction site associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD-seq) that is effective in generating large number of Mendelian markers for genome mapping and other genetic applications. Using 139 megagametophytes collected from a single mother tree, we assembled 397,226 loci, of which 108,683 (27.4%) were polymorphic. After stringent filtering for 1:1 segregation ratio and missing rate of <20%, the remaining 23,926 loci (22% of the polymorphic loci) were ordered into 11 linkage groups (LGs) and distributed across 7,559 unique positions, with a total map length of 1,443 cM and an average spacing of 0.2 cM between adjacent unique positions. The 11 LGs correspond to the species' 11 haploid genome chromosome number. This genetic map is among few high-density maps available for conifers to date, and represents the first genetic map for P. orientalis The information generated serves as a solid foundation not only for marker-assisted breeding efforts, but also for comparative conifer genomic studies.

2.
New Phytol ; 223(4): 1888-1903, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081152

RESUMO

Occurrence of stomata on both leaf surfaces (amphistomaty) promotes higher stomatal conductance and photosynthesis while simultaneously increasing exposure to potential disease agents in black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa). A genome-wide association study (GWAS) with 2.2M single nucleotide polymorphisms generated through whole-genome sequencing found 280 loci associated with variation in adaxial stomatal traits, implicating genes regulating stomatal development and behavior. Strikingly, numerous loci regulating plant growth and response to biotic and abiotic stresses were also identified. The most significant locus was a poplar homologue of SPEECHLESS (PtSPCH1). Individuals possessing PtSPCH1 alleles associated with greater adaxial stomatal density originated primarily from environments with shorter growing seasons (e.g. northern latitudes, high elevations) or with less precipitation. PtSPCH1 was expressed in developing leaves but not developing stem xylem. In developing leaves, RNA sequencing showed patterns of coordinated expression between PtSPCH1 and other GWAS-identified genes. The breadth of our GWAS results suggests that the evolution of amphistomaty is part of a larger, complex response in plants. Suites of genes underpin this response, retrieved through genetic association to adaxial stomata, and show coordinated expression during development. We propose that the occurrence of amphistomaty in P. trichocarpa involves PtSPCH1 and reflects selection for supporting rapid growth over investment in immunity.

3.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 213, 2019 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cupressus gigantea, a rare and endangered tree species with remarkable medicinal value, is endemic to the Tibetan Plateau. Yet, little is known about the underlying genetics of the unique ecological adaptability of this extremely long-lived conifer with a large genome size. Here, we present its first de novo and multi-tissue transcriptome in-depth characterization. RESULTS: We performed Illumina paired-end sequencing and RNA libraries assembly derived from terminal buds, male and female strobili, biennial leaves, and cambium tissues taken from adult C. gigantea. In total, large-scale high-quality reads were assembled into 101,092 unigenes, with an average sequence length of 1029 bp, and 6848 unigenes (6.77%) were mapped against the KEGG databases to identify 292 pathways. A core set of 41,373 genes belonging to 2412 orthologous gene families shared between C. gigantea and nine other plants was revealed. In addition, we identified 2515 small to larger-size gene families containing in total 9223 genes specific to C. gigantea, and enriched for gene ontologies relating to biotic interactions. We identified an important terpene synthases gene family expansion with its 121 putative members. CONCLUSIONS: This study presents the first comprehensive transcriptome characterization of C. gigantea. Our results will facilitate functional genomic studies to support genetic improvement and conservation programs for this endangered conifer.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Alquil e Aril Transferases/genética , Cupressus/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Cupressus/genética , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA
4.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(3)2019 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889931

RESUMO

Plant genomes are punctuated by repeated bouts of proliferation of transposable elements (TEs), and these mobile bursts are followed by silencing and decay of most of the newly inserted elements. As such, plant genomes reflect TE-related genome expansion and shrinkage. In general, these genome activities involve two mechanisms: small RNA-mediated epigenetic repression and long-term mutational decay and deletion, that is, genome-purging. Furthermore, the spatial relationships between TE insertions and genes are an important force in shaping gene regulatory networks, their downstream metabolic and physiological outputs, and thus their phenotypes. Such cascading regulations finally set up a fitness differential among individuals. This brief review demonstrates factual evidence that unifies most updated conceptual frameworks covering genome size, architecture, epigenetic reprogramming, and gene expression. It aims to give an overview of the impact that TEs may have on genome and adaptive evolution and to provide novel insights into addressing possible causes and consequences of intimidating genome sizes (20⁻30 Gb) in a taxonomic group, conifers.

5.
Heredity (Edinb) ; 122(6): 848-863, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30631145

RESUMO

Here, we perform cross-generational GS analysis on coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), reflecting trans-generational selective breeding application. A total of 1321 trees, representing 37 full-sib F1 families from 3 environments in British Columbia, Canada, were used as the training population for (1) EBVs (estimated breeding values) of juvenile height (HTJ) in the F1 generation predicting genomic EBVs of HTJ of 136 individuals in the F2 generation, (2) deregressed EBVs of F1 HTJ predicting deregressed genomic EBVs of F2 HTJ, (3) F1 mature height (HT35) predicting HTJ EBVs in F2, and (4) deregressed F1 HT35 predicting genomic deregressed HTJ EBVs in F2. Ridge regression best linear unbiased predictor (RR-BLUP), generalized ridge regression (GRR), and Bayes-B GS methods were used and compared to pedigree-based (ABLUP) predictions. GS accuracies for scenarios 1 (0.92, 0.91, and 0.91) and 3 (0.57, 0.56, and 0.58) were similar to their ABLUP counterparts (0.92 and 0.60, respectively) (using RR-BLUP, GRR, and Bayes-B). Results using deregressed values fell dramatically for both scenarios 2 and 4 which approached zero in many cases. Cross-generational GS validation of juvenile height in Douglas-fir produced predictive accuracies almost as high as that of ABLUP. Without capturing LD, GS cannot surpass the prediction of ABLUP. Here we tracked pedigree relatedness between training and validation sets. More markers or improved distribution of markers are required to capture LD in Douglas-fir. This is essential for accurate forward selection among siblings as markers that track pedigree are of little use for forward selection of individuals within controlled pollinated families.

6.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0203242, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30677030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-throughput sequencing technology has revolutionized both medical and biological research by generating exceedingly large numbers of genetic variants. The resulting datasets share a number of common characteristics that might lead to poor generalization capacity. Concerns include noise accumulated due to the large number of predictors, sparse information regarding the p≫n problem, and overfitting and model mis-identification resulting from spurious collinearity. Additionally, complex correlation patterns are present among variables. As a consequence, reliable variable selection techniques play a pivotal role in predictive analysis, generalization capability, and robustness in clustering, as well as interpretability of the derived models. METHODS AND FINDINGS: K-dominating set, a parameterized graph-theoretic generalization model, was used to model SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) data as a similarity network and searched for representative SNP variables. In particular, each SNP was represented as a vertex in the graph, (dis)similarity measures such as correlation coefficients or pairwise linkage disequilibrium were estimated to describe the relationship between each pair of SNPs; a pair of vertices are adjacent, i.e. joined by an edge, if the pairwise similarity measure exceeds a user-specified threshold. A minimum k-dominating set in the SNP graph was then made as the smallest subset such that every SNP that is excluded from the subset has at least k neighbors in the selected ones. The strength of k-dominating set selection in identifying independent variables, and in culling representative variables that are highly correlated with others, was demonstrated by a simulated dataset. The advantages of k-dominating set variable selection were also illustrated in two applications: pedigree reconstruction using SNP profiles of 1,372 Douglas-fir trees, and species delineation for 226 grasshopper mouse samples. A C++ source code that implements SNP-SELECT and uses Gurobi optimization solver for the k-dominating set variable selection is available (https://github.com/transgenomicsosu/SNP-SELECT).

7.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 1693, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30524463

RESUMO

Forest tree breeding has been successful at delivering genetically improved material for multiple traits based on recurrent cycles of selection, mating, and testing. However, long breeding cycles, late flowering, variable juvenile-mature correlations, emerging pests and diseases, climate, and market changes, all pose formidable challenges. Genetic dissection approaches such as quantitative trait mapping and association genetics have been fruitless to effectively drive operational marker-assisted selection (MAS) in forest trees, largely because of the complex multifactorial inheritance of most, if not all traits of interest. The convergence of high-throughput genomics and quantitative genetics has established two new paradigms that are changing contemporary tree breeding dogmas. Genomic selection (GS) uses large number of genome-wide markers to predict complex phenotypes. It has the potential to accelerate breeding cycles, increase selection intensity and improve the accuracy of breeding values. Realized genomic relationships matrices, on the other hand, provide innovations in genetic parameters' estimation and breeding approaches by tracking the variation arising from random Mendelian segregation in pedigrees. In light of a recent flow of promising experimental results, here we briefly review the main concepts, analytical tools and remaining challenges that currently underlie the application of genomics data to tree breeding. With easy and cost-effective genotyping, we are now at the brink of extensive adoption of GS in tree breeding. Areas for future GS research include optimizing strategies for updating prediction models, adding validated functional genomics data to improve prediction accuracy, and integrating genomic and multi-environment data for forecasting the performance of genetic material in untested sites or under changing climate scenarios. The buildup of phenotypic and genome-wide data across large-scale breeding populations and advances in computational prediction of discrete genomic features should also provide opportunities to enhance the application of genomics to tree breeding.

8.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 17410, 2018 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30467326

RESUMO

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.

9.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 11593, 2018 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30072772

RESUMO

Seed orchards main function is delivering breeding programs' gains in the form of genetically improved seedlings. They are unique experimental populations, perfectly suited for studying various pollination environments (natural or otherwise), affecting their mating system parameters. Here, under different pollination environment (natural and intrusive (pollen augmentation and/or bloom-delay)), the mating system of a second generation, wind-pollinated, coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seed orchard was evaluated over four years. Using DNA microsatellite markers and bulk seed samples, we conducted pedigree reconstruction to assign each seed's male and female parents, followed by determining the extent of pollen contamination (external gene flow), selfing rate, and, parental gametic contribution for each year. Overall, external pollen contamination rates ranged between 10 and 28%, selfing rate varied between 12 and 17%, and 80% of the seed crops were produced by 37-64% of the orchard's parents. Pollination environment and seed crop size substantially influenced the observed results, particularly for small crops as pollen contamination was high in natural (28%) vs. intrusive pollination (10%). Generally, irrespective of the crop size, seed produced under natural pollination had higher pollen contamination, confirming the role of pollination environment manipulation in improving seed crops' genetic quality.

10.
New Phytol ; 220(1): 300-316, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29963703

RESUMO

Spring bud-break phenology is a critical adaptive feature common to temperate perennial woody plants. Understanding the molecular underpinnings of variation in bud-break is important for elucidating adaptive evolution and predicting outcomes relating to climate change. Field and controlled growth chamber tests were used to assess population-wide patterns in bud-break from wild-sourced black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) genotypes. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) derived from whole genome sequencing to test for loci underlying variation in bud-break. Bud-break had a quadratic relationship with latitude, where southern- and northern-most provenances generally broke bud earlier than those from central parts of the species' range. Reduced winter chilling increased population-wide variation in bud-break, whereas greater chilling decreased variation. GWAS uncovered 16 loci associated with bud-break. Phenotypic changes connected with allelic variation were replicated in an independent set of P. trichocarpa trees. Despite phenotypic similarities, genetic profiles between southern- and northern-most genotypes were dissimilar based on our GWAS-identified SNPs. We propose that the GWAS-identified loci underpin the geographical pattern in P. trichocarpa and that variation in bud-break reflects different selection for winter chilling and heat sum accumulation, both of which can be affected by climate warming.

11.
Ecol Evol ; 8(10): 4967-4977, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29876074

RESUMO

Given the low substitution rate in plastomes, the polymorphic and codominant nature of chloroplast SSRs (cpSSRs) makes them ideal markers, complementing their nuclear counterpart. In Cupressaceae, cpSSRs are mostly paternally inherited, thus, they are useful in mating systems and pollen flow studies. Using e-PCR, 92 SSR loci were identified across six Cupressaceae plastomes, and primers were designed for 26 loci with potential interspecific transferability. The 26 developed cpSSRs were polymorphic in four genera, Platycladus, Sabina, Juniperus, and Cupressus and are suitable for Cupressaceae molecular genetic studies and utilization. We genotyped 192 Platycladus orientalis samples from a core breeding population using 10 of the developed cpSSRs and 10 nuclear SSRs, and these individuals were identified with high confidence. The developed cpSSRs can be used in (1) a marker-assisted breeding scheme, specifically when paternity identification is required, (2) population genetics investigations, and (3) biogeography of Cupressaceae and unraveling the genetic relationships between related species.

12.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 8228, 2018 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29844365

RESUMO

While temperature and precipitation comprise important ecological filtering for native ranges of forest trees and are predisposing factors underlying forest ecosystem dynamics, the extent and severity of drought raises reasonable concerns for carbon storage and species diversity. Based on historical data from common garden experiments across the Pacific Northwest region, we developed non-linear niche models for height-growth trajectories of conifer trees at the sapling stage using annual or seasonal climatic variables. The correlations between virtual tree height for each locality and ecosystem functions were respectively assessed. Best-fitted models were composed of two distinct components: evapotranspiration and the degree-days disparity for temperature regimes between 5 °C and 18 °C (effective temperature sum and growth temperature, respectively). Tree height prediction for adaptive generalists (e.g., Pinus monticola, Thuja plicata) had smaller residuals than for specialists (e.g., Pinus contorta, Pseudotsuga menziesii), albeit a potential confounding factor - tree age. Discernably, there were linearly positive patterns between tree height growth and ecosystem functions (productivity, biomass and species diversity). Additionally, there was a minor effect of tree diversity on height growth in coniferous forests. This study uncovers the implication of key ecological filtering and increases our integrated understanding of how environmental cues affect tree stand growth, species dominance and ecosystem functions.

13.
Plant Sci ; 271: 27-33, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29650154

RESUMO

We investigated the impact of combining the pedigree- and genomic-based relationship matrices in a multiple-trait individual-tree mixed model (a.k.a., multiple-trait combined approach) on the estimates of heritability and on the genomic correlations between growth and stem straightness in an open-pollinated Eucalyptus grandis population. Additionally, the added advantage of incorporating genomic information on the theoretical accuracies of parents and offspring breeding values was evaluated. Our results suggested that the use of the combined approach for estimating heritabilities and additive genetic correlations in multiple-trait evaluations is advantageous and including genomic information increases the expected accuracy of breeding values. Furthermore, the multiple-trait combined approach was proven to be superior to the single-trait combined approach in predicting breeding values, in particular for low-heritability traits. Finally, our results advocate the use of the combined approach in forest tree progeny testing trials, specifically when a multiple-trait individual-tree mixed model is considered.


Assuntos
Eucalyptus/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Eucalyptus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Genômica , Modelos Genéticos , Linhagem , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Caules de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento
14.
Mol Breed ; 38(3): 26, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29491726

RESUMO

The advantages of open-pollinated (OP) family testing over controlled crossing (i.e., structured pedigree) are the potential to screen and rank a large number of parents and offspring with minimal cost and efforts; however, the method produces inflated genetic parameters as the actual sibling relatedness within OP families rarely meets the half-sib relatedness assumption. Here, we demonstrate the unsurpassed utility of OP testing after shifting the analytical mode from pedigree- (ABLUP) to genomic-based (GBLUP) relationship using phenotypic tree height (HT) and wood density (WD) and genotypic (30k SNPs) data for 1126 38-year-old Interior spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss x P. engelmannii Parry ex Engelm.) trees, representing 25 OP families, growing on three sites in Interior British Columbia, Canada. The use of the genomic realized relationship permitted genetic variance decomposition to additive, dominance, and epistatic genetic variances, and their interactions with the environment, producing more accurate narrow-sense heritability and breeding value estimates as compared to the pedigree-based counterpart. The impact of retaining (random folding) vs. removing (family folding) genetic similarity between the training and validation populations on the predictive accuracy of genomic selection was illustrated and highlighted the former caveats and latter advantages. Moreover, GBLUP models allowed breeding value prediction for individuals from families that were not included in the developed models, which was not possible with the ABLUP. Response to selection differences between the ABLUP and GBLUP models indicated the presence of systematic genetic gain overestimation of 35 and 63% for HT and WD, respectively, mainly caused by the inflated estimates of additive genetic variance and individuals' breeding values given by the ABLUP models. Extending the OP genomic-based models from single to multisite made the analysis applicable to existing OP testing programs.

15.
BMC Genomics ; 18(1): 930, 2017 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29197325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genomic selection (GS) can offer unprecedented gains, in terms of cost efficiency and generation turnover, to forest tree selective breeding; especially for late expressing and low heritability traits. Here, we used: 1) exome capture as a genotyping platform for 1372 Douglas-fir trees representing 37 full-sib families growing on three sites in British Columbia, Canada and 2) height growth and wood density (EBVs), and deregressed estimated breeding values (DEBVs) as phenotypes. Representing models with (EBVs) and without (DEBVs) pedigree structure. Ridge regression best linear unbiased predictor (RR-BLUP) and generalized ridge regression (GRR) were used to assess their predictive accuracies over space (within site, cross-sites, multi-site, and multi-site to single site) and time (age-age/ trait-trait). RESULTS: The RR-BLUP and GRR models produced similar predictive accuracies across the studied traits. Within-site GS prediction accuracies with models trained on EBVs were high (RR-BLUP: 0.79-0.91 and GRR: 0.80-0.91), and were generally similar to the multi-site (RR-BLUP: 0.83-0.91, GRR: 0.83-0.91) and multi-site to single-site predictive accuracies (RR-BLUP: 0.79-0.92, GRR: 0.79-0.92). Cross-site predictions were surprisingly high, with predictive accuracies within a similar range (RR-BLUP: 0.79-0.92, GRR: 0.78-0.91). Height at 12 years was deemed the earliest acceptable age at which accurate predictions can be made concerning future height (age-age) and wood density (trait-trait). Using DEBVs reduced the accuracies of all cross-validation procedures dramatically, indicating that the models were tracking pedigree (family means), rather than marker-QTL LD. CONCLUSIONS: While GS models' prediction accuracies were high, the main driving force was the pedigree tracking rather than LD. It is likely that many more markers are needed to increase the chance of capturing the LD between causal genes and markers.


Assuntos
Exoma , Modelos Genéticos , Melhoramento Vegetal , Pseudotsuga/genética , Seleção Genética , Madeira/química , Genômica , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Modelos Lineares , Pseudotsuga/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Madeira/genética
16.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 16637, 2017 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29192140

RESUMO

Gibberellins (GAs) participate in controlling various aspects of basic plant growth responses. With the exception of bryophytes, GA signalling in land plants, such as lycophytes, ferns and angiosperms, is mediated via GIBBERELLIN-INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1) and DELLA proteins. To explore whether this GID1-DELLA mechanism is present in pines, we cloned an orthologue (PtGID1) of Arabidopsis AtGID1a and two putative DELLA proteins (PtDPL; PtRGA) from Pinus tabuliformis, a widespread indigenous conifer species in China, and studied their recombinant proteins. PtGID1 shares with AtGID1a the conserved HSL motifs for GA binding and an N-terminal feature that are essential for interaction with DELLA proteins. Indeed, A. thaliana 35S:PtGID1 overexpressors showed a strong GA-hypersensitive phenotype compared to the wild type. Interactions between PtGID1 and PtDELLAs, but also interactions between the conifer-angiosperm counterparts (i.e. between AtGID1 and PtDELLAs and between PtGID1 and AtDELLA), were detected in vivo. This demonstrates that pine has functional GID1-DELLA components. The Δ17-domains within PtDPL and PtRGA were identified as potential interaction sites within PtDELLAs. Our results show that PtGID1 has the ability to interact with DELLA and functions as a GA receptor. Thus, a GA-GID1-DELLA signalling module also operates in evolutionarily ancient conifers.

17.
Front Plant Sci ; 8: 1810, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29093732

RESUMO

Traditional gene-resource management programs for forest trees are long-term endeavors requiring sustained organizational commitment covering extensive landscapes. While successful in maintaining adaptation, genetic diversity and capturing traditional growth attributes gains, these programs are dependent on rigid methods requiring elaborate mating schemes, thus making them slow in coping with climate change challenges. Here, we review the significance of Norway spruce in the boreal region and its current management practices. Next, we discuss opportunities offered by novel technologies and, with the use of computer simulations, we propose and evaluate a dynamic landscape gene-resource management in Norway. Our suggested long-term management approach capitalizes on: (1) existing afforestation activities, natural crosses, and DNA-based pedigree assembly to create structured pedigree for evaluation, thus traditional laborious control crosses are avoided and (2) landscape level genetic evaluation, rather than localized traditional progeny trials, allowing for screening of adapted individuals across multiple environmental gradients under changing climate. These advantages lead to greater genetic response to selection in adaptive traits without the traditional breeding and testing scheme, facilitating conservation of genetic resources within the breeding population of the most important forest tree species in Norway. The use of in situ selection from proven material exposed to realistic conditions over vast territories has not been conducted in forestry before. Our proposed approach is in contrast to worldwide current programs, where genetic evaluation is constrained by the range of environments where testing is conducted, which may be insufficient to capture the broad environmental variation necessary to tackle adaptation under changing climate.

18.
Front Plant Sci ; 8: 1719, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29046688

RESUMO

While DNA methylation carries genetic signals and is instrumental in the evolution of organismal complexity, small RNAs (sRNAs), ~18-24 ribonucleotide (nt) sequences, are crucial mediators of methylation as well as gene silencing. However, scant study deals with sRNA evolution via featuring their expression dynamics coupled with species of different evolutionary time. Here we report an atlas of sRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs, single-stranded sRNAs) produced over time at seed-set of two major spermatophytes represented by populations of Picea glauca and Arabidopsis thaliana with different seed-set duration. We applied diverse profiling methods to examine sRNA and miRNA features, including size distribution, sequence conservation and reproduction-specific regulation, as well as to predict their putative targets. The top 27 most abundant miRNAs were highly overlapped between the two species (e.g., miR166,-319 and-396), but in P. glauca, they were less abundant and significantly less correlated with seed-set phases. The most abundant sRNAs in libraries were deeply conserved miRNAs in the plant kingdom for Arabidopsis but long sRNAs (24-nt) for P. glauca. We also found significant difference in normalized expression between populations for population-specific sRNAs but not for lineage-specific ones. Moreover, lineage-specific sRNAs were enriched in the 21-nt size class. This pattern is consistent in both species and alludes to a specific type of sRNAs (e.g., miRNA, tasiRNA) being selected for. In addition, we deemed 24 and 9 sRNAs in P. glauca and Arabidopsis, respectively, as sRNA candidates targeting known adaptive genes. Temperature had significant influence on selected gene and miRNA expression at seed development in both species. This study increases our integrated understanding of sRNA evolution and its potential link to genomic architecture (e.g., sRNA derivation from genome and sRNA-mediated genomic events) and organismal complexity (e.g., association between different sRNA expression and their functionality).

19.
Mol Breed ; 37(10): 117, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28936114

RESUMO

Crop improvement is a long-term, expensive institutional endeavor. Genomic selection (GS), which uses single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) information to estimate genomic breeding values, has proven efficient to increasing genetic gain by accelerating the breeding process in animal breeding programs. As for crop improvement, with few exceptions, GS applicability remains in the evaluation of algorithm performance. In this study, we examined factors related to GS applicability in line development stage for grain yield using a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) doubled-haploid population. The performance of GS was evaluated in two consecutive years to predict grain yield. In general, the semi-parametric reproducing kernel Hilbert space prediction algorithm outperformed parametric genomic best linear unbiased prediction. For both parametric and semi-parametric algorithms, an upward bias in predictability was apparent in within-year cross-validation, suggesting the prerequisite of cross-year validation for a more reliable prediction. Adjusting the training population's phenotype for genotype by environment effect had a positive impact on GS model's predictive ability. Possibly due to marker redundancy, a selected subset of SNPs at an absolute pairwise correlation coefficient threshold value of 0.4 produced comparable results and reduced the computational burden of considering the full SNP set. Finally, in the context of an ongoing breeding and selection effort, the present study has provided a measure of confidence based on the deviation of line selection from GS results, supporting the implementation of GS in wheat variety development.

20.
BMC Genomics ; 18(1): 546, 2017 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28728593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Camellia species are ancient oilseed plants with a history of cultivation over two thousand years. Prior to oil extraction, natural seed drying is often practiced, a process affecting fatty acid quality and quantity. MicroRNAs (miRNA) of lipid metabolism associated with camellia seed natural drying are unexplored. To obtain insight into the function of miRNAs in lipid metabolism during natural drying, Illumina sequencing of C. oleifera and C. meiocarpa small-RNA was conducted. RESULTS: A total of 274 candidate miRNAs were identified and 3733 target unigenes were annotated by performing a BLASTX. Through integrated GO and KEGG function annotation, 23 miRNA regulating 131 target genes were identified as lipid metabolism, regulating fatty acid biosynthesis, accumulation and catabolism. We observed one, two, and four miRNAs of lipid metabolism which were specially expressed in C. Meiocarpa, C. oleifera, and the two species collectively, respectively. At 30% moisture contents, C. meiocarpa and C. oleifer produced nine and eight significant differentially expressed miRNAs, respectively, with high fatty acid synthesis and accumulation activities. Across the two species, 12 significant differentially expressed miRNAs were identified at the 50% moisture content. CONCLUSIONS: Sequencing of small-RNA revealed the presence of 23 miRNAs regulating lipid metabolism in camellia seed during natural drying and permitted comparative miRNA profiles between C. Meiocarpa and C. oleifera. Furthermore, this study successfully identified the best drying environment at which the quantity and quality of lipid in camellia seed are at its maximum.


Assuntos
Camellia/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Camellia/metabolismo , Dessecação , Anotação de Sequência Molecular
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