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1.
Chemosphere ; 244: 125386, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050321

RESUMO

Polysulfone ultrafiltration (UF) and polypiperazine-amide nanofiltration (NF) membranes were first fabricated by phase inversion and interfacial polymerization, and then modified by the commonly used TiO2 on the membrane surface, respectively. Compared with the pristine UF and NF membranes, pure water flux decreased by 40.66% for modified UF membrane and 12.92% for modified NF membrane, while the contact angle of the modified membranes decreased from 66.5° to 35.3° for UF membrane and from 48.2° to37.7° for NF membrane. However, the membrane modified by TiO2 nanoparticles for both UF and NF membranes exhibited much better anti-fouling and separation performance for two types of oil-in-water emulsions with different droplet size (i.e., prepared oil-in-water emulsion with low salinity and oil produced water in Shengli oilfield, China). It was obvious that water flux of modified UF only slightly decreased and the stable water flux was 2.2 times and 15.6% higher than that of pristine membranes for the prepared oil-in-water emulsion and produced water, respectively. According to the five fouling models for UF, the TiO2 modified UF membrane could alleviate the fouling on membrane surface and greatly increase water flux by reducing the adsorption, deposition, blockage of membrane pores and formation of cake layer for two types of oil-in-water emulsion. For NF, water flux of the modified membrane increased by 66.1% and 22.8% for prepared oil-in-water emulsion and produced water, respectively. TiO2 coating effectively alleviated the oil adhesion and cake layer formation on the membrane surface.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 715: 136911, 2020 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007887

RESUMO

The sources of supra-permafrost water and its hydrological effects were studied, based on the presence of stable isotopes in 562 samples collected in different ablation periods from the source regions of the Yangtze River. The δ18O (δD and d-excess) values for the initial ablation, ablation, and end ablation periods were -10.18‰ (-71.39‰ and 10.08‰), -12.14‰ (-85.58‰ and 11.51‰) and -11.50‰ (-78.75‰ and 13.23‰), respectively. The order of the slopes for the supra-permafrost water evaporation lines from the different ablation periods was initial ablation (IA) > ablation (A) > end ablation (EA). An anti-altitude effect is documented here, for a specific altitude range, in what is believed to be the first record of such an occurrence. Outside of that range, clear altitude effects were apparent. We have been able to show that supra-permafrost water was mainly recharged by atmospheric precipitation, ground ice, and glacier and snow meltwater, in the initial ablation and end ablation periods, and contributions from glacier and snow meltwater were mainly concentrated in higher altitude regions. In contrast, in the ablation period, supra-permafrost water was mainly recharged by atmospheric precipitation and ground ice. The contributions of precipitation to supra-permafrost water were 78.79%, 85.47%, and 82.99% in the initial ablation, ablation, and end ablation periods, respectively. The contributions of ground ice to the supra-permafrost water were 14.05%, 14.53%, and 11.94%, respectively, while contributions of glacier and snow meltwater were 7.15% and 5.07% in the initial and end ablation period. For the initial ablation, ablation, and end ablation periods, contributions from atmospheric precipitation to the supra-permafrost water were 85.47%, 86.86%, and 86.84%, while contributions from ground ice were 14.53%, 13.14% and 13.16%, respectively.

3.
Chemosphere ; 248: 126082, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032884

RESUMO

The study investigates transformation mechanism of ions on different waters in Alpine region through analyzed the hydrochemical characteristics of the major ions of precipitation, glacier and snow meltwater, supra-permafrost water and river water in permafrost regions in the Tibetan Plateau under climate warming. The results showed that, The relation between recharge and discharge was the major ways for ionic transformation of each water body. Precipitation and glacier and snow meltwater are the main input sources for ionic transformation, and river water is the final output source. Different water bodies had different ionic concentrations and different hydrochemical types. However, different water bodies in different months (from June to September) also had different hydrochemical types. The water - rock interaction, reactions for ions, dilution effect and other effect for ions played an important role in the process of ion transformation. The increasing of temperature would lead to the accelerated melting of glaciers, permafrost and snow in the alpine regions, so the amount of supra-permafrost water and glacier and snow meltwater will increase, which leads to the increase of runoff. Meanwhile, the increase of temperature makes evaporation stronger. The strong of evaporation will accelerate the transformation of liquid water to gaseous water. Moreover, ion translation and water conversion are synchronous. Accordingly, ions are also accelerating transformation in the process of accelerated transformation of water body. Climate change is not only the main driving force for multiphase water transformation, but also the main driving force for the ion transformation of various water bodies.

4.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 123, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Duck hepatitis A virus type 3 (DHAV-3) is one of the most harmful pathogens in the duck industry. However, the molecular mechanism underlying DHAV-3 infection in ducklings remains poorly understood. To study the genetic regulatory network for miRNA-mRNA and the signaling pathways involved in DHAV-3 infection in ducklings, we conducted global miRNA and mRNA expression profiling of duckling liver tissues infected with lethal DHAV-3 by high-throughput sequencing. RESULTS: We found 156 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) and 7717 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in livers of mock-infected and DHAV-3-infected duckling. A total of 19,606 miRNA-mRNA pairs with negatively correlated expression patterns were identified in miRNA-mRNA networks constructed on the basis of these DEMs and DEGs. Moreover, immune-related pathways, including the cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, apoptosis, Toll-like receptor, Jak-STAT, and RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway, were significantly enriched through analyzing functions of mRNAs in the network in response to DHAV-3 infection. Furthermore, apl-miR-32-5p, apl-miR-125-5p, apl-miR-128-3p, apl-miR-460-5p, and novel-m0012-3p were identified as potential regulators in the immune-related signaling pathways during DHAV-3 infection. And some host miRNAs were predicted to target the DHAV-3 genome. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first integrated analysis of miRNA and mRNA in DHAV-3-infected ducklings. The results indicated the important roles of miRNAs in regulating immune response genes and revealed the immune related miRNA-mRNA regulation network in the DHAV-3-infected duckling liver. These findings increase our knowledge of the roles of miRNAs and their target genes in DHAV-3 replication and pathogenesis. They also aid in the understanding of host-virus interactions.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919704

RESUMO

The use of phase analysis techniques to assess left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony (LVMD) has been well documented. However, artifacts have reduced the accuracy of the assessment due to soft tissue attenuation, so little information is available about the effects of obesity on LVMD. The aim of this study was to evaluate LVMD in patients with simple obesity by SPECT with a new cadmium-zinc telluride (CZT) detector and to explore the effects of obesity on left ventricular wall motion. We retrospectively analyzed 95 patients with myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) images without perfusion defects, of which 55 were diagnosed with simple obesity (BMI > 30), and 40 non-obese patients (BMI < 25) matched for age and sex were used as controls. The five-point method was used to analyze the MPI images of the two groups, and the complete cardiac function parameters including phase bandwidth (PBW) and phase standard deviation (PSD) were obtained. Although the PBW values of the two groups were within the normal range (cut-off value > 90°), the PBW (35.4 ± 28 vs 24.9 ± 7.5, P < .001; 36.6 ± 18.4 vs 28.7 ± 9.1, P = 0.01) and PSD (8.7 ± 7.6 vs 5.9 ± 2, P = 0.02; 9.2 ± 4.9 vs 7.1 ± 2.7, P = 0.01) of the obese group were larger than the control group under both stressing and resting, and the difference was statistically significant. CZT-SPECT can effectively assess LVMD in obese patients, and they are more likely to develop LVMD, which may be related to their left ventricular volume.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940520

RESUMO

Datastream analysis aims at extracting discriminative information for classification from continuously incoming samples. It is extremely challenging to detect novel data while incrementally updating the model efficiently and stably, especially for high-dimensional and/or large-scale data streams. This paper proposes an efficient framework for novelty detection and incremental learning for unlabeled chunk data streams. First, an accurate factorization-free kernel discriminative analysis (FKDA-X) is put forward through solving a linear system in the kernel space. FKDA-X produces a Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space (RKHS), in which unlabeled chunk data can be detected and classified by multiple known-classes in a single decision model with a deterministic classification boundary. Moreover, based on FKDA-X, two optimal methods FKDA-CX and FKDA-C are proposed. FKDA-CX uses the micro-cluster centers of original data as the input to achieve excellent performance in novelty detection. FKDA-C and incremental FKDA-C (IFKDA-C) using the class centers of original data as their input have extremely fast speed in online learning. Theoretical analysis and experimental validation on under-sampled and large-scale real-world datasets demonstrate that the proposed algorithms make it possible to learn unlabeled chunk data streams with significantly lower computational costs and comparable accuracies than the state-of-the-art approaches.

7.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(1): 239-248, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957401

RESUMO

With Tongxin, Xiji, and Longde counties in the mountainous area of southern Ningxia as the research area, we used extended-exergy analysis (EEA) to compare their ecological efficiency driving mechanism in 2008-2017 to explore the causes of their variation in ecological degradation. The results showed that the overall difference of ecological efficiency in the three counties was significant during the study period. The ecological efficiency of Tongxin was low, with large inter-annual variation. The ecological efficiency of Xiji was stable, and the overall efficiency of Longde was the highest. The difference of exergy scale was small among the three counties. The exergy proportion in the economic sectors was not coordinated, which were dominated by agricultural and residential sectors. The economic sectors presented significant capital-pull-type and labor-intensive characteristics, indicating the driving force for ecological degradation mainly came from agricultural production and residents' lives in underdeveloped regions. The system's internal exergy conversion rate and the external energy exchange rate of the three counties were extremely low, constituting a simple network circulation path with high input, low storage, low opening and low conversion, which weakened the endogenous development of social economic subsystem and threatened the fragile ecosystem.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Ecossistema , Agricultura , China , Eficiência
8.
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis ; 31(2): 121-126, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904612

RESUMO

: Hemophilia B is an X-linked recessive bleeding disorder caused by diverse mutations throughout the F9 gene. The same F9 mutation may result in different degrees of clotting factor deficiency. The aim of this study was to investigate the pathogenesis of two hemophilia B patients with different severity in a family. A family with two hemophilia B patients was recruited in this study. Coagulation assays, activities of FVIII (FVIII:C) and FIX (FIX:C) were evaluated. All of the exons and intron exon boundaries of the F9 gene were amplified by PCR and analyzed by direct sequencing. The proband, 12-year-old boy with moderate bleeding history, had manifest prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (98.1 s) and markedly decreased FIX activity (1%). His maternal uncle presented slightly prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (48.2 s) and mildly decreased FIX activity (15.2%). Molecular genetic analysis of F9 revealed that they were hemizygous for a novel missense mutation, c.157G>C (p.Glu53Gln). Our study widens the mutation spectrum of the FIX gene. In addition, this report provides a specific case associated with genotype and phenotype heterogeneity of hemophilia B.

9.
Obes Surg ; 30(1): 77-86, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastric bypass (GB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) are two common types of bariatric surgery that carry many potential complications. Among these complications, bone metabolism-related diseases have attracted substantial attention; however, no meta-analysis of them has been performed to date. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, and Embase to identify relevant studies published before January 2019. The following indicators were evaluated: serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, phosphorus and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, body mass index (BMI), and bone mineral density (BMD). RESULTS: Thirteen studies met our inclusion criteria. Overall results showed that patients undergoing GB had lower levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (MD = - 1.85, 95% CI (- 3.32, - 0.39) P = 0.01) and calcium (MD = - 0.15, 95% CI (- 0.24, - 0.07) P = 0.0006) as well as higher levels of PTH (MD = 3.58, 95% CI (0.61, 7.09) P = 0.02) and phosphorus (MD = 0.22, 95% CI (0.10, 0.35) P = 0.0005). The results of BMI and BMD were comparable in each group. CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis suggested that obese patients undergoing GB had lower levels of serum calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D as well as higher levels of serum phosphorus and PTH. To prevent postoperative bone metabolism-related diseases, appropriate postoperative interventions should be undertaken for particular surgical procedures.

10.
Addict Biol ; 25(1): e12697, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30585381

RESUMO

Methamphetamine (METH) causes memory changes, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, can potentially cause synaptic changes in the brain. Oxytocin (OT) plays a central role in learning and memory, but little is known of the impact of OT on METH-associated memory changes. Here, we explored the role of OT in METH-induced epigenetic alterations that underlie spatial and cognitive memory changes. METH (2.0 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered to male C57BL/6 mice once every other day for 8 days. OT (2.5 µg, i.c.v.) or aCSF was given prior to METH. Spatial and cognitive memory were assessed. In Hip and PFC, synaptic structures and proteins were examined, levels of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) were determined, and the DNA methylation status at the Synaptophysin (Syn) promoter was assessed. METH enhanced spatial memory, decreased synapse length, downregulated DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, and MECP2, and induced DNA hypomethylation at the Syn promoter in Hip. In contrast, METH reduced cognitive memory, increased synapse thickness, upregulated DNMT1, DNMT3A, and MECP2, and induced DNA hypermethylation at the Syn promoter in PFC. OT pretreatment specifically ameliorated METH-induced learning and memory alterations, normalized synapse structures, and regulated DNMTs and MECP2 to reverse the DNA methylation status changes at the Syn promoter in Hip and PFC. DNA methylation is an important gene regulatory mechanism underlying METH-induced learning and memory alterations. OT can potentially be used to specifically manipulate METH-related memory changes.

11.
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol ; 47(1): 60-66, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454428

RESUMO

To examine the effect of chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CIHH) on heart rate variability (HRV), male adult Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to hypoxia (oxygen 11.1%) in a hypobaric chamber for 42 days, 6 hours each day, simulating an altitude of 5000 m. The body weight and blood pressure of rats were recorded once a week, electrocardiograms were analyzed continuously using biotelemetry, before, during and after CIHH treatment each day, and HRV was evaluated using spectrum analysis. No significant difference of body weight and blood pressure was found between CIHH and control rats. After 4 weeks of CIHH treatment, total power (TP) and very low-frequency component (VLF) were lower in CIHH rats than in control rats under hypobaric hypoxia condition. During CIHH treatment, low frequency (LF) was higher in 1 week and lower in 5-6 weeks in CIHH rats than control rats under hypobaric hypoxia, but not normoxic conditions. The high-frequency component (HF) was not changed during CIHH treatment, so LF/HF increased initially, and then recovered under the hypobaric hypoxia condition following 3 weeks of CIHH treatment. In addition, the HR was increased in CIHH rats after 4 weeks of CIHH treatment compared with control rats. Furthermore, HRV was altered significantly in control rats, but not in CIHH rats exposed to acute normobaric hypoxia. These data suggest that CIHH treatment modulates cardiac autonomic activity adaptively and inhibits the acute normobaric hypoxia-induced changes in HRV.

12.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784283

RESUMO

Lunasin, a bioactive peptide with a variety of physiological functions, was overexpressed in soybean to generate a transgenic soybean. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis suggested that lunasin was successfully inserted into the soybean genome, and three transgenic lines, L12, L43, and L45, were selected for further study. Lunasin expression was characterized in the lines by Western blot and ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that lunasin content in L12, L43, and L45 lines was 1.47 mg g-1, 1.32 mg g-1 and 1.98 mg g-1, respectively; these values were significantly higher than that in wild-type soybean (0.94 mg g-1). Lunasin enrichments from transgenic soybean (LET) exhibited stronger DPPH, ABTS+, and oxygen radical scavenging activity than lunasin enrichments from wild-type soybean (LEW). Further, LET presented superior anti-inflammatory activity on lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophage cells compared to LEW, and it significantly suppressed the release of nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1 and -6. Moreover, LET showed higher anti-proliferation activity on MDA-MB-231 cells than LEW. Immunofluorescence staining showed that LET could internalize into NIH-3T3 cells, and localize in the nucleus. In conclusion, it is feasible and efficient to produce lunasin through a transgenic soybean expression system. Lunasin overexpressing soybean could be consumed as a functional food in the diets of patients with cancer and obesity in the future.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861456

RESUMO

Purpose: To systematically evaluate the effects of mind-body exercises (Tai Chi, Yoga, and Health Qigong) on motor function (UPDRS, Timed-Up-and-Go, Balance), depressive symptoms, and quality of life (QoL) of Parkinson's patients (PD). Methods: Through computer system search and manual retrieval, PubMed, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, CNKI, Wanfang Database, and CQVIP were used. Articles were retrieved up to the published date of June 30, 2019. Following the Cochrane Collaboration System Evaluation Manual (version 5.1.0), two researchers independently evaluated the quality and bias risk of each article, including 22 evaluated articles. The Pedro quality score of 6 points or more was found for 86% (19/22) of these studies, of which 21 were randomized controlled trials with a total of 1199 subjects; and the trial intervention time ranged from 4 to 24 weeks. Interventions in the control group included no-intervention controls, placebo, waiting-lists, routine care, and non-sports controls. Meta-analysis was performed on the literature using RevMan 5.3 statistical software, and heterogeneity analysis was performed using Stata 14.0 software. Results: (1) Mind-body exercises significantly improved motor function in PD patients, including UPDRS (SMD = -0.61, p < 0.001), TUG (SMD = -1.47, p < 0.001) and balance function (SMD = 0.79, p < 0.001). (2) Mind-body exercises also had significant effects on depression (SMD = -1.61, p = 0.002) and QoL (SMD = 0.66, p < 0.001). (3) Among the indicators, UPDRS (I2 = 81%) and depression (I2 = 91%) had higher heterogeneity; according to the results of the separate combined effect sizes of TUG(I2 = 29%), Balance(I2 = 16%) and QoL(I2 = 35%), it shows that the heterogeneity is small; (4) After meta-regression analysis of the age limit and other possible confounding factors, further subgroup analysis showed that the reason for the heterogeneity of UPDRS motor function may be related to the sex of PD patients and severity of the disease; the outcome of depression was heterogeneous. The reason for this may be the use of specific drugs in the experiment and the duration of intervention in the trial. Conclusion: (1) Mind-body exercises were found to have significant improvements in motor function, depressive symptoms, and quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease, and can be used as an effective method for clinical exercise intervention in PD patients. (2) Future clinical intervention programs for PD patients need to fully consider specific factors such as gender, severity of disease, specific drug use, and intervention cycle to effectively control heterogeneity factors, so that the clinical exercise intervention program for PD patients is objective, scientific, and effective.

14.
Exp Ther Med ; 18(6): 4893-4903, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31772649

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BC) is the most common type of malignancy among females worldwide. Histone modifications, which are the major post-translational modifications, have a significant role in cancer development and prognosis. However, whether histone family genes may serve as potential prognostic biomarkers for BC patients has remained elusive. In the present study, RNA-sequencing data were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Differentially expressed genes were identified and Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway functional enrichment analysis was performed. As histone family genes have been reported to be associated with cervical cancer, the present study hypothesized that histone family genes are associated with gynecological tumors. Histone family genes, including histone cluster 1 H1A family member B (HIST1H1B), HIST1H2AJ, HIST1H2AM, HIST1H2BI, HIST1H2BO, HIST1H3B, HIST1H3F, HIST1H3H, HIST1H4C and HIST1H4D, were upregulated and identified as hub genes in the protein-protein interaction network. In addition, Oncomine and the Human Protein Atlas were used to further verify the expression levels of histone gene sets. The PrognoScan database was then used to investigate the association between expression and prognostic value regarding cancer patient survival. The present results indicated that higher expression of histone gene sets was associated with poor overall survival, relapse-free survival and distant metastasis-free survival of BC patients. The differential expression of histone family genes between BC and normal samples was validated by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Finally, to determine the clinical role of histone family genes in BC, the correlations between histone family genes expression and clinical characteristics were investigated through data collected from TCGA. Therefore, the present study indicates that histone gene sets may be used as prognostic factors for survival prediction for BC patients.

15.
Dermatology ; : 1-16, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694017

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The effect of breastfeeding on atopic dermatitis (AD) remains controversial. To determine the association -between breastfeeding and AD, we conducted an updated meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. METHODS: A comprehensive search of PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE and Cochrane Library was conducted. Studies meeting the predetermined criteria were evaluated by 2 authors independently. The pooled relative risk (RR) adjusted for confounders with its 95% CI was calculated by a random-effects model. Heterogeneity was explored by subgroup analysis and meta-regression. RESULTS: A total of 27 studies were included for meta-analysis. The pooled estimates for the effect of total and exclusive breastfeeding on AD were 1.01 (95% CI 0.93-1.10) and 0.99 (95% CI 0.88-1.11), respectively. Heterogeneity was substantial across studies (total: p < 0.01 or I2 = 65.2%; exclusive: p < 0.01 or I2 = 72.3%). There was a weak evidence for a protective effect of breastfeeding against AD in cohorts with atopic heredity (total: RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.74-0.98; exclusive: RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.70-0.97). In cohorts without atopic heredity, the effect shifted to the risk side when limited to exclusive breastfeeding (RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.02-1.40) while it dropped towards null when limited to total breastfeeding (RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.94-1.31). CONCLUSIONS: There is no association between AD and breastfeeding, regardless of total or exclusive breastfeeding patterns. There is some evidence for a protective function of exclusive and total breastfeeding in a cohort with atopic heredity. The effect shifts to the risk side in cohorts without atopic heredity. However, these findings should be interpreted with caution because heterogeneity is evident.

16.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 29(12): 1464-1475, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735530

RESUMO

Oxycodone (Oxy) is one of the most effective analgesics in medicine, but is associated with the development of dependence. Recent studies demonstrating epigenetic changes in the brain after exposure to opiates have provided an insight into possible mechanisms underlying addiction. Oxytocin (OT), an endogenous neuropeptide well known for preventing drug abuse, is a promising pharmacotherapy to counteract addiction. Therefore, we explored the mechanism of Oxy addiction and the role of OT in Oxy-induced epigenetic alterations. In this study, drug-induced changes in conditioned place preference (CPP), i.e. the expression of synaptic proteins and synaptic density in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) were measured. We also sought to identify DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), ten-eleven translocations (TETs), global 5-methylcytosine (5-mC), and DNA methylation of two genes implicated in plasticity (Synaptophysin, Syn; Post-synaptic density protein 95, Psd95). Oxy (3.0 mg/kg, i.p.) induced CPP acquisition in Sprague-Dawley rats. Oxy down-regulated DNMT1 and up-regulated TET1-3, leading to a decrease in global 5-mC levels and differential demethylation at exon 1 of Syn and exon 2 of Psd95. These changes in DNA methylation of Syn and Psd95 elevated the expression of synaptic proteins (SYN, PSD95) and synaptic density in the VTA. Pretreatment with OT (2.5 µg, i.c.v.) via its receptor specifically blocked Oxy CPP, normalized synaptic density, and regulated DNMT1 and TET2-3 causing reverse of DNA demethylation of Syn and Psd95. DNA methylation is an important gene regulation mechanism underlying Oxy CPP, and OT - via its receptor - could specifically inhibit Oxy addiction.

17.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 2019 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The extremity intraosseous arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are rare high flow vascular lesions for which the treatment remains challenging. The aim of the study wasto assess treatment methods, interim results, and complications of coils and absolute ethanol in managing extremity intraosseous AVMs via direct puncture approach. METHODS: From 2009 to 2017, 12 patients (mean age, 27.5 years; range, 3-54 years) with extremity intraosseous AVMs underwent staged coils and absolute ethanol treatment via the direct puncture approach. All patients were symptomatic before the procedure as per the Schobinger staging system. The mechanical detachable coils and undetachable coils were used first followed by the injection of absolute ethanol used as a sclerosant agent via a direct puncture approach. Follow-up evaluation (6 to 72 months; mean, 23.5 months), including imaging and symptoms and signs, was performed in all patients. RESULTS: Twenty-seven absolute alcohol procedures were performed for patients with intravascular sclerosis (range: 1-3, mean: 2) with one procedure required per patient (n = 2), 2 per patient (n = 5), or 3 per patient (n = 5). The average stretched length of the total coils per patient was 843.33 cm. The amount of absolute ethanol used ranged from 10 mL to 45 mL (mean, 25.69 mL) in a single session. Nine of twelve patients (75%) exhibited complete responses, and 3 patients (25%) exhibited partial responses. One patient experienced minor complication of transient motor nerve injury and completely recovered half a month later. No major complications occurred. CONCLUSIONS: The study provides strong evidence, suggesting that direct puncture and coils with absolute ethanol approach is an effective and safe treatment in patients with extremity intraosseous AVMs, yielding minor complications and good results.

18.
Front Cell Neurosci ; 13: 415, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616252

RESUMO

Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels (HCN channels) are widely expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and organs, while their functions are not well elucidated especially in the sympathetic nerve. The present study aimed to investigate the roles of HCN channel isoforms in the differentiation of sympathetic neurons using PC12 cell as a model. PC12 cells derived from rat pheochromocytoma were cultured and induced by nerve growth factor (NGF) (25 ng/ml) to differentiate to sympathetic neuron-like cells. Sympathetic directional differentiation of PC12 cells were evaluated by expressions of growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) (a growth cone marker), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) (a sympathetic neuron marker) and neurite outgrowth. Results show that the HCN channel isoforms (HCN1-4) were all expressed in PC12 cells; blocking HCN channels with ivabradine suppressed NGF-induced GAP-43 expression and neurite outgrowth; silencing the expression of HCN2 and HCN4 using silenced using small interfering RNAs (siRNA), rather than HCN1 and HCN3, restrained GAP-43 expression and neurite outgrowth, while overexpression of HCN2 and HCN4 channels with gene transfer promoted GAP-43 expression and neurite outgrowth. Patch clamp experiments show that PC12 cells exhibited resting potentials (RP) of about -65 to -70 mV, and also presented inward HCN channel currents and outward (K+) currents, but no inward voltage-gated Na+ current was induced; NGF did not significantly affect the RP but promoted the establishment of excitability as indicated by the increased ability to depolarize and repolarize in the evoked suspicious action potentials (AP). We conclude that HCN2 and HCN4 channel isoforms, but not HCN1 and HCN3, promote the differentiation of PC12 cells toward sympathetic neurons. NGF potentiates the establishment of excitability during PC12 cell differentiation.

19.
Biomolecules ; 9(10)2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658626

RESUMO

This paper focuses on extending drug release duration from contact lenses by incorporating catanionic aggregates. The aggregates consist of a long-chain cationic surfactant, i.e., cetalkonium chloride (CKC), and an oppositely charged anti-inflammatory amphiphilic drug. We studied three non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) drugs with different octanol-water partition coefficients; diclofenac sodium (DFNa), flurbiprofen sodium (FBNa), and naproxen sodium (NPNa). Confirmation of catanionic aggregate formation in solution was determined by steady and dynamic shear rheology measurements. We observed the increased viscosity, shear thinning, and viscoelastic behavior characteristic of wormlike micelles; the rheological data are reasonably well described using a Maxwellian fluid model with a single relaxation time. In vitro release experiments demonstrated that the extension in the drug release time is dependent on the ability of a drug to form viscoelastic catanionic aggregates. Such aggregates retard the diffusive transport of drug molecules from the contact lenses. Our study revealed that the release kinetics depends on the CKC concentration and the alkyl chain length of the cationic surfactant. We demonstrated that more hydrophobic drugs such as diclofenac sodium show a more extended release than less hydrophobic drugs such as naproxen sodium.

20.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 36(10): 980-984, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598940

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop a system for rapid detection of JAK2 V617F mutation among patients with myeloproliferative diseases. METHODS: Specific primers and TagMan probes were designed for the mutant and wild type alleles based on the principle of real-time PCR. A complete system including the method for detection and product for quality control were established through the evaluation of sensitivity and accuracy of the method, double-blind trial, and preparation of negative and positive controls through site-directed mutagenesis and molecular cloning. RESULTS: A system for rapid detection of the JAK V617F mutation has been developed. Compared with Sanger sequencing, the sensitivity and specificity of the method have both reached 100%. Meanwhile, 1000 normal samples and 1 case with the JAK2 V617F mutation were detected, which gave a population rate of 1‰. CONCLUSION: The system was fast, accurate, cheap, high throughput, and easy to use. It can be utilized as a routine test. Although the JAK2 V617F mutation is rare in the population, it should be screened among myeloproliferative neoplasm patients.


Assuntos
Janus Quinase 2/genética , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/genética , Alelos , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Mutação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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