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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38712546

RESUMO

We report on the latest advancements in Microcrystal Electron Diffraction (3D ED/MicroED), as discussed during a symposium at the National Center for CryoEM Access and Training housed at the New York Structural Biology Center. This snapshot describes cutting-edge developments in various facets of the field and identifies potential avenues for continued progress. Key sections discuss instrumentation access, research applications for small molecules and biomacromolecules, data collection hardware and software, data reduction software, and finally reporting and validation. 3D ED/MicroED is still early in its wide adoption by the structural science community with ample opportunities for expansion, growth, and innovation.

2.
bioRxiv ; 2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38559232

RESUMO

During formation of the transcription-competent open complex (RPo) by bacterial RNA polymerases (RNAP), transient intermediates pile up before overcoming a rate-limiting step. Structural descriptions of these interconversions in real time are unavailable. To address this gap, time-resolved cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) was used to capture four intermediates populated 120 or 500 milliseconds (ms) after mixing Escherichia coli σ70-RNAP and the λPR promoter. Cryo-EM snapshots revealed the upstream edge of the transcription bubble unpairs rapidly, followed by stepwise insertion of two conserved nontemplate strand (nt-strand) bases into RNAP pockets. As nt-strand "read-out" extends, the RNAP clamp closes, expelling an inhibitory σ70 domain from the active-site cleft. The template strand is fully unpaired by 120 ms but remains dynamic, indicating yet unknown conformational changes load it in subsequent steps. Because these events likely describe DNA opening at many bacterial promoters, this study provides needed insights into how DNA sequence regulates steps of RPo formation.

3.
bioRxiv ; 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38328036

RESUMO

CryoEM democratization is hampered by access to costly plunge-freezing supplies. We introduce methods, called CryoCycle, for reliably blotting, vitrifying, and reusing clipped cryoEM grids. We demonstrate that vitreous ice may be produced by plunging clipped grids with purified proteins into liquid ethane and that clipped grids may be reused several times for different protein samples. Furthermore, we demonstrate the vitrification of thin areas of cells prepared on gold-coated, pre-clipped grids.

4.
J Vis Exp ; (202)2023 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38108412

RESUMO

Advancements in cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) techniques over the past decade have allowed structural biologists to routinely resolve macromolecular protein complexes to near-atomic resolution. The general workflow of the entire cryoEM pipeline involves iterating between sample preparation, cryoEM grid preparation, and sample/grid screening before moving on to high-resolution data collection. Iterating between sample/grid preparation and screening is typically a major bottleneck for researchers, as every iterative experiment must optimize for sample concentration, buffer conditions, grid material, grid hole size, ice thickness, and protein particle behavior in the ice, amongst other variables. Furthermore, once these variables are satisfactorily determined, grids prepared under identical conditions vary widely in whether they are ready for data collection, so additional screening sessions prior to selecting optimal grids for high-resolution data collection are recommended. This sample/grid preparation and screening process often consumes several dozen grids and days of operator time at the microscope. Furthermore, the screening process is limited to operator/microscope availability and microscope accessibility. Here, we demonstrate how to use Leginon and Smart Leginon Autoscreen to automate the majority of cryoEM grid screening. Autoscreen combines machine learning, computer vision algorithms, and microscope-handling algorithms to remove the need for constant manual operator input. Autoscreen can autonomously load and image grids with multi-scale imaging using an automated specimen-exchange cassette system, resulting in unattended grid screening for an entire cassette. As a result, operator time for screening 12 grids may be reduced to ~10 min with Autoscreen compared to ~6 h using previous methods which are hampered by their inability to account for high variability between grids. This protocol first introduces basic Leginon setup and functionality, then demonstrates Autoscreen functionality step-by-step from the creation of a template session to the end of a 12-grid automated screening session.


Assuntos
Sistemas Computacionais , Gelo , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Automação , Algoritmos
5.
Structure ; 31(12): 1487-1498, 2023 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37820731

RESUMO

Cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) methods have made meaningful contributions in a wide variety of scientific research fields. In structural biology, cryo-EM routinely elucidates molecular structure from isolated biological macromolecular complexes or in a cellular context by harnessing the high-resolution power of the electron in order to image samples in a frozen, hydrated environment. For structural chemistry, the cryo-EM method popularly known as microcrystal electron diffraction (MicroED) has facilitated atomic structure generation of peptides and small molecules from their three-dimensional crystal forms. As cryo-EM has grown from an emerging technology, it has undergone modernization to enable multimodal transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques becoming more routine, reproducible, and accessible to accelerate research across multiple disciplines. We review recent advances in modern cryo-EM and assess how they are contributing to the future of the field with an eye to the past.


Assuntos
Biologia , Microscopia Crioeletrônica/métodos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química
6.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 30(11): 1675-1685, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37710013

RESUMO

Bacteria and archaea acquire resistance to viruses and plasmids by integrating fragments of foreign DNA into the first repeat of a CRISPR array. However, the mechanism of site-specific integration remains poorly understood. Here, we determine a 560-kDa integration complex structure that explains how Pseudomonas aeruginosa Cas (Cas1-Cas2/3) and non-Cas proteins (for example, integration host factor) fold 150 base pairs of host DNA into a U-shaped bend and a loop that protrude from Cas1-2/3 at right angles. The U-shaped bend traps foreign DNA on one face of the Cas1-2/3 integrase, while the loop places the first CRISPR repeat in the Cas1 active site. Both Cas3 proteins rotate 100 degrees to expose DNA-binding sites on either side of the Cas2 homodimer, which each bind an inverted repeat motif in the leader. Leader sequence motifs direct Cas1-2/3-mediated integration to diverse repeat sequences that have a 5'-GT. Collectively, this work reveals new DNA-binding surfaces on Cas2 that are critical for DNA folding and site-specific delivery of foreign DNA.


Assuntos
Proteínas Associadas a CRISPR , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas/genética , Proteínas Associadas a CRISPR/metabolismo , DNA/química , Sítios de Ligação , Plasmídeos , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética
9.
Microsc Microanal ; 29(29 Suppl 1): 949-950, 2023 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37613800
10.
IUCrJ ; 10(Pt 1): 77-89, 2023 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36598504

RESUMO

Single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) is a swiftly growing method for understanding protein structure. With increasing demand for high-throughput, high-resolution cryoEM services comes greater demand for rapid and automated cryoEM grid and sample screening. During screening, optimal grids and sample conditions are identified for subsequent high-resolution data collection. Screening is a major bottleneck for new cryoEM projects because grids must be optimized for several factors, including grid type, grid hole size, sample concentration, buffer conditions, ice thickness and particle behavior. Even for mature projects, multiple grids are commonly screened to select a subset for high-resolution data collection. Here, machine learning and novel purpose-built image-processing and microscope-handling algorithms are incorporated into the automated data-collection software Leginon, to provide an open-source solution for fully automated high-throughput grid screening. This new version, broadly called Smart Leginon, emulates the actions of an operator in identifying areas on the grid to explore as potentially useful for data collection. Smart Leginon Autoscreen sequentially loads and examines grids from an automated specimen-exchange system to provide completely unattended grid screening across a set of grids. Comparisons between a multi-grid autoscreen session and conventional manual screening by 5 expert microscope operators are presented. On average, Autoscreen reduces operator time from ∼6 h to <10 min and provides a percentage of suitable images for evaluation comparable to the best operator. The ability of Smart Leginon to target holes that are particularly difficult to identify is analyzed. Finally, the utility of Smart Leginon is illustrated with three real-world multi-grid user screening/collection sessions, demonstrating the efficiency and flexibility of the software package. The fully automated functionality of Smart Leginon significantly reduces the burden on operator screening time, improves the throughput of screening and recovers idle microscope time, thereby improving availability of cryoEM services.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Software , Microscopia Crioeletrônica/métodos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Algoritmos , Elétrons
11.
Front Mol Biosci ; 10: 1296941, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38288336

RESUMO

With the increasing spread of infectious diseases worldwide, there is an urgent need for novel strategies to combat them. Cryogenic sample electron microscopy (cryo-EM) techniques, particularly electron tomography (cryo-ET), have revolutionized the field of infectious disease research by enabling multiscale observation of biological structures in a near-native state. This review highlights the recent advances in infectious disease research using cryo-ET and discusses the potential of this structural biology technique to help discover mechanisms of infection in native environments and guiding in the right direction for future drug discovery.

12.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1857, 2022 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35387991

RESUMO

Cryo-FIB/SEM combined with cryo-ET has emerged from within the field of cryo-EM as the method for obtaining the highest resolution structural information of complex biological samples in-situ in native and non-native environments. However, challenges remain in conventional cryo-FIB/SEM workflows, including milling thick specimens with vitrification issues, specimens with preferred orientation, low-throughput when milling small and/or low concentration specimens, and specimens that distribute poorly across grid squares. Here we present a general approach called the 'Waffle Method' which leverages high-pressure freezing to address these challenges. We illustrate the mitigation of these challenges by applying the Waffle Method and cryo-ET to reveal the macrostructure of the polar tube in microsporidian spores in multiple complementary orientations, which was previously not possible due to preferred orientation. We demonstrate the broadness of the Waffle Method by applying it to three additional cellular samples and a single particle sample using a variety of cryo-FIB-milling hardware, with manual and automated approaches. We also present a unique and critical stress-relief gap designed specifically for waffled lamellae. We propose the Waffle Method as a way to achieve many advantages of cryo-liftout on the specimen grid while avoiding the long, challenging, and technically-demanding process required for cryo-liftout.


Assuntos
Tomografia com Microscopia Eletrônica , Alimentos , Microscopia Crioeletrônica/métodos , Tomografia com Microscopia Eletrônica/métodos , Congelamento , Fluxo de Trabalho
13.
Annu Rev Biochem ; 91: 1-32, 2022 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35320683

RESUMO

Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) continues its remarkable growth as a method for visualizing biological objects, which has been driven by advances across the entire pipeline. Developments in both single-particle analysis and in situ tomography have enabled more structures to be imaged and determined to better resolutions, at faster speeds, and with more scientists having improved access. This review highlights recent advances at each stageof the cryo-EM pipeline and provides examples of how these techniques have been used to investigate real-world problems, including antibody development against the SARS-CoV-2 spike during the recent COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Microscopia Crioeletrônica/métodos , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Imagem Individual de Molécula
14.
Trends Biochem Sci ; 47(2): 106-116, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823974

RESUMO

Cryogenic electron microscopy (cryoEM) uses images of frozen hydrated biological specimens to produce macromolecular structures, opening up previously inaccessible levels of biological organization to high-resolution structural analysis. CryoEM has the potential for broad impact in biomedical research, including basic cell, molecular, and structural biology, and increasingly in drug discovery and vaccine development. Recent advances have led to the expansion of molecular and cellular structure determination at an exponential rate. National and regional centers have emerged to support this growth by increasing the accessibility of cryoEM throughout the biomedical research community. Through cooperation and synergy, these centers form a network of resources that accelerate the adoption of best practices for access and training and establish sustainable workflows to build future research capacity.


Assuntos
Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Microscopia Crioeletrônica/métodos , Estrutura Molecular
15.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 28(11): 936-944, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34759376

RESUMO

The ß1-adrenergic receptor (ß1-AR) can activate two families of G proteins. When coupled to Gs, ß1-AR increases cardiac output, and coupling to Gi leads to decreased responsiveness in myocardial infarction. By comparative structural analysis of turkey ß1-AR complexed with either Gi or Gs, we investigate how a single G-protein-coupled receptor simultaneously signals through two G proteins. We find that, although the critical receptor-interacting C-terminal α5-helices on Gαi and Gαs interact similarly with ß1-AR, the overall interacting modes between ß1-AR and G proteins vary substantially. Functional studies reveal the importance of the differing interactions and provide evidence that the activation efficacy of G proteins by ß1-AR is determined by the entire three-dimensional interaction surface, including intracellular loops 2 and 4 (ICL2 and ICL4).


Assuntos
Subunidades alfa Gi-Go de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Subunidades alfa Gs de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína/fisiologia , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/metabolismo , Animais , Débito Cardíaco/genética , Débito Cardíaco/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Ativação Enzimática/fisiologia , Células HEK293 , Cardiopatias/patologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/patologia , Isoproterenol/química , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína/fisiologia , Células Sf9 , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
16.
Acta Crystallogr D Struct Biol ; 77(Pt 11): 1451-1459, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726172

RESUMO

Thyroglobulin is a homodimeric glycoprotein that is essential for the generation of thyroid hormones in vertebrates. Upon secretion into the lumen of follicles in the thyroid gland, tyrosine residues within the protein become iodinated to produce monoiodotyrosine (MIT) and diiodotyrosine (DIT). A subset of evolutionarily conserved pairs of DIT (and MIT) residues can then engage in oxidative coupling reactions that yield either thyroxine (T4; produced from coupling of a DIT `acceptor' with a DIT `donor') or triiodothyronine (T3; produced from coupling of a DIT acceptor with an MIT donor). Although multiple iodotyrosine residues have been identified as potential donors and acceptors, the specificity and structural context of the pairings (i.e. which donor is paired with which acceptor) have remained unclear. Here, single-particle cryogenic electron microscopy (cryoEM) was used to generate a high-resolution reconstruction of bovine thyroglobulin (2.3 Šresolution in the core region and 2.6 Šoverall), allowing the structural characterization of two post-reaction acceptor-donor pairs as well as tyrosine residues modified as MIT and DIT. A substantial spatial separation between donor Tyr149 and acceptor Tyr24 was observed, suggesting that for thyroxine synthesis significant peptide motion is required for coupling at the evolutionarily conserved thyroglobulin amino-terminus.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Tireoglobulina/química , Animais , Bovinos/metabolismo , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Halogenação , Conformação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Multimerização Proteica , Tireoglobulina/metabolismo , Tireoglobulina/ultraestrutura
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(40)2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599106

RESUMO

The first step in gene expression in all organisms requires opening the DNA duplex to expose one strand for templated RNA synthesis. In Escherichia coli, promoter DNA sequence fundamentally determines how fast the RNA polymerase (RNAP) forms "open" complexes (RPo), whether RPo persists for seconds or hours, and how quickly RNAP transitions from initiation to elongation. These rates control promoter strength in vivo, but their structural origins remain largely unknown. Here, we use cryoelectron microscopy to determine the structures of RPo formed de novo at three promoters with widely differing lifetimes at 37 °C: λPR (t1/2 ∼10 h), T7A1 (t1/2 ∼4 min), and a point mutant in λPR (λPR-5C) (t1/2 ∼2 h). Two distinct RPo conformers are populated at λPR, likely representing productive and unproductive forms of RPo observed in solution studies. We find that changes in the sequence and length of DNA in the transcription bubble just upstream of the start site (+1) globally alter the network of DNA-RNAP interactions, base stacking, and strand order in the single-stranded DNA of the transcription bubble; these differences propagate beyond the bubble to upstream and downstream DNA. After expanding the transcription bubble by one base (T7A1), the nontemplate strand "scrunches" inside the active site cleft; the template strand bulges outside the cleft at the upstream edge of the bubble. The structures illustrate how limited sequence changes trigger global alterations in the transcription bubble that modulate the RPo lifetime and affect the subsequent steps of the transcription cycle.


Assuntos
RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Transcrição Gênica/genética
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(19)2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33883267

RESUMO

Backtracking, the reverse motion of the transcriptase enzyme on the nucleic acid template, is a universal regulatory feature of transcription in cellular organisms but its role in viruses is not established. Here we present evidence that backtracking extends into the viral realm, where backtracking by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) may aid viral transcription and replication. Structures of SARS-CoV-2 RdRp bound to the essential nsp13 helicase and RNA suggested the helicase facilitates backtracking. We use cryo-electron microscopy, RNA-protein cross-linking, and unbiased molecular dynamics simulations to characterize SARS-CoV-2 RdRp backtracking. The results establish that the single-stranded 3' segment of the product RNA generated by backtracking extrudes through the RdRp nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) entry tunnel, that a mismatched nucleotide at the product RNA 3' end frays and enters the NTP entry tunnel to initiate backtracking, and that nsp13 stimulates RdRp backtracking. Backtracking may aid proofreading, a crucial process for SARS-CoV-2 resistance against antivirals.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Replicação Viral/genética , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/metabolismo , RNA-Polimerase RNA-Dependente de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Microscopia Crioeletrônica/métodos , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , RNA Helicases/metabolismo , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/metabolismo , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/fisiologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética
19.
bioRxiv ; 2021 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33758867

RESUMO

Backtracking, the reverse motion of the transcriptase enzyme on the nucleic acid template, is a universal regulatory feature of transcription in cellular organisms but its role in viruses is not established. Here we present evidence that backtracking extends into the viral realm, where backtracking by the SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) may aid viral transcription and replication. Structures of SARS-CoV-2 RdRp bound to the essential nsp13 helicase and RNA suggested the helicase facilitates backtracking. We use cryo-electron microscopy, RNA-protein crosslinking, and unbiased molecular dynamics simulations to characterize SARS-CoV-2 RdRp backtracking. The results establish that the single-stranded 3'-segment of the product-RNA generated by backtracking extrudes through the RdRp NTP-entry tunnel, that a mismatched nucleotide at the product-RNA 3'-end frays and enters the NTP-entry tunnel to initiate backtracking, and that nsp13 stimulates RdRp backtracking. Backtracking may aid proofreading, a crucial process for SARS-CoV-2 resistance against antivirals.

20.
ACS Omega ; 6(1): 85-102, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33458462

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global health crisis caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and there is a critical need to produce large quantities of high-quality SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) protein for use in both clinical and basic science settings. To address this need, we have evaluated the expression and purification of two previously reported S protein constructs in Expi293F and ExpiCHO-S cells, two different cell lines selected for increased protein expression. We show that ExpiCHO-S cells produce enhanced yields of both SARS-CoV-2 S proteins. Biochemical, biophysical, and structural (cryo-EM) characterizations of the SARS-CoV-2 S proteins produced in both cell lines demonstrate that the reported purification strategy yields high-quality S protein (nonaggregated, uniform material with appropriate biochemical and biophysical properties), and analysis of 20 deposited S protein cryo-EM structures reveals conformation plasticity in the region composed of amino acids 614-642 and 828-854. Importantly, we show that multiple preparations of these two recombinant S proteins from either cell line exhibit identical behavior in two different serology assays. We also evaluate the specificity of S protein-mediated host cell binding by examining interactions with proposed binding partners in the human secretome and report no novel binding partners and notably fail to validate the Spike:CD147 interaction. In addition, the antigenicity of these proteins is demonstrated by standard ELISAs and in a flexible protein microarray format. Collectively, we establish an array of metrics for ensuring the production of high-quality S protein to support clinical, biological, biochemical, structural, and mechanistic studies to combat the global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2.

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