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Nanoscale Adv ; 4(21): 4535-4541, 2022 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36341302


The magnetic field-induced actuation of colloidal nanoparticles has enabled tremendous recent progress towards microrobots, suitable for a variety of applications including targeted drug delivery, environmental remediation, or minimally invasive surgery. Further size reduction to the nanoscale requires enhanced control of orientation and locomotion to overcome dominating viscous properties. Here, control of the coherent precession of hematite spindles via a dynamic magnetic field is demonstrated using nanoscale particles. Time-resolved small-angle scattering and optical transmission measurements reveal a clear frequency-dependent variation of orientation and rotation of an entire ensemble of non-interacting hematite nanospindles. The different motion mechanisms by nanoscale spindles in bulk dispersion resemble modes that have been observed for much larger, micron-sized elongated particles near surfaces. The dynamic rotation modes promise hematite nanospindles as a suitable model system for field-induced locomotion in nanoscale magnetic robots.

Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2542, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33953174


Lateral heterojunctions of atomically precise graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) hold promise for applications in nanotechnology, yet their charge transport and most of the spectroscopic properties have not been investigated. Here, we synthesize a monolayer of multiple aligned heterojunctions consisting of quasi-metallic and wide-bandgap GNRs, and report characterization by scanning tunneling microscopy, angle-resolved photoemission, Raman spectroscopy, and charge transport. Comprehensive transport measurements as a function of bias and gate voltages, channel length, and temperature reveal that charge transport is dictated by tunneling through the potential barriers formed by wide-bandgap GNR segments. The current-voltage characteristics are in agreement with calculations of tunneling conductance through asymmetric barriers. We fabricate a GNR heterojunctions based sensor and demonstrate greatly improved sensitivity to adsorbates compared to graphene based sensors. This is achieved via modulation of the GNR heterojunction tunneling barriers by adsorbates.

Nano Lett ; 20(7): 4761-4767, 2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510961


We present laser-induced photothermal synthesis of atomically precise graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). The kinetics of photothermal bottom-up GNR growth are unravelled by in situ Raman spectroscopy carried out in ultrahigh vacuum. We photothermally drive the reaction steps by short periods of laser irradiation and subsequently analyze the Raman spectra of the reactants in the irradiated area. Growth kinetics of chevron GNRs (CGNRs) and seven atoms wide armchair GNRs (7-AGNRs) is investigated. The reaction rate constants for polymerization, cyclodehydrogenation, and interribbon fusion are experimentally determined. We find that the limiting rate constants for CGNR growth are several hundred times smaller than for 7-AGNR growth and that interribbon fusion is an important elementary reaction occurring during 7-AGNR growth. Our work highlights that photothermal synthesis and in situ Raman spectroscopy are a powerful tandem for the investigation of on-surface reactions.

Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1340, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165617


We show that Cs intercalated bilayer graphene acts as a substrate for the growth of a strained Cs film hosting quantum well states with high electronic quality. The Cs film grows in an fcc phase with a substantially reduced lattice constant of 4.9 Å corresponding to a compressive strain of 11% compared to bulk Cs. We investigate its electronic structure using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and show the coexistence of massless Dirac and massive Schrödinger charge carriers in two dimensions. Analysis of the electronic self-energy of the massive charge carriers reveals the crystallographic direction in which a two-dimensional Fermi gas is realized. Our work introduces the growth of strained metal quantum wells on intercalated Dirac matter.

ACS Nano ; 14(1): 1055-1069, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825586


A flat energy dispersion of electrons at the Fermi level of a material leads to instabilities in the electronic system and can drive phase transitions. Here we show that the flat band in graphene can be achieved by sandwiching a graphene monolayer by two cesium (Cs) layers. We investigate the flat band by a combination of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiment and the calculations. Our work highlights that charge transfer, zone folding of graphene bands, and the covalent bonding between C and Cs atoms are the origin of the flat energy band formation. Analysis of the Stoner criterion for the flat band suggests the presence of a ferromagnetic instability. The presented approach is an alternative route for obtaining flat band materials to twisting bilayer graphene which yields thermodynamically stable flat band materials in large areas.

Nanoscale ; 11(15): 7149-7156, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778464


The magnetic response of spindle-shaped hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles was investigated by simultaneous small-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) experiments. The field-dependent magnetic and nematic order parameters of the magnetic single-domain nanospindles in a static magnetic field are fully described by SAXS simulations of an oriented ellipsoid with the implemented Langevin function. The experimental scattering intensities of the spindle-like particles can be modeled simply by using the geometrical (length, radius, size distribution) and magnetic parameters (strength of magnetic field, magnetic moment) obtained from isotropic SAXS and macroscopic magnetization measurements, respectively. Whereas SAXS gives information on the morphological particle orientation in the applied field, WAXS texture analysis elucidates the atomic scale orientation of the magnetic easy direction in the hematite crystal structure. Our results strongly suggest the tendency for uniaxial anisotropy but indicate significant thermal fluctuations of the particle moments within the hematite basal plane.